Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Concordia University is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands. Founded in 1974 following the merger of Loyola College and Sir George Williams University, Concordia is one of the three universities in Quebec where English is the primary language of instruction; as of the 2017–2018 academic year, there were 46,093 students enrolled at Concordia, making the university among the largest in Canada by enrolment. The university has two campuses, set 7 kilometres apart: Sir George Williams Campus is the main campus in Downtown Montreal, in an area known as Quartier Concordia, Loyola Campus in the residential district of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce. With four faculties, a school of graduate studies and numerous colleges and institutes, Concordia offers over 300 undergraduate and 100 graduate programs and courses; the university's John Molson School of Business is ranked within the top 10 Canadian business schools, within the top 100 worldwide. Moreover, Concordia was ranked 7th among Canadian and 229th among world universities in the International Professional Classification of Higher Education Institutions, a worldwide ranking compiled by the École des Mines de Paris that uses as its sole criterion the number of graduates occupying the rank of Chief Executive Officer at Fortune 500 companies.
Concordia is a non-sectarian and coeducational institution, with more than 200,000 living alumni worldwide. The university is a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, the International Association of Universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Canadian Association of Research Libraries, the Canadian University Society for Intercollegiate Debate as well as the Canadian Bureau for International Education and the Canadian University Press; the university's varsity teams, known as the Stingers, compete in the Quebec Student Sport Federation of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Although the roots of its founding institutions go back more than 160 years, Concordia University was formed on August 24, 1974, through the merger of Loyola College and Sir George Williams University. Loyola College traces its roots to an English-language program at the Jesuit Collège Sainte-Marie de Montréal at the Sacred Heart Convent. In 1896, Loyola College was established at the corner of Saint Catherine Street.
Loyola College was named in honour of Ignatius of founder of the Society of Jesus. On March 10, 1898, the institution was incorporated by the Government of Quebec and became a full-fledged college; the same year, following a fire, the college was relocated, further west on Drummond Street, south of Saint Catherine. Although founded as a collège classique, Loyola began granting university degrees through Université Laval in 1903; the college moved into the present west-end campus on Sherbrooke Street West in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce in 1916. The School of Sociology opened in 1918. In 1920, the institution became affiliated with the Université de Montréal, which began granting degrees instead of Université Laval. Memorial bronze honour roll plaques in the entrance hall, administrative offices are dedicated to those from Loyola College who fought in the First and Second World Wars and the Korean War; the inter-war period was marked by the shift of education in the institution, the "collège classique" education was replaced by humanistic education in 1940, Loyola became a four-year university.
Loyola College never became a chartered university, never had the ability to grant its own university degrees. Theology and philosophy were taught to all students until 1972. In 1940, the Faculty of Science and the Department of Engineering, which became a faculty in 1964, were created. In addition to providing the same undergraduate programs as other colleges, the institution offered innovative fields of study at the time, such as exercise science and communication studies. Students could enrol in academic majors starting in 1953 and honours programs in 1958. Students graduating from Loyola could afterwards pursue graduate-level education in other universities, with a few earning Rhodes Scholarships. Starting in 1958, Loyola began offering its first evening courses for students not being able to go to school full-time. New courses were given in faith community nursing. Since its creation, Loyola College had welcomed exclusively young English-speaking Catholic men as students, it became co-ed in 1959 and became less homogeneous with the ever-increasing number of foreign students.
