Bataan is a province situated in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. Its capital is the City of Balanga, occupying the entire Bataan Peninsula on Luzon, Bataan is bordered by the provinces of Zambales and Pampanga to the north. The peninsula faces the South China Sea to the west and Subic Bay to the north-west, the Battle of Bataan is famous in history as one of the last stands of American and Filipino soldiers before they were overwhelmed by the Japanese forces in World War II. The Bataan Death March was named after the province, where the march started. In 1647, Dutch naval forces landed in country in an attempt to seize the islands from Spain, the Dutch massacred the people of Abucay in Bataan. Bataan featured prominently during World War II, prior to the 1941 Japanese invasion, the US Army stored nearly 1,000,000 US gallons of gasoline there. Japanese forces started a siege of the peninsula on January 7,1942, and launched an assault on April 3. The majority of the American and Filipino forces surrendered on April 9 and were forced to more than a 100 kilometres from Bataan to Capas-Tarlac.
The Administration of President Rodrigo Duterte is currently pushing for federalism in the country, scholars in the region have suggested naming the state the State of Luções, named after the historic collective name of the people of Luzon. During precolonial times, when the power of the kingdoms in present-day Metro Manila was declining, the people of Myanmar, Timor, Luções were known as skilled mercenaries and even battle soldiers. They aided in the war campaigns of Myanmar, when the Spanish came and stormed Luzon, the ties of the Luceos with their ally countries were cut and the Luções were turned into commoners and indios by the Spaniards. At the northern portion of the peninsula is Mount Natib and its mountains, separated from Mount Samat. A narrow coastline plain characterizes the eastern portion of the province, while the western coast features many ridges, Bataan is politically subdivided into 11 municipalities and one component city. The population of Bataan in the 2015 census was 760,650 people, various religious groups are subscribed to by the people but Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, comprising 85% of the Bataan population.
Aglipayan as well as several Christian faiths are the minority, Nuestra Señora del Pilar Church — Morong Nuestra Señora del Pilar Church — Pilar Nuestra Señora, Virgen Milagrosa del Rosario Church — Orani, declared as a diocesan-shrine by the Diocese of Balanga. It is home to the image of the Our Lady of the Holy Rosary which was canonically crowned 18 April 1959. It plays a role in the Central Luzon “W” Growth Corridor. It is a transport route and transshipment point linking SBMA area
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
University of Santo Tomas
The university is run by the Order of Preachers. The patron of the university is St. Thomas Aquinas, while St. Catherine of Alexandria is the patroness, the university is composed of several autonomous faculties, colleges and institutes, each conferring undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, and the basic education units. Several degree programs have been accredited by the Commission on Higher Education as Centers of Excellence, moreover, it was awarded with an Institutional Accreditation by the CHED through the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines. Prominent Thomasians include saints, Philippine presidents, artists, scientists and religious figures, the athletic teams are the Growling Tigers, who are members of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines and are consistent winners of the Overall Championship. The foundation of the University is ascribed to Miguel de Benavides and he came to the Philippines with the first Dominican mission in 1587. He went on to bishop of Nueva Segovia, and was promoted archbishop of Manila in 1601.
Upon his death in July 1605, Benavides bequeathed his library, Bernardo de Santa Catalina carried out Benavides’s wishes and was able to secure a building near the Dominican church and convent in Intramuros for the College. In 1609, permission to open the College was requested from King Philip III of Spain, on April 28,1611, notary Juan Illian witnessed the signing of the act of foundation by Baltasar Fort, OP, Bernardo Navarro, OP, and Francisco Minayo, OP. Fort, appointed that year to the post of Father Provincial, the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario was established on April 28,1611, from the Benavidess library. Later renamed Colegio de Santo Tomás, it was elevated by Pope Innocent X to a university on November 20,1645 in his brief and this makes the institution the first in the islands to be formally elevated to the status of university. Its complete name is The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas and this makes the UST the first and only formally declared royal and pontifical university in the Philippines.
