Toronto International Film Festival

The Toronto International Film Festival is one of the largest publicly attended film festivals in the world, attracting over 480,000 people annually. Since its founding in 1976, TIFF has grown to become a permanent destination for film culture operating out of the TIFF Bell Lightbox, located in downtown Toronto. TIFF's mission is "to transform the way people see the world through film". Year-round, the TIFF Bell Lightbox offers screenings, discussions, workshops, industry support, the chance to meet filmmakers from Canada and around the world. TIFF Bell Lightbox is located on the north west corner of King Street and John Street in downtown Toronto. In 2016, 397 films from 83 countries were screened at 28 screens in downtown Toronto venues, welcoming an estimated 480,000 attendees, over 5,000 of whom were industry professionals. TIFF lasts for eleven days. Founded in 1976, TIFF is now one of the largest and most prestigious events of its kind in the world. In 1998, Variety magazine acknowledged that TIFF "is second only to Cannes in terms of high-profile pics and market activity".

In 2007, Time noted that TIFF had "grown from its place as the most influential fall film festival to the most influential film festival, period". This is the result of the festival's ability and reputation for generating "Oscar buzz"; the festival's People's Choice Award—which is based on audience balloting—has emerged as an indicator of success during awards season at the Academy Awards. Past recipients of this award include Oscar-winning films, such as Life Is Beautiful, American Beauty, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Slumdog Millionaire, The King's Speech, 12 Years a Slave, The Imitation Game, Room, La La Land, Three Billboards Outside Ebbing and Green Book; the festival's current executive director and co-head is Joana Vicente. The festival's artistic director and co-head is Cameron Bailey; the 2019 Toronto International Film Festival finished on 15 September. The Toronto International Film Festival was first launched as the Toronto Festival of Festivals, collecting the best films from other film festivals around the world and showing them to eager audiences in Toronto.

Founded by Bill Marshall, Dusty Cohl, Henk Van der Kolk, the inaugural event took place from October 18 through 24, 1976. That first year, 35,000 filmgoers watched 127 films from 30 countries presented in ten programmes. Piers Handling has been the festival's director and CEO since 1994, while Noah Cowan became co-director of TIFF in 2004. In late 2007, Cowan became the artistic director of TIFF Bell Lightbox, while longtime programmer Cameron Bailey succeeded as co-director; as of 2013, Bailey is now the artistic director of the Toronto International Film Festival, as well as TIFF Bell Lightbox's year round programming. TIFF was once centred on the Yorkville neighbourhood, but the Toronto Entertainment District gained a greater level of prominence. TIFF is known for the celebrity buzz it brings to the area with international media setting up near its restaurants and stores for photos and interviews with the stars. In 2010, TIFF opened its permanent headquarters, TIFF Bell Lightbox, a year-round home for the appreciation of film in the heart of downtown Toronto, although TIFF films are still screened at a wider variety of venues, including the Scotiabank Theatre Toronto, rather than at the Lightbox.

TIFF has grown adding initiatives throughout the years. TIFF Cinematheque and the Film Reference Library opened in 1990; the TIFF Kids International Film Festival launched in 1998. Film Circuit began exhibiting independent and Canadian films in under-serviced cities across Canada in 1994; the festival was founded in 1976 at the Windsor Arms Hotel by Bill Marshall, Henk Van der Kolk and Dusty Cohl. Beginning as a collection of the best-regarded films from film festivals around the world, it had an inaugural attendance of 35,000. However, Hollywood studios withdrew their submissions from TIFF due to concerns that Toronto audiences would be too parochial for their products. In 1994, the decision was made to replace the name "Festival of Festivals" with "Toronto International Film Festival". From 1994 to 2009, the umbrella organization running TIFF was named "Toronto International Film Festival Group". In 2009, the umbrella organization TIFFG was renamed to TIFF. In 2001, Perspective Canada, the programme that had focused on Canadian films since 1984, was replaced by two programmes: Canada First!, a forum for Canadian filmmakers presenting their first feature-length work, featuring eight to 15 films, Short Cuts Canada, which includes 30-40 Canadian short films.