Obtaining a university charter was an important issue in the 1960s. Although many wanted the Loyola College to become Loyola University, the Quebec government preferred to annex it to Sir George Williams University. Negotiations began in 1968 and ended with the creation of Concordia University on August 24, 1974. In 1851, the first YMCA in North America was established on Ste-Helene street in Old Montreal. Beginning in 1873, the YMCA offered evening classes to allow working people in the English-speaking community to pursue their education while working during the day. Sixty years the Montreal YMCA relocated to its current location on Stanley Street in Downtown Montreal. In 1926, the education program at the YMCA was re-organized as Sir George Williams College, named after George Williams, founder of the original YMCA in London, upon which the Montreal YMCA was based. In 1934, Sir George Williams College offered the first undergraduate credit course in adult education in Canada. Sir George Williams College became Sir George Williams University
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine, founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, current events. Its founder, publisher J. B. Maclean, established the magazine to provide a uniquely Canadian perspective on current affairs and to "entertain but inspire its readers", its publisher since 1994, Rogers Media, announced in September 2016 that Maclean's would become a monthly beginning January 2017, while continuing to produce a weekly issue on the Texture app. The Business Magazine was founded in October 1905 by 43-year-old publisher and entrepreneur Lt.-Col. John Bayne Maclean, who wrote the magazine's aim was not "merely to entertain but to inspire its readers", it was renamed The Busy Man's Magazine in December 1905, began providing "uniquely Zionist Canadian perspective" on varied topics such as immigration, national defence, home life, women's suffrage, fiction. Maclean renamed the magazine after himself in 1911, dropping the previous title as too evocative of a business magazine for what had become a general interest publication.
Maclean hired Thomas B. Costain as editor in 1917. Costain invigorated the magazine's coverage of the First World War, running first-person accounts of life on the Western Front and critiques of Canada's war effort that came into conflict with wartime censorship regulations. Costain was ordered to remove an article by Maclean himself. Costain encouraged literary pieces and artistic expressions and ran fiction by Robert W. Service, Lucy Maud Montgomery, O. Henry. In 1919, the magazine moved from monthly to fortnightly publication and ran an exposé of the drug trade by Emily Murphy. In 1925 the circulation of the magazine was 82,013 copies. Costain left the magazine to become a novelist and was replaced by J. Vernon Mackenzie who remained at the helm until 1926. During his tenure, Maclean's achieved national stature. After Mackenzie, H. Napier Moore became the new editor. An Englishman, he saw the magazine as an expression of Canada's role in the British Empire. Moore became a figurehead with the day-to-day running of the magazine falling to managing editor W. Arthur Irwin, a Canadian nationalist, who saw the magazine as an exercise in nation-building, giving it a mandate to promote national pride.
Under Irwin's influence, the magazine's covers promoted Canadian imagery. The magazine sponsored an annual short story contest on Canadian themes and acquired a sports department. Irwin was responsible for orienting the magazine towards both small and big "L" Liberalism. During the Second World War, Maclean's ran an overseas edition for Canadian troops serving abroad. By the time of its final run in 1946, the "bantam" edition had a circulation of 800,000. Maclean's war coverage featured war photography by Yousuf Karsh an internationally acclaimed portrait photographer, articles by war correspondents John Clare and Lionel Shapiro. Irwin replaced Moore as editor in 1945, reoriented the magazine by building it around news features written by a new stable of writers that included Pierre Berton, W. O. Mitchell, Scott Young, Ralph Allen, Blair Fraser. Allen became editor upon Irwin's acceptance of a diplomatic posting in 1950; this era of the magazine was noted for its articles on the Canadian landscape and profiles of town and city life.
The feature article, "Canada's North", by Pierre Berton, promoted a new national interest in the Arctic. Prominent writers during this period included Robert Fulford, Peter Gzowski, Peter C. Newman, Trent Frayne, June Callwood, McKenzie Porter, Robert Thomas Allen and Christina McCall. Exposés in the 1950s challenged the criminal justice system, explored LSD, artificial insemination. Maclean's published an editorial the day after the 1957 federal election announcing the predictable re-election of the St. Laurent Liberal Party. Written before the election results were known, Allen failed to anticipate the upset election of the Progressive Conservative Party under John Diefenbaker; the magazine struggled to compete with television in the 1960s by increasing its international coverage and attempting to keep up with the sexual revolution through a succession of editors including Gzowski and Charles Templeton. Templeton quit after a short time at the helm due to his frustration with interference by the publishing company, Maclean-Hunter.
