click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Torii

A torii is a traditional Japanese gate most found at the entrance of or within a Shinto shrine, where it symbolically marks the transition from the mundane to the sacred. The presence of a torii at the entrance is the simplest way to identify Shinto shrines, a small torii icon represents them on Japanese road maps; the first appearance of torii gates in Japan can be reliably pinpointed to at least the mid-Heian period because they are mentioned in a text written in 922. The oldest existing stone torii was built in the 12th century and belongs to a Hachiman Shrine in Yamagata prefecture; the oldest existing wooden torii is a ryōbu torii at Kubō Hachiman Shrine in Yamanashi prefecture built in 1535. Torii gates were traditionally made from wood or stone, but today they can be made of reinforced concrete, stainless steel or other materials, they are either unpainted or painted vermilion with a black upper lintel. Inari shrines have many torii because those who have been successful in business donate in gratitude a torii to Inari, kami of fertility and industry.

Fushimi Inari-taisha in Kyoto has thousands of each bearing the donor's name. The torii, a gateway erected on the approach to every Shinto shrine, was derived from the Indian word "torana". While the Indian term denotes a gateway, the Japanese characters can be translated as "bird perch". Words similar to "torana" can be found in several European languages for the door including the word "door" in English and "Tor" or "Tür" in German. Ancient Indian torana sacred gateway architecture has influenced gateway architecture across Asia, specially where Buddhism was transmitted from India; the functions of all are similar, but they differ based on their respective architectural styles. According to several scholars, the vast evidence shows how the torii, both etymologically and architecturally, were derived from the torana, a free-standing sacred ceremonial gateway which marks the entrance of a sacred enclosure, such as Hindu-Buddhist temple or shrine, or city. Bernhard Scheid wonders whether torii existed in Japan before Buddhism or arrived with it from India.

The function of a torii is to mark the entrance to a sacred space. For this reason, the road leading to a Shinto shrine is always straddled by one or more torii, which are therefore the easiest way to distinguish a shrine from a Buddhist temple. If the sandō passes under multiple torii, the outer of them is called ichi no torii; the following ones, closer to the shrine, are called, in order, ni no torii and san no torii. Other torii can be found farther into the shrine to represent increasing levels of holiness as one nears the inner sanctuary, core of the shrine; because of the strong relationship between Shinto shrines and the Japanese Imperial family, a torii stands in front of the tomb of each Emperor. In the past torii must have been used at the entrance of Buddhist temples. Today, as prominent a temple as Osaka's Shitennō-ji, founded in 593 by Shōtoku Taishi and the oldest state-built Buddhist temple in the world, has a torii straddling one of its entrances. Many Buddhist temples include one or more Shinto shrines dedicated to their tutelary kami, in that case a torii marks the shrine's entrance.

Benzaiten is a syncretic goddess derived from the Indian divinity Sarasvati which unites elements of both Shinto and Buddhism. For this reason halls dedicated to her can be found at both temples and shrines, in either case in front of the hall stands a torii; the goddess herself is sometimes portrayed with a torii on her head. Until the Meiji period torii were adorned with plaques carrying Buddhist sutras. Yamabushi, Japanese mountain ascetic hermits with a long tradition as mighty warriors endowed with supernatural powers, sometimes use as their symbol a torii; the torii is sometimes used as a symbol of Japan in non-religious contexts. For example, it is the symbol of the Marine Corps Security Force Regiment and the 187th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division and of other US forces in Japan; the origins of the torii are unknown and there are several different theories on the subject, none of which has gained universal acceptance. Because the use of symbolic gates is widespread in Asia—such structures can be found for example in India, Thailand and within Nicobarese and Shompen villages—historians believe they may be an imported tradition.

They may, for example, have originated in India from the torana gates in the monastery of Sanchi in central India. According to this theory, the torana was adopted by Shingon Buddhism founder Kūkai, who used it to demarcate the sacred space used for the homa ceremony; the hypothesis arose in the 19th and 20th centuries due to similarities in structure and name between the two gates. Linguistic and historical objections have now emerged. In Bangkok, Thailand, a Brahmin structure called Sao Ching Cha resembles a torii. Functionally, however, it is different as it is used as a swing. During ceremonies Brahmins swing. Other theories claim; these structures however can assume a great variety of forms, only some of which somewhat resemble a torii. The same goes for Korea's

South Tyrol wine

South Tyrol is an autonomous province located in north-east Italy producing wine. This Austro-Italian wine region is noted for the distinct Austrian influences on the wine industry due to the region's long history under the rule of Austria-Hungary and Holy Roman Empires; because of its unique history and location within the southern Alps and Dolomites, in this region grows a wide range of grape varieties that are not seen in other parts of Italy. These include Müller-Thurgau, Lagrein, Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Blatterle. Winemaking in Tyrol has a long tradition: the first evidence dates back to the period before the Romans; the South Tyrolean winegrowing area is influenced by the Mediterranean climate, which in the Adige valley arrives up to Meran. This allows a versatile winemaking, which includes all the red grape varieties and a lot of white grape wines; the Vinschgau and the Eisacktal have a harsher climate and thus they're specialized in white wines. In South Tyrol there are three indigenous varieties: Gewürztraminer and Lagrein.

