The Toronto Maple Leafs the Toronto Maple Leaf Hockey Club and simply referred to as the Leafs, are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto. They compete in the National Hockey League as a member of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference; the club is owned by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, Ltd. and are represented by Chairman Larry Tanenbaum. The Maple Leafs' broadcasting rights are split between BCE Rogers Communications. For their first 14 seasons, the club played their home games at the Mutual Street Arena, before moving to Maple Leaf Gardens in 1931; the Maple Leafs moved to their present home, Scotiabank Arena in February 1999. The club was founded in 1917, operating as Toronto and known as the Toronto Arenas. Under new ownership, the club was renamed the Toronto St. Patricks in 1919. In 1927 the club was renamed the Maple Leafs. A member of the "Original Six", the club was one of six NHL teams to have endured through the period of League retrenchment during the Great Depression.
The club has won thirteen Stanley Cup championships, second only to the 24 championships of the Montreal Canadiens. The Maple Leafs history includes two recognized dynasties, from 1947 to 1951. Winning their last championship in 1967, the Maple Leafs' 51-season drought between championships is the longest current drought in the NHL; the Maple Leafs have developed rivalries with four NHL franchises: the Boston Bruins, Detroit Red Wings, the Montreal Canadiens, the Ottawa Senators. The Maple Leafs have retired the use of thirteen numbers in honour of nineteen players. In addition, a number of individuals who hold an association with the club have been inducted in the Hockey Hall of Fame; the Maple Leafs are presently affiliated with two minor league teams, the Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League, the Newfoundland Growlers of the ECHL. The National Hockey League was formed in 1917 in Montreal by teams belonging to the National Hockey Association that had a dispute with Eddie Livingstone, owner of the Toronto Blueshirts.
The owners of the other four clubs — the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Quebec Bulldogs and the Ottawa Senators — wanted to replace Livingstone, but discovered that the NHA constitution did not allow them to vote him out of the league. Instead, they opted to create a new league, the NHL, did not invite Livingstone to join them, they remained voting members of the NHA, thus had enough votes to suspend the other league's operations leaving Livingstone's league with one team. The NHL had decided that it would operate a four-team circuit, made up of the Canadiens, Maroons and one more club in either Quebec or Toronto. Toronto's inclusion in the NHL's inaugural season was formally announced on November 26, 1917, with concerns over the Bulldogs' financial stability surfacing; the League granted temporary franchise rights to the Arena Company, owners of the Arena Gardens. The NHL granted the Arena responsibility of the Toronto franchise for only the inaugural season, with specific instructions to resolve the dispute with Livingstone, or transfer ownership of the Toronto franchise back to the League at the end of the season.
The franchise did not have an official name, but was informally called "the Blueshirts" or "the Torontos" by the fans and press. Although the inaugural roster was made up of players leased from the NHA's Toronto Blueshirts, including Harry Cameron and Reg Noble, the Maple Leafs do not claim the Blueshirts' history as their own. During the inaugural season the club performed the first trade in NHL history, sending Sammy Hebert to the Senators, in return for cash. Under manager Charlie Querrie, head coach Dick Carroll, the team won the Stanley Cup in the inaugural 1917–18 season. For the next season, rather than return the Blueshirts' players to Livingstone as promised, on October 19, 1918, the Arena Company formed the Toronto Arena Hockey Club, granted full membership in the NHL; the Arena Company decided that year that only NHL teams were allowed to play at the Arena Gardens—a move which killed the NHA. Livingstone sued to get his players back. Mounting legal bills from the dispute forced the Arenas to sell some of their stars, resulting in a horrendous five-win season in 1918–19.