The university was located within the city of Intramuros in Manila. The first courses offered by the Colegio de Santo Tomás were canon law, philosophy, grammar, the arts, in 1871, it began offering degrees in Medicine and Pharmacy, the first in colonized Asia. Also that year, it began accepting female enrollees, in the last four decades, the university grew into a full-fledged institution of higher learning, conferring degrees in law and various academic letters. The university has graduated Philippine national heroes and even saints, the Medicine and Civil Law courses were retained in Intramuros at that time. During World War II, the Japanese forces converted the Sampaloc campus into an internment camp for aliens, mostly Americans. The original Intramuros campus was destroyed in 1944 by an arson created by the Japanese Kempeitai, more than 4,000 foreigners survived under difficult conditions in the internment camp for 37 months from January 1942 until February 1945 when the camp was liberated by American soldiers.
In its long history, the university has been under the leadership of more than 90 Rectors, uSTs first Filipino rector was Fr
Andrés Bonifacio fought for independence from the politically and socially ruthless colonial rule by Spain. The monument 45 feet in height with symbolic images and other known as the Cry of Pugadlawin is acclaimed as one of the best monuments in the world. The Bonifacio Monument recalls the Philippine Revolution which was spearheaded by Andrés Bonifacio who had urged his men to raise against the rule of Spain. His call to arms against the Spanish rule was given on 23 August 1896. The foundation stone for the monument was laid by Aurora Quezon. The monument, which was created under the orders of Frank Murphy, on 30 November 2013, the sesquicentennial of birthday of Andres Bonifacio and the 80th anniversary of unveiling of the landmark monument to the Father of the Nation was celebrated. It is crowned by a figure with wings representing triumph, below the vertical pylon 20 figures cast in bronze have been molded over an octagonal shaped plinth, plus one angel of peace at the top. The octagon represents the eight provinces who fought against Spain and represents eight rays of the Katipunan flag, the plinth is raised in three steps, each step representing the three centuries of Spanish rule.
These figures are a representation of the people of Philippines, who faced inequality, the main central image of the monument holds a bolo, a machete, in the right hand and a gun in the other hand. At the back of the figure a flag of Katipunan in an unfurled state is depicted. The central obelisk is surrounded by pools of water
Cape Bojeador Lighthouse
Cape Bojeador Lighthouse, known as Burgos Lighthouse, is a cultural heritage structure in Burgos, Ilocos Norte, that was established during the Spanish Colonial period in the Philippines. It was first lit on March 30,1892, and is set high on Vigia de Nagpartian Hill overlooking the scenic Cape Bojeador where early galleons used to sail by, the light marks the northwestern-most point in Luzon. The northeastern-most being Cape Engaño Lighthouse on Palaui Island, Santa Ana, the 66-foot-tall octagonal stone tower, the most prominent structure in the vicinity, can be seen from as far away as Pasuquin town in the south and Bangui on the east on a clear day. Contrary to popular belief, it is not the highest-elevated nor tallest lighthouse in the Philippines, but the highest elevated still original and active Spanish era lighthouse in the country. Corregidor Lighthouse is higher at over 600 feet, and among the Spanish Colonial lighthouses, in Mindoro Strait, the recently erected modern tower at the Apo Reef Light Station rises to a height of 110 feet.
The Cape Bojeador lighthouse was part of the Spanish governments master plan of illuminating the Philippine archipelago, the project commenced with the execution of the lighthouses in the northern and western part of the Philippines and those around Iloilo and Cebu. The Burgos lighthouse was first lit on March 30,1892, the lighthouse was first designed by Magin Pers y Pers in 1887 and was finished by the Lighthouse Service under Guillermo Brockman. It is typical of the Spanish Colonial lighthouses which is all made with bricks that are widely used and produced in the area. The octagonal tower is topped with a cupola and the viewing gallery is surrounded by decorative iron grill works. The lighthouse was fitted with first-order Fresnel lens. The intense earthquake of 1990 that hit most of Luzon damaged the lenses, the beam now comes from a modern electric lamp that is powered by solar panels. The light before was provided by pressurized kerosene lamps very much like Coleman lamps, in 2005, the old pressure vessels and wicks for the light could still be found in the shed.
