click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Toronto Harbour

Toronto Harbour or Toronto Bay is a bay on the north shore of Lake Ontario, in Toronto, Canada. It is a natural harbour, protected from Lake Ontario waves by the Toronto Islands. Today, the harbour is used for recreational boating, including personal vessels and pleasure boats providing scenic or party cruises. Ferries travel from docks on the mainland to the Islands, cargo ships deliver aggregates and raw sugar to industries located in the harbour; the harbour has been used for military vessels, passenger traffic and cargo traffic. Waterfront uses include residential, cultural and industrial sites. There are two harbours: the original natural harbour, today named the "Inner Harbour", the "Outer Harbour". Access into the Inner Harbour is made via either Eastern Gap; the Don River drains through the Keating Channel. The makeup of the soil between the mainland and the island varies depending on the area of the harbour. Near the Western Gap, the sediment is made up of stone, whereas sand makes up the sediment near Billy Bishop Island Airport, the western parts of the Toronto Islands' north shore.

Clay is more prominent in near the centre of the harbour, whereas the soil turns to mud near the north shore, towards the mouth of the Don River. The Inner Harbour is used by commercial vessels; the PortsToronto agency maintains the harbour and operates port facilities and a passenger ship dock on the eastern shore. The north shore has a mixed range of uses including Harbourfront, a conversion from industrial land to recreational and cultural uses. Harbourfront has parks, hotels, an amphitheatre, many other facilities; the north shore retains one port-related industrial use, the Redpath Sugar Refinery, while most of the lands have been converted to other uses. The Jack Layton Ferry Terminal is located at the foot of Bay Street and pleasure and party cruise boats dock along the shore to the west of York Street; the Toronto Islands are a chain of small islands located just offshore from Downtown Toronto, providing shelter for the inner harbour. Most of the Islands is parkland, although it is the site of several boat clubs, an amusement park, an airport, a small residential area.

The Western Gap is a 120 metres wide channel allowing western access to the Inner Harbour. The gap is deep enough to allow large ships to exit into the Inner Harbour; the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport is located on the south side of the channel and is accessed by ferry and tunnel. Before the Western Gap was dug in 1910, the waterway was wide with a shallow sandy shoal surrounding what became Hanlan's Point; the sands are part of the airport lands. The Eastern Gap is an 200 metres wide passage between Ward's Island and the western edge of the Port Lands and used by most freighters to enter into the inner harbour and port facilities; the gap was first formed from 1852 to 1858 when storms caused a break in the sandy spit that connected the area with the mainland. Prior to the 1800s, small boat users had to use a portage on the western end of the sandy spit peninsula from Lake Ontario to the inner harbour. After 1858, the Harbour Trust made the temporary channel into a permanent waterway. Today, the Port of Toronto and its facilities are limited to the eastern shore of the inner harbour, in an area known as the Port Lands, with the exception of the Redpath Sugar Refinery at the foot of Jarvis Street.

The tonnage of cargo passing through the port is made up of sugar to Redpath and aggregate materials, salt delivered to facilities on the eastern shore of the harbour. The port is managed by PortsToronto. In 2007, the port handled 1.6 million tonnes of traffic, a 0.3% share of national port traffic, 16th out of 19 Canada Port Authority ports by traffic. In 2006, Transport Canada ranked Toronto 39th out of 313 ports in all of Canada in total tonnage shipped. Statistics Canada ranks the port 15th in shipping activity in Ontario. Toronto has a second harbour, referred to as the Outer Harbour; the City of Toronto's Cherry Beach Clarke Beach Park, located on the north side of the Outer Harbour, is popular in summer. It meets high water quality and safety standards. A proposed 37-kilometre Lake Ontario Park by Waterfront Toronto would pass through the Outer Harbour; the City of Toronto operates a marina in east end of the Harbour. Eight community water-sport clubs, forming the independent Outer Harbour Sailing Federation, share a small strip east of Cherry Beach Clarke Beach Park.