With the company facing increasing financial difficulties, the Arenas eliminated from the playoffs, the NHL agreed to let the team forfeit their last two games. Operations halted on February 1919, with the NHL ending its season and starting the playoffs; the Arenas'.278 winning percentage that season remains the worst in franchise history. However, the 1919 Stanley Cup Finals ended without a winner due to the worldwide flu epidemic; the legal dispute forced the Arena Company into bankruptcy, it was forced to sell the team. On December 9, 1919, Querrie brokered the team's purchase by the owners of the St. Patricks Hockey Club, allowing him to maintain an ownership stake in the team; the new owners renamed the team the Toronto St. Patricks, which they used until 1927. Changing the colours of the team from blue to green, the club won their second Stanley Cup championship in 1922. Babe Dye scored four times in the 5–1 Stanley Cup-clinching victory against the Vancouver Millionaires. In 1924 Jack Bickell invested C$25,000 in the St. Pats as a favour to his friend Querrie, who needed to financially reorganize his hockey team.
After a number of financially difficult seasons, the St. Patricks' ownership group considered selling the team to C. C. Pyle for C$200,000. Pyle sought to move the team to Philadelphia. However, Toronto Varsity B
Jean Zerbo is a Malian Roman Catholic prelate who has served as Archbishop of Bamako since 1998. Pope Francis raised him to the rank of Cardinal on 28 June 2017, he is the first cardinal from Mali. Jean Zerbo was born on 27 December 1943 in Ségou and ordained a priest there on 10 July 1971 by Pierre Louis Leclerc, Bishop of Ségou, he continued his education first in Lyon in 1975 and in Rome at the Pontifical Biblical Institute from 1977 to 1981, earning his licenciate in sacred scripture. Beginning in 1982, he was assigned to parish work in Markala while teaching at the Major Seminary in Bamako. On 21 June 1988, Pope John Paul II appointed him Auxiliary Bishop of Bamako and Titular Bishop of Accia. On 20 November 1988, he was consecrated bishop by Jozef Tomko, Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, with Luc Auguste Sangaré, Archbishop of Bamako, Joseph Paul Barnabé Perrot, Bishop emeritus of San, as co-consecrators. On 19 December 1994, Pope John Paul II named him Bishop of Mopti and on 27 June 1998 Archbishop of Bamako.
Pope Francis raised Zerbo to the rank of cardinal at a consistory on 28 June 2017. At the end of May, Le Monde reported that Zerbo and other Malian prelates had secret Swiss bank accounts. Mali's conference of bishops responded that the financial dealings were "transparent", called the news report "tendentious", noted that the Swiss Leaks release of financial documents appeared timed to embarrass the Catholic Church in Mali just when Zerbo's elevation put it in the public spotlight. La Stampa said that Zerbo's participation in the consistory demonstrated that an internal investigation had cleared him of financial wrongdoing; as archbishop he has fostered dialogue between Christians and Mali's Muslim majority and participated in peace negotiations, as well as called for humanitarian aid to those affected by conflicts in the country.. In 2012, he was part of a delegation of representatives of civil society that participated in discussions between Mali's ruling military regime and opposition political parties.
He has been an advocate for national reconciliation since. He has served as president of Caritas Mali, an international aid program for refugees and the poor. On 4 October 2017 he was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. Francis made him a member of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life on 23 December 2017. "Zerbo Card. Jean". Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017. Slama, Joe. "Mali's first cardinal, Archbishop Jean Zerbo". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 23 October 2017
The Wilhelm-Orden was instituted on 18 January 1896 by the German Emperor and King of Prussia Willhelm II as a high civilian award, was dedicated to the memory of his grandfather Emperor William I "the Great". The insignia of the Order consisted of a golden medal with the portrait of William I, surrounded by a golden wreath and suspended from a heavy golden collar; this collar with a weight of 222 grams bore the words WIRKE IM ANDENKEN AN KAISER WILHELM DEN GROSSEN and was designed by the jewellers Emil Weigand en Otto Schultz. The order was exclusive. One of the first to be decorated was Otto von Bismarck. Among the recipients were: Heinrich von Stephan, General Post Director - 1896. Count Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner, politician - 27 January 1900 - on the occasion of the Emperor´s birthday. Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen and composer - 28 August 1913 - the last recipient of the Order. There are other decorations with this or a similar name: The highest decoration for valour in the Netherlands is the Military Order of William The elector of Hesse-Kassel instituted a "Wilhelmsorden" in 1851 in honor of Friedrich Wilhelm I of Hesse.
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