In 1961, Maclean's began publishing a French-language edition, Le Magazine Maclean, which survived until 1976, when the edition was absorbed by L'actualité. Peter C. Newman became editor in 1971, attempted to revive the magazine by publishing feature articles by writers such as Barbara Frum and Michael Enright, poetry by Irving Layton. Walter Stewart and managing editor during this period clashed with Newman. In 1975 Newman brought in columnist Allan Fotheringham. Fotheringham made famous The Back Page. Readers would go to read the Back Page first and proceed to read the magazine from back to front. Under Newman, the magazine switched from being a monthly general interest publication to a bi-weekly news magazine in 1975, to a weekly newsmagazine three years later; the magazine opened news bureaus across the country and international bureaus in London and Washington, D. C.. In 1982, when Newman retired, his managing editor, Kevin Doyle, became editor-in-chief. Doyle, a former reporter for The Canadian Press in Ottawa and a New York-based writer for Newsweek, expanded coverage of news and opened a Moscow bureau.
On his watch the magazine published the first of yearly annual polls
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Animation Show of Shows
The Animation Show of Shows is a traveling selection of the year's best animated short films and presented by Acme Filmworks founder, Ron Diamond. It began in 1998 with the aim of showing the most original, intelligent short animated films from all over the world and presenting them at the major animation studios in order to inspire their animators and directors. Since 2007, some of the films are being published on DVDs. Village of Idiots by Eugene Fedorenka and Rose Newlove My Grandmother Ironed the King's Shirts by Torill Kove 3 Misses by Paul Driessen When the Day Breaks by Wendy Tilby and Amanda Forbis Father and Daughter by Michael Dudok de Wit La Pista by Gianluigi Toccafondo Run of the Mill by Borge Ring Crime and Punishment by Piotr Dumała Radio Umanak by Marie José van der Linden A Hunting Lesson by Jacques Drouin Black Soul by Martine Chartrand Aria by Pjotr Sapegin Flux by Chris Hinton From the 104th Floor by Serguei Bassine Hasta Los Huesos by René Castillo Mt. Head by Kōji Yamamura The Rise & Fall of the Legendary Anglobilly Feverson by Rosto Aunt Luisa by Tim Miller Fast Film by Virgil Widrich Cameras Take Five by Steven Woloshen Falling in Love Again by Munro Ferguson Car Craze by Evert de Beijer Nibbles by Chris Hinton The Toll Collector by Rachel Johnson Harvie Krumpet by Adam Elliot Destino by Dominique Monféry 2D or Not 2D by Paul Driessen Get in the Car by Greg Holfeld Lorenzo by Mike Gabriel Suite for Freedom by Aleksandra Korejwo, Caroline Leaf, Luc Perez The Man Without a Shadow by Georges Schwizgebel The Revolution of the Crabs by Arthur de Pins Ryan by Chris Landreth At The Quinte Hotel by Bruce Alcock City Paradise by Gaëlle Denis Fallen by Peter Kaboth The Fan and the Flower by Bill Plympton Jona/Tomberry by Rosto Life in Transition by John Dilworth Morir de Amor by Gil Alkabetz One Man Band by Andrew Jimenez, Mark Andrews Overtime by Oury Atlan, Thibaut Berland and Damien Ferrie Quien Engana No Gana by Rajiv Eipe, Kaustubh Ray The Danish Poet by Torill Kove A Gentlemen’s Duel by Francisco Ruiz and Sean McNally My Love by Alexandr Petrov Shipwrecked by Frodo Kuipers No Time for Nuts by Chris Renaud, Michael Thurmeier Tragic Story With Happy Ending by Regina Passoa Lifted by Gary Rydstrom John and Karen by Matthew Walker