The clubs are: Hanlan's Boat Club, Mooredale Sailing Club, Outer Harbour Centreboard Club, Saint James Town Sailing Club, Toronto Multihull Cruising Club, Toronto Windsurfing Club, Water Rats Sailing Club, Westwood Sailing Club. The harbour was developed in the 1950s and 1960s by the Toronto Harbour Commission through the construction of a new breakwater called the Outer Harbour East Headland. At that time, it was expected that there would be a great upswing in the number of ships calling at Toronto once the Saint Lawrence Seaway opened. However, the need for an extra harbour never materialized, private boats are the only traffic found there now. Gaasyendietha is a legendary Loch Ness Monster-type creature and it is sometimes spotted in Lake Ontario and within the Toronto Harbour; the story of Gaasyendietha is a Native Canadian myth from the Seneca tribe. The original shoreline of the northern shore was low sandy bluffs, just south of today's Front Street; the mouth of the

Roberto Matosas

Roberto Matosas Postiglione is a retired Uruguayan football defender. At the club level, he played for C. A. River Plate of Argentina and C. A. Peñarol of Uruguay. In September 1964, Club Atlético River Plate signed Matosas for a then-record transfer fee, he would play 165 league matches with 12 goals. He finished his playing career in Mexico, playing for Toluca. Matosas was part of the Uruguay national football team, he participated in the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico, where the Uruguayan side finished in fourth place. After he retired from playing, Matosas became a football coach, he has managed Mexican side Veracruz. Roberto Matosas at National-Football-Teams.com Roberto Matosas – Liga MX stats at MedioTiempo.com

Arhizo Polemo

Arhizo Polemo is an album by popular Greek artist Katy Garbi. It was released on May 10, 1996 by Sony Music Greece and was certified 3x Platinum, selling over 180,000 units worldwide; the majority of the album is written by Phoebus, with remaining music by Andreas Mexas and Charis Andreadis and lyrics by Giannis Doxas and Smaroula Maragkoudaki.. It is the second best-selling album of 1996, Garbi's best-selling 90s album, containing many of her most successful songs, like "Tha Melagholiso", "Mia Fora Ki Enan Kairo", "Hamena" and "Perasmena Ksehasmena"; the success of the album was representative of nine out of twelve tracks becoming radio singles, seven of which became music videos. "Arhizo Polemo" "Tha Melagholiso" "Hamena" "Mia Fora Ki Enan Kero" "Perasmena Ksehasmena" "1,000,000 Nyhtes" "Apo Do Kai Pio Pera" "Ftou Kseleftheria" "Agio Kalokairi" "Tha Melagholiso" "Mia Fora Ki Enan Kero" "Arhizo Polemo" "Hamena" "Perasmena Ksehasmena" "Apo Do Kai Pio Pera" "1,000,000 Nyhtes" Personnel Accordion: Faidon Lionoudakis Arranged By: Charis Andreadis, Phoebus Backing Vocals: Charis Chalkitis, Rania Dizikiriki, Anna Ioannidou, Elli Kokkinou, Dimitris Kokotas, Mariada Pieridi, Sandy Politi, Antonis Remos, Dionisis Schoinas, Eva Tselidou Baglama: Giannis Mpithikotsis Bass: Giotis Kiourtsoglou, Giannis Mparakos Bouzouki: Giannis Mpithikotsis Clarinet: Thimios Papadopoulos Cura: Giannis Mpithikotsis Cümbüş: Antonis Gounaris Drums: Andreas Mouzakis Guitars: Giorgos Chatzopoulos, Antonis Gounaris Outi: Antonis Gounaris Percussion: Giorgos Roilos Programmed By, Keyboards: Phoebus, Orestis Plakidis Second Vocal: Aggelos Avgeris, Katy Garbi, Antonis Remos Violin: Nikos Chatzopoulos Production Artwork: Dis Graphs Executive Producer: Giannis Doulamis Hair Styling: Giannis Michailidis Make Up: Giannis Aggelakis Mastering: Giannis Ioannidis Mixed By: Panagiotis Petronikolos Photoprapher: Tasos Vrettos Recorded By: Makis Achladiotis, Vaggelis Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Petronikolos Arhizo Polemo was awarded "Album of the Year" at the Pop Corn Music Awards of 1996.