Cape Bojeador Lighthouse was declared a National Historical Landmark on August 13,2004, Cape Bojeador lighthouse is the most accessible of all the lighthouses in the island of Luzon. Access to the lighthouse is through a narrow concrete road that starts from the Maharlika Highway in Brgy. Paayas, about 40 km. north from Laoag City, after passing Paayas, a sign on the right side of the highway indicates the winding road that leads to the base of the lighthouse. At the parking lot, visitors climb a flight of stairs to the perimeter wall which offers a good view of Cape Bojeador and West Philippine Sea. Look for the keeper and inform him of your intentions. The service buildings and the cistern are located in the courtyard, the elegant T-shaped stairway leads you up to the verandah of the main pavilion
Arch of the Centuries
Half of the current structure, the side facing the UST Main Building is the ruins of the original Intramuros arch while the side that faces España Boulevard is a replica. The Arch of the Centuries was originally erected around 1680 at Intramuros, after World War II, the university transferred to its present location at Sampaloc. The Arch was carried piece-by-piece and was re-erected at the present Plaza Intramuros in 1954, the original Arch which faces the Main Building was the main doorway to the university building before it was destroyed during World War II when it was at Intramuros. A newer arch faced España Boulevard, which is a reconstruction of the original arch, the Arch contains Doric columns, but is Baroque in its details. The inscription on the arch says Gateway to the history of the finest breed of Filipinos, on the sides at the top of the Arch are panels depicting the life of Saint Thomas Aquinas, the patron saint of the university and of all Catholic educational institutions.
All incoming students, as parts of their initiation rites into the university, candidates for graduation, on the other hand, pass through under the Arch during a parade after their Baccalaureate Mass. This tradition started on June 2002, fireworks display ends the passage and signals the party afterwards. The parade, either of freshmen or graduating seniors, is done per college/faculty in random order, there is an old superstition that while studying at the university, one should not pass under the arch until he graduates. If done so, an event will happen that will bar his graduation from the university
The St. James the Apostle Parish Church commonly known as Betis Church is a Baroque church located in the Betis, Guagua in Pampanga, Philippines under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Fernando. The church was established in 1607 and dedicated to Saint James and it was declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. The baroque-inspired Betis Church was built around 1660 under Father José de la Cruz, the preliminary structure was made out of light materials which was composed mainly of wood and stucco. Fire broke out within the several times due to these light materials so it was finally built with concrete materials in 1770. On the other hand, the present-day concrete fence with caryatids was built in the 2nd quarter of the 20th century, in 1908, the rectory of the church was burned with fire and all the documents about baptism and other historical catalogues of the church turned into ashes. Beautification of the part of the church was extensively done by the last Spanish priest named Father Santiago Blanco in 1939.
The interior ceiling was painted by the famous, Anac Baculud, who was mentored by Dr. Sijuco. Isidoro, nicknamed Doro Soto, actually painted the artwork on the ceiling itself, during the Spanish-Colonial period, Betis is an independent town which has its own autonomy as a municipality. But due to migration of its inhabitants to the nearby Guagua in the American Period, although part of the municipality of Guagua, the Betis church has its own parochial priest and has its patron saint named St. James the Great. Betis as a town traces its roots way before the period of Spanish colonization which began in the 16th century, the town already had a unique culture and way of life prior to Spanish occupation. People here were well-known carvers and expert in trade and this talent and expertise would be used by the colonizers to infuse western influences to the natives of Betis. The word Betis was derived from Hispania Baetica or Hispania Baetica-an ancient place during the Roman Period which was located at the Iberian Peninsula and this Iberian Peninsula is now present–day Spain.
