Coca-Cola Coliseum is an arena at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Canada, used for agricultural displays, ice hockey and trade shows. It was built for the Canadian National Exhibition and the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair in 1921. Known as the Coliseum, it was known as the CNE Coliseum and Ricoh Coliseum, since 1997 it has been part of the "National Trade Centre" exhibition complex, it serves as the home arena of the Toronto Marlies ice hockey team, the American Hockey League farm team of the Toronto Maple Leafs. For the 2015 Pan American Games the venue hosted the gymnastics competitions and was known as the Toronto Coliseum. On January 1, 1920, Toronto voters approved by plebiscite a proposal by the Royal Agricultural Fair Association to construct, at a maximum cost of CA$1 million, a new arena for livestock; the City of Toronto made a call for tenders in the fall of 1920 but the lowest tender was CA$1.9 million, exceeding the mandate approved by plebiscite. The size of the planned building was reduced by half in an attempt to get the cost under CA$1 million and a new call for tenders was done.
The lowest tender received was from Anglin-Norcross Ltd. of Montreal for CA$892,000 to build the building to City Architect F. W. Price's specifications. There was reticence to hire a Montreal firm, the city held off on awarding the contract while Price sought out construction offers from local firms to do the work using day labour, although the legality of this was questioned. Another issue raised was that the revised arena design needed to be expanded to meet the fair's needs. Anglin-Norcross offered to do the work at a further CA$31,000, it took two City Council votes, but Council approved the awarding of the contract to Anglin-Norcross on May 26, 1921. Demolition of existing buildings on the site commenced a few days and arena work commenced in June 1921; the cornerstone was laid by Toronto Mayor Thomas Church on July 27, 1921 and Robert Fleming, President of the Canadian National Exhibition declared that the building would be the largest of its kind in the world, with a floor space of 8.5 acres.
The Fair Association had hoped for the arena to be open by the fall of 1921 to inaugurate the new fair, but it was not ready. The CA$1 million building had its official public opening on December 16, 1921, attended by 5,000 persons to see an athletic meet put on by the "Sportsmen Patriotic Association." Upon completion, the building was billed as the largest of its kind in North America. The name "Coliseum" was given to the building in 1922, in time for the opening of the CNE; the main entrance was along Manitoba Drive. The southern side of the building was along the main TTC streetcar rail lines serving the CNE, which separated the Coliseum and Industry Buildings to the north, the Engineering and Electrical Building to the south. In 1926, additions were built and the complex was claimed to be the largest structure of its kind under one roof in the world. In 1931, the Horse Palace was built next door to provide a permanent building for the stables of the Winter Fair. From 1942 to 1945, the building was used as a training base for the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II and known as the'Manning Depot'.
A photo of it as the RCAF Manning Depot is in the New Westminster Museum and Archives # IHP9562-003. After the war, it hosted equestrian events for the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, the CNE and other events; the arena was used as a horse barn. In time for the 1963 CNE, the southern facade was reconstructed; as part of the renovation, the southern facade was recladded with black and white siding and a new front plaza was built, with a large "COLISEUM" sign on top. The CNE spent CA$3 million from 1960 until 1963 on "face-lifting" the Coliseum. In 1997, the National Trade Centre exhibition complex was built; the new project removed the 1963 entrance and cladding, restoring the original facade, although the cupola towers on the southern facade had been removed in the 1963 renovation. Access to the Coliseum was moved to the western entrance of the exhibition complex through a hall known as Heritage Court. In November 2002, the City of Toronto agreed to an extensive renovation of the Coliseum to attract a professional ice hockey team to the arena.
At a cost of CA$38 million, the arena's capacity was expanded from 6,500 to 9,700 by building a new higher roof, lowering the floor, adding new seats in the expanded area and the installation of 38 private suites. Borealis Infrastructure contributed CA$9 million up front and CA$20 million of borrowed funds in return for a 49-year lease to the arena; the City of Toronto invested CA$9 million in the project and guaranteed Borealis' loans, while remaining the owner of the building. In 2003, Japanese office supply company Ricoh purchased the naming rights to the new facility for CA$10 million over ten years, with an optional five-year extension. During the summer of 2015, a new scoreboard was installed at the Air Canada Centre, the old scoreboard was installed at the Coliseum. In 2018, MLSE announced that the Toronto Argonauts football operations offices and weight rooms would be relocated to the Coliseum in late June of that year. On July 11, 2018, at the end of Ricoh's partnership with the building, Coca-Cola purchased the naming rights to the facility for ten years, re-naming it the "Coca-Cola Coliseum".