A further three awards were received for "Best Composition", "Best Lyric" and "Best Folk Dance Track". Arhizo Polemo is reported to have shipped over 160,000 units in Greece and sold over 12,000 copies in Cyprus, totalling over 180,000 units worldwide

Cercle (French colonial)

Cercle was the smallest unit of French political administration in French Colonial Africa, headed by a European officer. A cercle consisted of several cantons, each of which in turn consisted of several villages, was instituted in France's African colonies from 1895 to 1946. At the bottom of the European administration the "Cercle Commander" was subject to the authority of a District Commander, the government of the colony above him, but was independent of the Military structure. Below the "Cercle Commander" was a series of African "Chefs de canton" and "Chefs du Village": "chiefs" appointed by the French and subject to removal by the Europeans; as well, the "Cercle Commander" made use of a large number of servants and African officers such as the "Gardes-de-cercle" police, any military units seconded to them by government authorities, sub administrators such as the Precepteur du marché trade inspectors, etc. Cercle Commanders and District Commanders were the chief judges of the Indigénat legal code in the area they commanded.

Commanders were expected to make regular tours of their areas to enforce policies, rule on cases, extract taxes and Prestation labor and implement political and economic projects of either the colonial governor, the French Overseas Ministry, or of their own creation. The commandant de cercle, or any white man in practice, was free to impose summary punishment for any of 34 vague headings of infractions of the code: from murder down to'disrespect' of France, its symbols, or functionaries; these could range to 15 days in prison, executed immediately. While the statute stated that all punishments must be signed by the colonial governor, this was always done after the fact. Corporal punishment was outlawed, but still used, and while reforms were periodically placed upon these powers, in practice they became common and arbitrary. Over 1,500 reported infractions were punished under the indigénat in Moyen Congo in 1908-09 alone. In addition, native sub-officials, such as the appointed local chiefs, made use of forced labor, compulsory crops, taxes in kind at their discretion.

As the enforcers of the indigénat, they were in part, beneficiaries. Still, they themselves were quite under French authority when the French chose to exercise it, it was only in 1924 that chiefs du canton were exempted from the Indigénat, if they showed insubordination or disloyalty they could still be imprisoned for up to ten years for'Political offences' by French officials. </ref>Michael Crowder. Colonial West Africa: Collected Essays: Routledge ISBN 0-7146-2943-X. Pp142-143.</ref> Gardes-de-cercle supported the European officer. Gardes-de-cercle were Africans used as auxiliary policemen to support local colonial administrators. Since they were called upon to arrest people and to compel them to supply forced labor, the French recruited them from outside the cercle where they served; as a consequence, they were disliked and distrusted by the local inhabitants though they were Africans. The Lamine Guèye law enabled some form of small political representation from the colonies after the war. One year the courts and labor laws of the Indigénat were removed.

The Indigénat and the power of Cercle Commanders was dismantled in three steps. The ordinance of 7 May 1944 suppressed the summary punishment statutes, offered citizenship to those who met certain criteria and would give up their rights to native or Muslim courts; this citizenship was given on a personal basis: their children would still fall under the Indigénat. The Lamine Guèye law of 7 April 1946 formally extended citizenship across the empire, indigènes included. Third, the law of 20 September 1947 removed the two tier court system and mandated equal access to public employment. Reduced to a political subdivision equivalent to a French department and stripped of the personal power of the Cercle Commander system, the Cercle name retained enough imperial connotations to be changed by most nations upon independence to Departments or Sub-Prefectures. Mali is the only nation in Sub-Saharan Africa to retain the name Cercle for its second level sub-divisions. Cercle Circle Benton, Lauren: Colonial Law and Cultural Difference: Jurisdictional Politics and the Formation of the Colonial State in Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 41, No. 3 Crowder, Michael: West Africa Under Colonial Rule Northwestern Univ.