A similar winegrowing region is Trentino wine in the south. Findings of seeds dating back to the Iron Age and archaeological findings dating back to 400 BC witness that winegrowing was practised in South Tyrol 3,000 years ago; the earliest sources date back to before the Romans and to the wine produced by the Rhaetian. Cato the Elder in his De agri cultura highlighted the Rhaetian wine, before the territory was conquered by the Romans. In 720 AD, under the commissioner Corbinio, first bishop of Freising, vineyards landed in Burggrafenamt. From the twelfth century the monasteries in southern Germania and the aristocrats incentive the winemaking. In the late Middle Ages and during the Habsburg monarchy the production of wine in the south Tyrolean wineries flourished; the wine production and sale developed thanks to the activity of the families of winemakers from the nineteenth century and thanks to the cooperatives since the twentieth century. In the twentieth century there were several critical periods: first due to the phylloxera and in the First Post-war with the breakdown of the traditional markets with the fascist repression, as well as during the Second Post-war.

With the mass production, the wine industry consolidated until the 1980s. In the 1980s there was a deep crisis of the sales channels most common at the times the sale of wine in tanks in Switzerland. Cellars changed their sales strategy. More quality wines were produced. Decisive for the winemaking in South Tyrol was 1971, when people returned to the division and classification of wine zones according to the PDO rules; the quality production, pursued up until now since 20 years, as well as the spread of the bottling in bottles of 0,75 litres have earned this small wine area an excellent reputation. This is true for white wines in Italy, but for the wine experts in the international markets; the South Tyrolean Wine Museum in Kaltern offers an overview of the history and the traditional grape cultivation methods in South Tyrol. South Tyrol is a faceted winegrowing region. Unique in its field in Italy, it is a region where 20 different grape varieties are cultivated on a land of 13,000 acres, which yields 3.9 million cases of wine.

With its geographical position, between an Alpine climatic zone and a Mediterranean one and with vineyards growing at only 1,200 metres above sea level, South Tyrol is Italy's smallest wine growing area. It has a high density of PDO wines; the South Tyrolean wine growing zone is divided into 7 PDO sub-regions: “Alto Adige Merano”, around Meran. Among these zones and beyond, there are regions, which produce wines called “Alto Adige/Südtirol DOC”; the protected designations of origin rule the labeling of the south Tyrolean wines, according to the origin and guarantee to consumers and sommelier the source of wine. 5,000 wine producers deliver their grapes to the 160 wineries, which produce a great variety of wine and sparkling wines, despite of their small dimensions. 70% of the south Tyrolean wine is produced in wineries run by social cooperatives, the remaining 25% comes from the association “Alto Adige Estate Wineries”, the remaining 5% is produced by “Alto Adige Independent Winegrowers”. Winemaking in South Tyrol is intensive: involving handwork, on steep terraced slopes, with environment-friendly techniques.

Thanks to the so-called “integrated winegrowing”, South Tyrolean farmers strengthen the natural defences of the vineyards, protecting beneficial insects and supporting their spread. Strict limitations of yields and the consistent conversion of the classical pergola to the modern wire frame improved the quality of the grapes. 58% of the Alto Adige's wines are made with white grape varieties: Pinot Grigio, Gewürztraminer, Pinot bianco and Chardonnay are the most common. Sauvignon, Müller Thurgau, Kerner and Veltliner are produced; as regards the red grape varieties, in South Tyrol along with the two indigenous varieties of Schiava an

Paley–Wiener integral

In mathematics, the Paley–Wiener integral is a simple stochastic integral. When applied to classical Wiener space, it is less general than the Itō integral, but the two agree when they are both defined; the integral is named after Raymond Paley and Norbert Wiener. Let i: H → E be an abstract Wiener space with abstract Wiener measure γ on E. Let j: E∗ → H be the adjoint of i, it can be shown that j is an injective function and has dense image in H. Furthermore, it can be shown that every linear functional f ∈ E∗ is square-integrable: in fact, ‖ f ‖ L 2 = ‖ j ‖ H This defines a natural linear map from j to L2, under which j ∈ j ⊆ H goes to the equivalence class of f in L2; this is well-defined. This map is an isometry, so it is continuous. However, since a continuous linear map between Banach spaces such as H and L2 is uniquely determined by its values on any dense subspace of its domain, there is a unique continuous linear extension I: H → L2 of the above natural map j → L2 to the whole of H; this isometry I: H → L2 is known as the Paley–Wiener map.