Since November 1922, the Coliseum has been used by the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair held in November annually except during the years of World War II. The Fair uses the arena for the annual "Royal Horse Show" equestrian competition, as well as animal presentations; each year in August, the Coliseum is used by the CN
The ECHL is a mid-level professional ice hockey league based in Princeton, New Jersey, with teams scattered across the United States and two franchises in Canada. It is a tier below the American Hockey League; the ECHL and the AHL are the only minor leagues recognized by the collective bargaining agreement between the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, meaning any player signed to an entry-level NHL contract and designated for assignment must report to a club in either the ECHL or the AHL. Additionally, the league's players are represented by the Professional Hockey Players' Association in negotiations with the ECHL itself; some 623 players have played at least one game in both the NHL and the ECHL. For the 2018–19 season, 25 of 31 National Hockey League teams have affiliations with an ECHL team with the Anaheim Ducks, Columbus Blue Jackets, Florida Panthers, Montreal Canadiens, Nashville Predators, San Jose Sharks having no official affiliations as of September 29, 2018.
The two independent teams are Rapid City Rush. However, unaffiliated NHL teams do sometimes lend contracted players to ECHL teams for development and increased playing time; the league's regular season ends in April. The current ECHL champion is the Colorado Eagles, although the organization has since left the league to join the American Hockey League; the league, which combined teams from the defunct Atlantic Coast Hockey League and All-American Hockey League, began play as the East Coast Hockey League in 1988 with 5 teams—the Carolina Thunderbirds. In 2003, the West Coast Hockey League ceased operations, the ECHL Board of Governors approved membership applications from the Anchorage/Alaska Aces, the Bakersfield Condors, the Fresno Falcons, the Idaho Steelheads, the Las Vegas Wranglers, the Long Beach Ice Dogs and the San Diego Gulls as well as from potential teams in Ontario and Reno, Nevada. Alaska, Fresno, Las Vegas, Long Beach and San Diego began play in the 2003–04 season as expansion teams.
In a change reflective of the league's now-nationwide presence, the East Coast Hockey League shortened its name to the orphan initialism ECHL on May 19, 2003. The ECHL reached its largest size to date that season before being reduced to 28 teams for the 2004–05 season; the ECHL has attempted to be more tech-friendly to its fans. Some improvements on the league's website have included a new schedule and statistics engine powered by League Stat, Inc. internet radio coverage for most teams, pay-per view broadcasting of ECHL games through B2 Networks. In 2008, the league introduced the ECHL toolbar for internet browsers which gave users short cut access to statistics, scores and news updates. At the annual ECHL Board of Governors Meeting on June 15, 2010, in Henderson, the Board of Governors approved changes to the names of the conferences and divisions; the former American Conference was renamed the Eastern Conference, while the National Conference was re-designated the Western Conference. Within the Eastern Conference, the East Division was renamed the Atlantic Division, the Western Conference's former West Division was dubbed the Mountain Division.
The league lost its only Canadian team with the folding of the Victoria Salmon Kings subsequent to the 2010–11 season. The league increased to 20 teams for the 2011–12 season with the addition of the expansion franchise Chicago Express and the Colorado Eagles who played in the Central Hockey League. With the folding of the Chicago Express at the conclusion of the 2011–12 season and the announcement of expansion franchises in Orlando, San Francisco and Fort Wayne the league played the 2012–13 season with 23 teams; that number dropped to 22 for the 2013–14 season with the folding of the Trenton Titans and subsequently fell to 21 with the mid-season folding of the San Francisco Bulls on January 27, 2014. On November 26, 2013, the ECHL announced that the Indy Fuel would begin play for the 2014–15 season and would play its home games at the Fairgrounds Coliseum, a 6,145-seat building located on the Indiana State Fairgrounds in Indianapolis. On October 7, 2014, the ECHL announced that the seven remaining active members of the Central Hockey League would be admitted as new members for the 2014–15 season, raising the number of teams to 28 and placing a team in Canada for the first time since 2011.