Forgetfulness by Julian Grey I Met The Walrus by Josh Raskin Madame Tutli-Putli by Chris Lavis and Maciek Szczerbowski Some Friends He Made: Molotov Alva Meets the Hobo King by Douglas Gayeton Ujbaz Izbeniki Has Lost His Soul by Neil Jack La Memoria Dei Cani by Simone Massi The Pearce Sisters by Luis Cook How to Hook Up Your Home Theater by Kevin Deters, Stevie Wermers-Skelton En Tus Brazos by Fx Goby, Edouard Jouret and Matthieu Landour The Irresistible Smile by Ami Lindholm Beton by Ariel Belinco and Michael Faust Administrators by Roman Klochkov t.o.m. by Dan Gray and Tom Brown Életvonal by Tomek Ducki Camera Obscura by Matthieu Buchalski, Jean-Michel Drechsler and Thierry Onillon Keith Reynolds Can’t Make It Tonight by Felix Massie La Maison en Petits Cubes by Kunio Katō Kudan by Taku Kimura A Mouse's Tale by Benjamin Renner I Slept with Cookie Monster by Kara Nasdor-Jones Franz Kafka’s A Country Doctor by Kōji Yamamura Glago's Guest by Chris Williams Hot Seat by Janet Perlman Presto by Doug Sweetland Skhizein by Jeremy Clapin KJFG No.5 by Alexey Alexeev Photograph of Jesus by Laurie Hill The Da Vinci Time Code by Gil Alkabetz Volgens de Vogels by Linde Faas Santa: The Fascist Years by Bill Plympton Nuvole, Mani by Simone Massi El Empleo by Santiago "Bou" Grasso The Spine by Chris Landreth Chick by Michal Socha Partly Cloudy by Peter Sohn Runaway by Cordell Barker Coyote Falls, Matthew O'Callaghan Luis, Cristobal Leon, Niles Atallah and Jaoquin Cocina Tick Tock Tale, Dean Wellins Love & Theft, Andreas Hykade The Silence Beneath The Bark, Joanna Lurie The Cow Who Wanted To Be a Hamburger, Bill Plympton Maska, Quay Brothers Jean Francois, Tom Haugomat & Bruno Mangyoku Galeria, Robert Prouch The Lost Thing, Shaun Tan & Andrew Ruhemann La Luna by Enrico Casarosa Mobile by Verena Fels Paths of Hate by Damian Nenow Schlaf by Claudius Gentinetta and Frank Braun Wild Life by Amanda Forbis and Wendy Tilby Luminaris by Juan Pablo Zaramella Romance by Georges Schwitzgebel The Fantastic Flying Books of Mr. Morris Lessmore by William Joyce and Brandon Oldenburg Journey to Cape Verde by José Miguel Ribeiro Paperman by John Kahrs The Centrifuge Brain Project by Till Nowak Here and the Great Elsewhere by Michele Lemieux Una Furtiva Lagrima by Carlo Vogele I Saw Mice Burying a Cat by Dmitry Geller The Case by Martin Zivocky 7596 Frames by Martin Georgiev Le Taxidermiste by Dorianne Fibleuil, Paulin Cointot, Maud Sertour Flamingo Pride by Tomer Eshed Daffy's Rhapsody by Matt O'Callaghan Oh Willy! by Emma de Swaef and Marc James Roels Tentation by Loris Accaries, Marie Ayme, Claire Baudean, Audrey Janvier Tram by Michaela Pavlatova Get a Horse! by Lauren MacMullan Gloria Victoria by Theodore Ushev Bless You by David Barlow-Krelina Subconscious Password by Chris Landreth The Blue Umbrella by Saschka Unseld Drunker Than a Skunk by Bill Plympton International Fathers Day by Edmunds Jansons Home Sweet Home by Alejandrio Diaz, Pierre Clanet, Romain Mazevet and Stephane Paccolat My Mom is an Airplane! by Yula Aronova Madly in Love by Ikue Sugidono Nana Bobo by Andrea Cristofaro, Valentina Del Miglio, Francesco Nicolo Mereu and Lucas Wild do Vale Requiem for Romance by Jonathan Ng Marcel, King of Tevruen by Tom Schroeder Ascension by Caroline Domergue, Florian Vecchione, Martin de Coudenhove and Thomas Bourdis Feast by Patrick Osborne Bang Bang! by Julien Bisaro Marilyn Myller by Mikey Please Lava by James Murphy Me and My Moulton by Torill Kove 365 by Greg and Myles McLeod We Can't Live Without Cosmos by Konstantin Bronzit Due