Press ASIN: B000NUU584 Crowder, Michael: Indirect Rule: French and British Style Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 34, No. 3 Samuel Decalo. Historical Dictionary of Niger. Scarecrow Press and New Jersey. ISBN 0-8108-1229-0 Mortimer, Edward France and the Africans, 1944–1960, A Political History Jean Suret-Canele. French Colonialism in Tropical Africa 1900-1945. Trans. Pica Press

Evaristo Barrera

Evaristo Vicente Barrera was an Argentine football striker. He played for a number of football clubs in Italy, he was born in Rosario. Barrera started his professional career in 1932 with Racing Club, he was twice the topscorer in the Argentine Primera, in 1934 with 34 goals and in 1936 with 32 goals. By the end of his time with Racing Club, Barrera had scored 136 goals in 142 games, he still holds the record as the club's highest scoring player. In 1938 Barrera moved to Italy, he played for Lazio and Napoli in Serie A before dropping down into the lower leagues where he played for Ascoli. During the war years he played for Gozzano in the Italian War Championships. After the end of the war he played for Cremonese and Mortara, retiring in 1948. Barrera had a spell as manager of Novara between 1956 and 1958. Enciclopedia de Calcio profile Evaristo Barrera at WorldFootball.net

Ono no Michikaze

Ono no Michikaze or Ono no Tōfū was a prominent Shodōka who lived in the Heian period. One of the so-called Sanseki 三跡, along with Fujiwara no Sukemasa and Fujiwara no Yukinari, Tōfū is considered the founder of Japanese style calligraphy or wayōshodō. Michikaze was born in the present Kasugai, Aichi prefecture, as the grandson of a courtier-poet, Ono no Takamura, he was a poet and a calligrapher. He provided distinguished calligraphic services for three emperors during his career: Daigo and Murakami. Michikaze's fame permitted him to serve, at the age of twenty-seven, in the Seiryoden, the residential quarters of the imperial court; as a recognition of his high skill, Emperor Daigo offered the Buddhist monk Kanken two volumes of Michikaze's works in 927, urged him to take them with him on a voyage to China, commend Michikaze’s calligraphic achievements to the Chinese. Michikaze had lost much of his sight by the time. Michikaze took the first step in Japanizing the art of calligraphy, imported from China around the 5th century.

His works were influenced by the style of the legendary 4th-century Chinese calligrapher Wang Xizhi, however, he added his own refinements, that resulted in a softer feel with more freedom of movement than was common under the strictures of Chinese calligraphy. He created the Japanese style calligraphy, refined by other two masters, Fujiwara no Sukemasa and Fujiwara no Yukinari. Wayō was practiced, as a pure Japanese art form, until the mid-19th century. Michikaze showed great diligence in his works, which resulted in grandiose character forms, powerful lines. None of Michikaze's kana calligraphy are extant. A number of extant kanji works are believed to be by Michikaze, but only a few are positively attributed. One of the well-known works ascribed without much evidence to Michikaze is a draft for an inscription on a byoubu now mounted as a handscroll in the Tokyo Imperial Household collection, it was executed in semi-cursive script, consisted of ten poems by Michikaze's contemporary Oe no Asatsuna.

The collection has his other masterpieces, like the Gyokusen-Jo handscroll, which are poems by a Tang poet. Michikaze was attributed to many kohitsu-gire of the Heian era, among which a scroll containing forty-nine waka poems from the twelfth volume - "Poems of Love" - of the early-Heian poetry anthology, Kokin Wakashū. Among his last works are eleven letters, in one of which he bemoans the evanescence of life. Michikaze became well known due to his depiction in Hanafuda cards; as the story goes, one day when Michikaze was feeling inadequate about his calligraphy he took a walk outside in the rain. Seeing a frog trying to jump on a willow branch and again missing its mark, he thought to himself "Stupid frog! No matter how many times you try you will never be able to reach the willow". Upon thinking this, the willow curved in a big breeze allowing the frog to jump onto the willow. Michikaze realized "I myself am the stupid one; the frog created this chance with his determination. Up until now I haven't been as diligent as this frog".

This story made him famous during the Edo period and earned him his place on the willow set in Hanafuda cards. On 20 October 2000, an 80 yen "Willow and frog" postal stamp was issued, depicting Michikaze watching a leaping frog. There is a shrine to his spirit in Kyoto, where his divine soul is considered to be protecting the women of the region in maternity. Ono no Michikaze is depicted on the "rainman" of the traditional Japanese playing cards Hanafuda. Calligraphy Shodō Media related to Ono no Michikaze at Wikimedia Commons Ono no Michikaze at Find a Grave