Before the 2015–16 season, the AHL's creation of a Pacific Division led the three California ECHL teams to relocate to former AHL cities with the Bakersfield Condors, Ontario Reign, Stockton Thunder relocating to become the Norfolk Admirals, Manchester Monarchs, Adirondack Thunder, respectively. By the 2018–19 season, the ECHL had expanded into other markets vacated by the AHL in the Maine Mariners, Newfoundland Growlers, Worcester Railers. Notes Representatives from all potential expansion franchises, markets that have been granted expansion franchises and franchises that have suspended operations must attend th
St. John's Maple Leafs
The St. John's Maple Leafs were an ice hockey team in the American Hockey League, they played in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada at Memorial Stadium from 1991 to 2001, at Mile One Stadium from 2001 to 2005. While the AHL had a strong presence in Atlantic Canada in the 1980s and 1990s due to the desire of several National Hockey League Canadian franchises to continue to pay players sent down to the minors in Canadian dollars, by 2004 St. John's was the last remaining team in the region prior to its relocation; the Leafs' AHL franchise was established in Moncton, New Brunswick, in 1978 as the New Brunswick Hawks, where they played until 1982. The franchise had stops in St. Catharines, Ontario, as the St. Catharines Saints and Newmarket, Ontario, as the Newmarket Saints; the St. John's Maple Leafs were established in 1991 when the Toronto Maple Leafs moved its AHL farm team to St. John's, becoming the first professional ice hockey team in Newfoundland and Labrador; the team played their home games at the Memorial Stadium until 2001, when they moved to the Mile One Centre, where they remained until becoming the Toronto Marlies.
The Maple Leafs were popular throughout their existence, they made multiple appearances in the AHL Calder Cup playoffs. The team was in the Calder Cup finals in their inaugural season, losing 4–3 to the Adirondack Red Wings, but they won the semifinal round by earning the most points during the regular season out of the three remaining teams in the playoffs, the others being the Red Wings and the Rochester Americans, their first season was the only time the team made it to the finals, they never made it past the conference semi-finals round after that. They made subsequent appearances in the second round, losing 4–0 in 1993 to the eventual Calder Cup champion Cape Breton Oilers, lost the second round in their remaining appearances, all of which were won by the conference champions for the season, losing 4–2 to the Moncton Hawks in 1994, 4–3 to the Hamilton Bulldogs in 1997, 4–0 to the Bridgeport Sound Tigers in 2002. However, the team was the division champion for the 1992–93 and 1996–97 seasons, won the regular season title for the 1993–94 AHL season.
On April 29, 2005, the Maple Leafs played their final game, Game 5 of the division semi-finals round of the playoffs against the Manitoba Moose at the MTS Centre in Winnipeg, losing 4-0. This was one week after the Maple Leafs' final home game, a 6–1 victory over the Moose, to be their final victory, it marked the end of 34 consecutive seasons of the AHL's presence in Atlantic Canada, which began in 1971 with the Nova Scotia Voyageurs in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The parent Maple Leafs wanted to reduce travel costs. Additionally, the Maple Leafs had renovated Ricoh Coliseum for hockey use; these factors resulted in the team's relocation to Toronto for the 2005–06 season as the Toronto Marlies. In 2011, when the NHL's Atlanta Thrashers moved to become the second incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets, the Manitoba Moose moved to Newfoundland to become the St. John's IceCaps, becoming the first AHL team in Atlantic Canada in six years. Coincidentally making the final St. John's Maple Leafs game, one between the outgoing St. John's team and the future St. John's team.