It was in the geographical resemblance from this place that the early Spanish conquistador in Pampanga named the place as Betis. These are just a few of the traditions that are still being celebrated in Betis. On the other hand, the tradition or what the natives call as dukit still remains an art and industry. Other industries are emerging within the community such as the making of pastillas and tarts, fish culturing, in 2009, the National Museum installed a marker of its 2005 Proclamation. The main attraction of the church is the ceiling mural done by the famous painter Simón Flores. A two-minute walk from the church is the restored David House, ancestral home of the sociologist, the unique design of Betis Church reflects the integration of Spanish and Latin American architecture to indigenous architecture, including elements of Oriental style during the Spanish colonial era
Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar
Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar is an open-air museum and heritage park in Bagac, Philippines. Las Casas Filipinas is by the sea, along Umagol river, in Barangay Pag-asa, josé Gerry Acuzar, owner of New San Jose Builders started to rebuild Spanish mansions in Bagac in 2003. Each was dismantled brick by brick, transported to his property in Bagac, reassembled in the same order, houses were chosen based on their historical and architectural value. Acuzar bought houses that were in a state of neglect, from the owners, in 2010, the heritage park was opened to public. Spread over 400 hectares, the features a collection of 27 Spanish Colonial buildings. These houses were dismantled, transplanted from around the Philippines. For parts that were missing and bricks were replicated to resemble the original structure, for this, the Ciudad employs a workforce of 130 people, including 10 wood sculptors, three metal sculptors,30 craftsmen who design ceilings, and construction workers. There are five architects, two of whom are historical architects, and two artists The resort has a restaurant, a beach, calesa rides and a swimming pool and it plans to have 50 such heritage houses.
Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar contains 30 heritage houses, the house contains wood carvings with floral motifs. The original owner of Casa Baliwag was Kapitan Fernando Vergel de Dios, it was inherited by his eldest daughter and it was originally across the towns San Agustin church. Family members fondly called it Luwasan since it was the house referred to when going towards the town or to Manila, Kapitan Fernando had another house called Hulo, which was going towards the end of town, or sa dulo. Casa Baliuag 2 was an originally in the compound of Iglesia ni Cristo in Baliuag. It was owned by a Gonzalez, Casa Cagayan is a collection of four wooden houses built on stilts. Such houses were regarded as those of poor people in Cagayan in the early 1900s. Casa Candaba was home to the Spanish governor general whenever he visited Pampanga, two houses from Jaen, Nueva Ecija, originated from the Esquivel clan. Casa Lubao served as storage for rice and sugar, and became a Japanese garrison during World War II.
A story goes that a Japanese colonel stopped his men from burning the house in gratitude for the kindness of the Arastia family who, Casa Mexico was salvaged from a junk shop and reconstructed using an old photograph. Built in 1850, its location was in Namacpacan in La Union
Saints Peter and Paul Parish Church (Calasiao)
The Saints Peter and Paul Parish Church, commonly known as Calasiao Church is a baroque church located in Poblacion West, Pangasinan, Philippines. It belongs to the Vicariate of Sts and Paul under the Ecclesiastical Province of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan. The 57,840 Catholics is under the care of Rev. Fidelis B. Layog, assisted by Rev. Isidro Palinar, Jr. the Spanish-colonial-era Church was declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Built in several stages from the 17th to 19th centuries by the Dominicans, the 17th Century Calasiao Dominican Provincial chapter church under St. Pauls patronage became Sts. Peter and Paul Parish under Fr, juan Maldonado de San Pedro Martin as parish priest after 1621. In 1763, Filipino rebel Palaris burned the church, Bishop Miguel Garcia de Nueva Segovia presided over the 1773 Synod of Calasiao at the sprawling Convento. Archbishop Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa y Rufina convened the Council from May to November,1771, Calasiao had a new church of 3 naves with a bell tower.