In 2004, TIFF was featured as the site of murder mystery in the film Jiminy Glick in Lalawood, a comedy film starring Martin Short. In 2007, it was announced that the organization generates an estimated annual impact of $67 million CAD. By 2011, that benefit had grown to $170 million CAD. In 2008, Rose McGowan caused controversy at a TIFF press conference for her film Fifty Dead Men Walking, when she noted that "I imagine, had I grown up in Belfast, I would 100% have been in the IRA". In 2009, TIFF's decision to spotlight films from Tel Aviv created a controversy with protesters, saying it was part of an attempt to re-brand Israel in a positive light after the January 2009 Gaza War. In 2017, TIFF reduced the number of films screened compared to the 2016 festival with 255 feature-length films in 2017 vs about 400 films in 2016, eliminated two venues, used in prior years. In 2019, it was

Three Sisters (Northern Cape)

The Three Sisters are a land formation near Victoria West, Northern Cape, South Africa, comprising three distinctively shaped hills. The farm on which they are situated and the nearby railway siding are named Three Sisters; the hills are topped with dolorite, are nearly identical in appearance. They can be seen just to the east of the N1 highway 75 kilometres outside Beaufort West, north of the junction of the N1 and the N12 highways. Due to the open and mountainous Karoo scenery, the area has become a well-known landmark. There is a large; the early expansion of the Cape Colony's railway system, planned by the government of Prime Minister John Molteno and driven by Cape Government Railways, saw the Main Western Line to Kimberley pass this formation. A small station was built here in 1881 and it serviced the enormous tracts of farmland in the surrounding districts

Whittier Narrows

The Whittier Narrows is a narrows or water gap in California, United States, between the Puente Hills to the east and the Montebello Hills to the west. The gap is located at the southern boundary of the San Gabriel Valley, through which the Rio Hondo and the San Gabriel River flow through to enter the Los Angeles Basin; the gap is traversed by both Interstate 605 and California State Route 19. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition, discovered Whittier Narrows on its return journey to San Diego. On the outbound journey, the party had followed San Jose Creek, reaching the San Gabriel River north of the Narrows. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi noted in his diary, "We started out in the morning through the gap of the valley of San Miguel, full of trees. We traveled a long while to the southwest on the edge of the stream, rising from a copious spring of water in the same gap, merits now the name of river. From the exploration Mission Vieja was built at Whittier Narrows in 1771.

A flood in 1776 caused Mission Vieja to move to Mission San Gabriel Arcángel in San Gabriel. Whittier Narrows was the meeting point for boundary corners of several land-grant ranchos, created during the Spanish-Mexican era, including the Rancho Paso de Bartolo. On 1 October 1987 at 7:42 a.m. PDT, the 5.9 Mw Whittier Narrows earthquake affected the Greater Los Angeles Area with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII. The Whittier Narrows Recreation Area is a large multi-use facility in an unincorporated part of Los Angeles County, containing North Lake, Center Lake, Legg Lake, a rifle and pistol shooting range, numerous softball and soccer fields with picnic tables, a paved airstrip for radio-controlled hobby aircraft, a connector trail between the Class I Rio Hondo bicycle path and the San Gabriel River bicycle path; the park is bordered by Garvey Avenue and San Gabriel Blvd to the north and west and Durfee Avenue and Santa Anita/Merced Avenues to the south and east. A convenient point of access is the Rosemead Blvd exit south from the Pomona Freeway.

Within the Recreation Area is the Whittier Narrows Nature Center, which contains exhibits about the plants and animals of the river environment, including live displays. The center offers public programs, ranger tours and education programs. In October 2008, a proposed new interpretive center drew controversy over the potential destruction of a large amount of existing wildlife habitat; the Whittier Narrows Dam is a flood control and water conservation project constructed and operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District, it collects runoff from the uncontrolled drainage areas upstream along with releases from the Santa Fe Dam, can redirect flows into the Rio Hondo or the downstream San Gabriel. It was completed in 1957. Battle of Rio San Gabriel "Whittier Narrows Recreation Area". "Whittier Narrows Nature Center". "Friends of the Whittier Narrows Natural Area"