After the departure of the St. John's IceCaps in 2017, St. John's was awarded an ECHL team called the Newfoundland Growlers to begin play in the fall of 2018; the Growlers were named the ECHL affiliate of the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Toronto Marlies, returning the Leafs presence to St. John's; the team's mascot was Buddy the Puffin, an anthropomorphic puffin wearing a Maple Leafs home jersey with the number #92, who appeared at Maple Leafs home games in St. John's and numerous appearances at events across Newfoundland and Labrador; the puffin design of the mascot was selected as the winner in a fan contest to create a mascot for the team for its second season, was given the name of "Buddy" just before the beginning of the 1992–93 season. Buddy was reintroduced as the mascot of the St. John's IceCaps on October 21, 2011, complete with an IceCaps home jersey. Games were broadcast on radio by VOCM and on television by Cable Atlantic's Cable 9 channel available on Cable Atlantic systems in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Cable Atlantic was sold to Rogers Communications in 2001 by its owner, Danny Williams, before he became leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and Labrador and Premier from 2003 to 2010, Cable 9 would become known as the Newfoundland and Labrador version of Rogers TV. Toronto Maple Leafs Greensboro Generals Pensacola Ice Pilots Marc Crawford Tom Watt Mike Foligno Mark Hunter Al MacAdam Lou Crawford Doug Shedden List of ice hockey teams in Newfoundland and Labrador
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League. Since the 2010–11 season, every team in the league has an affiliation agreement with one NHL team; when NHL teams do not have an AHL affiliate, players are assigned to AHL teams affiliated with other NHL teams. Twenty-seven AHL teams are located in the United States and the remaining four are in Canada; the league offices are located in Springfield and its current president is David Andrews. In general, a player must be at least 18 years of age to play in the AHL or not be beholden to a junior ice hockey team; the league limits the number of experienced professional players on a team's active roster during any given game. The AHL allows for practice squad contracts; the annual playoff champion is awarded the Calder Cup, named for Frank Calder, the first President of the NHL. The reigning champions are the Toronto Marlies.
The AHL traces its origins directly to two predecessor professional leagues: the Canadian-American Hockey League, founded in 1926, the first International Hockey League, established in 1929. Although the Can-Am League never operated with more than six teams, the departure of the Boston Bruin Cubs after the 1935–36 season reduced it down to just four member clubs – the Springfield Indians, Philadelphia Ramblers, Providence Reds, New Haven Eagles – for the first time in its history. At the same time, the then-rival IHL lost half of its eight members after the 1935–36 season leaving it with just four member teams: the Buffalo Bisons, Syracuse Stars, Pittsburgh Hornets, Cleveland Falcons. With both leagues down to the bare minimum in membership, the governors of each recognized the need for action to assure their member clubs' long-term survival, their solution was to play an interlocking schedule. While the Can-Am League was based in the Northeast and the IHL in the Great Lakes, their footprints were close enough for this to be a viable option.
The two older leagues' eight surviving clubs began joint play in November 1936 as a new two-division "circuit of mutual convenience" known as the International-American Hockey League. The four Can-Am teams became the I-AHL East Division, with the IHL quartet playing as the West Division; the IHL contributed its former championship trophy, the F. G. "Teddy" Oke Trophy, which would go to the regular-season winners of the merged league's West Division until 1952. The Oke Trophy is now awarded to the regular-season winners of the AHL's Northeast Division. A little more than a month into that first season, the balance and symmetry of the new combined circuit suffered a setback when its membership unexpectedly fell to seven teams; the West's Buffalo Bisons were forced to cease operations on December 6, 1936, after playing just 11 games, because of what proved to be insurmountable financial problems and lack of access to a suitable arena. The makeshift new I-AHL played out the rest of its first season with just seven teams.
At the end of the 1936–37 season, a modified three-round playoff format was devised and a new championship trophy, the Calder Cup, was established. The Syracuse Stars defeated the Philadelphia Ramblers in the final, three-games-to-one, to win the first-ever Calder Cup championship; the Calder Cup continues on today as the AHL's playoff championship trophy. After two seasons of interlocking play, the governors of the two leagues' seven active teams met in New York City on June 28, 1938, agreed that it was time to formally consolidate. Maurice Podoloff of New Haven, the former head of the Can-Am League, was elected the I-AHL's first president; the former IHL president, John Chick of Windsor, became vice-president in charge of officials. The new I-AHL added an eighth franchise at the 1938 meeting to fill the void in its membership left by the loss of Buffalo two years earlier with the admission of the two-time defending Eastern Amateur Hockey League champion Hershey Bears; the Bears remain the only one of these eight original I-AHL/AHL franchises to have been represented in the league without interruption since the 1938–39 season.