I denoted <h, −>∼, is a function on E and is known as the Paley–Wiener integral. It is important to note that the Paley–Wiener integral for a particular element h ∈ H is a function on E; the notation <h, x>∼ does not denote an inner product, but is a convenient abuse of notation in view of the Cameron–Martin theorem. For this reason, many authors prefer to write <h, −>∼ or I rather than using the more compact but confusing <h, x>∼ notation. Other stochastic integrals: Itō integral Skorokhod integral Stratonovich integral Park, C.. "A Note on Paley-Wiener-Zygmund Stochastic Integrals", Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society', 103, 591–601 JSTOR 2047184 Elworthy, D. MA482 Stochastic Analysis, Lecture Notes, University of Warwick

Hakim al-Zamili

Hakim Abbas Mousa Abbas al-Zamili is an Iraqi politician from the Sadrist Movement, deputy Health Minister from May 2006 until April 2007. Al-Zamili was deputy minister during the height of the sectarian conflict in Iraq. Whilst he was at the ministry, he was accused of running death squads that used ambulances and hospitals to kidnap and murder Sunni Arabs, he was arrested in February accusing of funneling money to private militias. He was accused of kidnapping in November 2006 another deputy Health Minister, Ammar al-Saffar, from the Shiite Dawa Party, who had compiled a dossier of his crimes that he was going to hand over to the Prime Minister, he was cleared of all charges when key witnesses failed to show up after facing alleged intimidation. He was listed fifteenth on the list of the Iraqi National Alliance slate for the 2010 Iraqi parliamentary election, he was elected and in January 2011 was appointed to the security committee. Zamili is the head of Parliament's security and defense committee

Ruth Hegarty

Ruth Hegarty is an Aboriginal Elder and author. Hegarty is well known for her non-fiction novels that document her personal history as one of the Stolen Generation, her first book, Is That You Ruthie?, is based on her experiences in the Cherbourg Aboriginal Mission where she lived until the age of 14. Her second novel, Bittersweet journey is her story from her early married life, her dealings with the Native Affairs Department, her work in community politics and Indigenous organisations. Is That You Ruthie? won the 1998 Queensland Premier's Literary Awards, Unpublished Indigenous Writer - The David Unaipon Award. In 2010, Hegarty was a recipient of the Queensland Greats Awards. Hegarty and her mother, were housed together in the dormitories at the Cherbourg Aboriginal Mission; when Hegarty was 4 years old they were separated. They only had intermittent contact from that time onwards. At the settlement Hegarty formed strong friendships with the other girls in the dormitories, they were supervised and whipped for minor misdemeanours.

The girls in the dormatory stayed together for protection. There was just strict discipline and punishment, she states: In 1943, Hegarty was sent away from the Cherbourg settlement to work as a domestic servant. Travelling to her new job, at the age of 14, she travelled alone for the first time in her life, she did not know the people she was travelling to work for and she felt isolated and vulnerable. In the 1960s after accessing her records from Cherbourg, when she found that many of the letters she had written to her friends at the mission had not been delivered, Hegerty organised a reunion of the girls she grew up with at Cherbourg. Ruth married Joe Hegarty, whom she had known since childhood, has a family of eight children. For more than 30 years Hegarty has volunteered on community projects in the areas of youth and aged services. In 1998 she was awarded the Premier's Award for Queensland Seniors Year for her services to the community, she is a founding member of Torres Strait Islander Family Resource Centre.

In the 2007 Senate enquiry in Stolen Wages Hegerty was a member of the Queensland Stolen Wages Working Group. Is That You Ruthie? ISBN 0-7022-3415-X ReviewReview Bittersweet journey. ISBN 0-7022-3414-1 Review Women in Australia’s Working History Australian Workers Heritage Centre Ruth Hegarty Inquiry into Stolen Wages and Additional Information received by the committee as at 6/06/2007 Parliament of Australia - Senate Taken/Ruth Portrait - Interview with Aunty Ruth Hegarty by Robert Davidson, Topology

J. V. Uspensky

James Victor Uspensky was a Russian and American mathematician notable for writing Theory of Equations. Uspensky graduated from the University of St. Petersburg in 1906 and received his doctorate from the University of St. Petersburg in 1910, he was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1921. Uspensky joined the faculty of Stanford University in 1929-30 and 1930-31 as acting professor of mathematics, he was professor of mathematics at Stanford from 1931 until his death. Uspensky was the one who kept alive Vincent's theorem of 1834 and 1836, carrying the torch from Serret. Uspensky, J. V.. Theory of equations. Uspensky, J. V.. A.. Elementary Number Theory. Uspensky, J. V.. Introduction to mathematical probability. J. V. Uspensky. "On Ch. Jordan's Series for Probability". Annals of Mathematics. Second Series. 32: 306–312. Doi:10.2307/1968193. J. V. Uspensky. "On the Development of Arbitrary Functions in Series of Hermite's and Laguerre's Polynomials". Annals of Mathematics. Second Series. 28: 593–619.

Doi:10.2307/1968401. Halsey Royden; the History of the Mathematics Department at Stanford, in A Century of Mathematics in America edited by Peter L. Duren, Richard Askey, Uta C. Merzbach. American Mathematical Society, History of Mathematics Volume 2, Rhode Island. Link to PDF: "A History of Mathematics at Stanford" by Halsey Royden. J. V. Uspensky at the Mathematics Genealogy Project