But in 1841 to 1842, this church was destroyed and rebuilt by Father Dalman in 1852, the March 16,1892 earthquake damaged the church. Bonifacio Probanza left Calasiao in 1898, the 1936 Christ the King saw a new church. Ungson reconstructed the churchs and restored the front wall, antique statues. Juan Bello, Fathers Benigno Serafica, José Ferrer and Msgr, oscar Aquino under Bishop Jesus Cabrera. The present Parish Priest is Fidelis B, luis Ungson is assisted by Fr. Jose R. Carino and Allen O. Romero, at present, the church owns fully automatic bells or chimes which could be heard within 7- or 8-kilometer radius. Calasiaos prioririty status is due to its representation of various regions across the nation. Its 5-storey octagonal brick tower with architectural designs that slightly resemble those of the Southeast Asian Hindu-Buddhist Pagodas is 30 meters high. The prized original retablos is ornately decorated with statues of saints, the Baroque-style carved, the painted ceilings and the magnificent overall exterior are preserved for centuries.
The intricate sculpture has tone of the Renaissance ages undying European Art as demonstrated by the majesty of its ceiling or dome, the magnificent structures main door, the entrance to the church features some heavy details, Iglesia Parroquial San Pedro Y San Pablo Calasiao, Pangasinan
National Museum of the Philippines
The institution operates numerous branch museums throughout the country. The National Museum began as Insular Museum of Ethnology, Natural History and it was subsequently transferred to the Department of Interior as the Bureau of Ethnological Survey after the passage of the Philippine Commission Act No.841 in 1903. This new bureau was responsible for the Philippine participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904, after the exposition, it was abolished as a separate bureau and was renamed the Philippine Museum. The National Museum went through the division and distribution of its functions to other government agencies, the Philippine Legislature passed Act No. The latter was transformed into an independent unit under the Office of the Secretary of Agriculture, the Japanese Occupation brought back the divisions under the National Museum of the Philippines as provided by Philippine Republic Executive Order No. 94, but the museum lost a part of its collection during the Liberation of Manila when the Legislative Building was destroyed by American artillery.
Fortunately, the Legislative Building was immediately restored through the American reparation funds bringing the back to its operations. The museum’s role in growth was recognized as contributing to government’s desire for national development. It was revitalized in 1966 when President Ferdinand Marcos signed Republic Act No.4846 or the Cultural Properties, with its new powers, it was able to strengthen its cultural mandate by declaring properties and sites of historical and cultural value to the nation. The educational mandate was strengthened because it was able to inform the public of the researches it conducted, the National Museum of Fine Arts, formerly called the National Art Gallery, is housed in the old Legislative Building. The building was intended as a public library as proposed in Daniel Burnhams 1905 Plan for Manila. Designed by Ralph Harrington Doane, the American consulting architect of the Bureau of Public Works, construction of the building began in 1918 and completed in 1921.
The façade of the building had classical features using stylized Corinthian columns, ornamentation, on July 16,1926, the building was formally inaugurated. During the World War II, the building was heavily damaged, after the war, it was rebuilt albeit less ornate and less detailed. During the Martial Law era, the Legislative Building was closed down, the building holds the countrys National Art Gallery, natural sciences and other support divisions. It is located in the Agrifina Circle, Rizal Park, Manila next to the main National Museum building which is the National Museum for Fine Arts, the building was the former headquarters of the Department of Finance. The National Museum of Natural History will have a hexagonal DNA tower structure in its center which will be the base for the ventilating roof-dome of the whole building, living trees will be planted within the interior of the building. It was expected to be finished in the last quarter of 2015, the building started on construction on 1974 and completed 9 months after
These 5 provinces, plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015. The region is the center of culture, education, NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, media, fashion, technology, education. It is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines and its economic power makes the region the countrys premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37. 2% of the domestic product of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the progenitor to the present-day Metro Manila, is one of the eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. The province was honored as one of the sun rays in the Flag of the Philippines, a historical province known as Manila encompasses the former pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power, in 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities.
Mariquina served as the capital from 1898-1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States, the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the global cities. Pasig serves as its provincial capital, in 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed, the establishment of Quezon City meant demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, on, Quezon City eventually declared as the national capital from 1948-1976. The tile was re-designated back to Manila through Presidential Decree No.940 owing to its significance as the seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period.
During the war, President Manuel L. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor, Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezons principal lieutenant for administrative matters, the City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila, on November 7,1975, Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No.824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was created to manage the region, on June 2,1978, through Presidential Decree No