The newly merged circuit increased its regular-season schedule for each team by six games from 48 to 54. After the 1939–40 season the I-AHL renamed itself the American Hockey League, it enjoyed both consistent success on the ice and relative financial stability over its first three decades of operation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the cost of doing business in professional ice hockey began to rise with NHL expansion and relocation and the 1972 formation of the World Hockey Association, which forced the relocation and subsequent folding of the Cleveland Barons, Baltimore Clippers, Quebec Aces; the number of major-league teams competing for players rose from six to thirty in just seven years. Player salaries at all levels shot up with the increased demand and competition for their services; this did not seem to affect the AHL at first, as it expanded to 12 teams by 1970. However, to help compensate for the rise in player salaries, many NHL clubs cut back on the number of p
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
St. John's is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, it is on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on Newfoundland. The city is North America's easternmost city, its name has been attributed to the Nativity of John the Baptist, when John Cabot was believed to have sailed into the harbour in 1497 and to a Basque fishing town with the same name. Existing on maps as early as 1519, it is one of the oldest cities in North America, it was incorporated as a city in 1888. With a metropolitan population of 219,207, the St. John's Metropolitan Area is Canada's 20th largest metropolitan area and the second largest Census Metropolitan Area in Atlantic Canada, after Halifax; the city has a rich history, having played a role in the French and Indian War, the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812. Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi received the first transatlantic wireless signal in St. John's, its history and culture have made it into an important tourist destination.
St. John's is the oldest post-Columbian European settlement in North America, with fishermen setting up seasonal camps in the early 16th century. Sebastian Cabot declares in a handwritten Latin text in his original 1545 map that St. John's earned its name when he and his father, the Venetian explorer John Cabot became the first Europeans to sail into the harbour, in the morning of 24 June 1494, the feast day of Saint John the Baptist. However, the locations of Cabot's landfalls are disputed. A series of expeditions to St. John's by Portuguese from the Azores took place in the early 16th century, by 1540 French and Portuguese ships crossed the Atlantic annually to fish the waters off the Avalon Peninsula. In the Basque Country, it is a common belief the name of St. John's was given by Basque fishermen because the bay of St. John's is similar to the Bay of Pasaia in the Basque Country, where one of the fishing towns is called St. John; the earliest record of the location appears as São João on a Portuguese map by Pedro Reinel in 1519.
When John Rut visited St. John's in 1527, he found Norman and Portuguese ships in the harbour. On 3 August 1527, Rut wrote a letter to King Henry on the findings of his voyage to North America. St. Jehan is shown on Nicolas Desliens' world map of 1541, San Joham is found in João Freire's Atlas of 1546. On 5 August 1583, an English Sea Dog, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, claimed the area as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I. There was no permanent population and Gilbert was lost at sea during his return voyage, thereby ending any immediate plans for settlement; the Newfoundland National War Memorial is on the waterfront in St. John's, at the purported site of Gilbert's landing and proclamation. By 1620, the fishermen of England's West Country controlled most of Newfoundland's east coast. In 1627, William Payne, called St. John's "the principal prime and chief lot in all the whole country". Sometime after 1630, the town of St. John's was established as a permanent community.
Before this they were expressly forbidden by the English government, at the urging of the West Country fishing industry, from establishing permanent settlements along the English-controlled coast. The population grew in the 17th century: St. John's was Newfoundland's largest settlement when English naval officers began to take censuses around 1675; the population grew in the summers with the arrival of migratory fishermen. In 1680, fishing ships set up fishing rooms at St. John's, bringing hundreds of Irish men into the port to operate inshore fishing boats; the town's first significant defenses were erected due to commercial interests, following the temporary seizure of St. John's by the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter in June 1665; the inhabitants fended off a second Dutch attack in 1673, when it was defended by Christopher Martin, an English merchant captain. Martin landed six cannons from his vessel, the Elias Andrews, constructed an earthen breastwork and battery near Chain Rock commanding the Narrows leading into the harbour.
With only 23 men, the valiant Martin beat off an attack by three Dutch warships. The English government planned to expand these fortifications in around 1689, but construction didn't begin until after the French admiral Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville captured and destroyed the town in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign; when 1500 English reinforcements arrived in late 1697, they found rubble where the town and fortifications had stood. The French attacked St. John's again in 1705, captured it in 1708, devastating civilian structures with fire on each instance; the harbour remained fortified through most of the 19th centuries. The final battle of the Seven Years' War in North America was fought in St. John's. Following a surprise capture of the town by the French early in the year, the British responded and, at the Battle of Signal Hill, the French surrendered St. John's to British forces under the command of Colonel William Amherst. In the late 1700s Fort Amherst and Fort Waldegrave were built to defend the harbour entrance.
There has been some controversy regarding. As mentioned above, while English fishermen had set up seasonal camps in St. John's in the 16th century, they were expressly forbidden by the English government, at the urging of the West Country fishing industry, from establishing permanent s
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t