Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB, known between 1776 and 1786 as Sir Guy Carleton, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and administrator. He twice served as Governor of the Province of Quebec, from 1768 to 1778, concurrently serving as Governor General of British North America in that time, again from 1785 to 1795; the title Baron Dorchester was created on 21 August 1786. He commanded British troops in the American War of Independence, first leading the defence of Quebec during the 1775 rebel invasion and the 1776 counteroffensive that drove the rebels from the province. In 1782 and 1783 he led as the commander-in-chief of all British forces in North America. In this capacity he was notable for carrying out the Crown's promise of freedom to slaves who joined the British, he oversaw the evacuation of British forces and more than 3,000 freedmen from New York City in 1783 to transport them to a British colony; the military and political career of his younger brother, Thomas Carleton, was interwoven with his own, Thomas served under him in the Canadas.
Guy Carleton was born to a Protestant military family that had lived in Ireland since the 17th century, was one of two brothers that served in the British military. He had a sister Connolly Crawford; when he was fourteen his father, Christopher Carleton died, his mother Catherine Carleton remarried Reverend Thomas Skelton. He received a limited education. In 1742, at the age of seventeen, Carleton was commissioned as an ensign into the 25th Regiment of Foot, in which in 1745 he was promoted lieutenant. During this period he became a friend of James Wolfe. Two of his brothers and Thomas joined the British army. In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Despite British troops having been engaged on the European continent since 1742, it was not until 1747 that Carleton and his regiment were despatched to Flanders, they fought the French, but were unable to prevent the Fall of Bergen-op-Zoom, a major Dutch fortress, the war was brought to a halt by an armistice. In 1748 the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed and Carleton returned to Britain.
He was frustrated to still only be a lieutenant, believed his opportunities of advancement would be limited with the end of the war. In 1751 he joined the 1st Foot Guards and in 1752 was promoted to captain, his career received a major boost when he was chosen, at the suggestion of Wolfe, to act as a guide to the Duke of Richmond during a tour of the battlefields of the recent war. Richmond would become an influential patron to Carleton. In 1757 was made a lieutenant colonel and served as part of the Army of Observation made up of German troops designed to protect Hanover from French invasion; the army was forced to retreat following the Battle of Hastenbeck and concluded the Convention of Klosterzeven, taking them out of the war. After the Convention was signed, Carleton returned to Britain. In 1758 he was made the lieutenant colonel of the newly formed 72nd Regiment of Foot. James Wolfe selected Carleton as his aide in the 1758 attack on Louisburg. King George II declined to make this appointment because of negative comments he made about the soldiers of Hanover during his service on the Continent.
For some time he was unable to gain active position, until he was sent back to Germany to serve as an aide-de-camp to Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. In December 1758 Wolfe, now a major general, was given command of the upcoming campaign against the city of Quebec, selected Carleton as his quarter-master general. King George refused to make this appointment until Lord Ligonier talked to the king about the matter and the king changed his mind; when Lieutenant-Colonel Carleton arrived in Halifax he assumed command of six hundred grenadiers. He was with the British forces when they arrived at Quebec in June 1759. Carleton was responsible for the provisioning of the army and acting as an engineer supervising the placement of cannon. Carleton received a head wound during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and he returned to England after the battle in October 1759. On 29 March 1761, as the lieutenant colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot he took part in the attack on Belle Île, an island of the coast of the northern part of the Bay of Biscay, 10 miles off the coast of France.
Carleton led an attack on the French, but was wounded and prevented from taking any further part in the fighting. After four weeks of fighting, the British gained complete control of the island, he was made colonel in 1762 and took part in the British expedition against Cuba, which included Richard Montgomery, who went on to oppose him in 1775. On 22 July, he was wounded leading an attack on a Spanish outpost. In 1764 he transferred to the 93rd Regiment of Foot. On 7 April 1766, Carleton was named acting Lieutenant Governor and Administrator of Quebec with James Murray in charge, he arrived in Quebec on 22 September 1766. As Carleton had no experience in public affairs and came from a politically insignificant family, his appointment is unusual and was a surprise to him. One connection may have been due to the Duke of Richmond, who in 1766 been made Secretary of State for the North American colonies. Fourteen years earlier, Carleton had tutored the Duke; the Duke was the colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot.
He appointed Carleton as commander-in-chief of all troops stationed in Quebec. The government consisted of a Governor, a council, an assembly; the governor could veto any action of the council, but London had given Carleton instructions that all of his actions required the approval of the coun
Battle of Montgomery's Tavern
The Battle of Montgomery's Tavern was an incident in the Upper Canada Rebellion. The abortive revolutionary insurrection inspired by William Lyon Mackenzie was crushed by British authorities and Canadian volunteer units near a tavern on Yonge Street, Toronto; the site of Montgomery's Tavern was designated a National Historic Site in 1925. When the Lower Canada Rebellion broke out in the fall of 1837, Sir Francis Bond Head sent the British troops stationed in Toronto to help suppress it. With the regular troops gone, William Lyon Mackenzie and his followers seized a Toronto armoury and organized an armed march down Yonge Street, beginning at Montgomery's Tavern on December 4, 1837. While marching down Yonge Street and some fellow rebels encountered John Powell and Archibald McDonald while attempting to scout the city. Upon meeting them, Mackenzie sent them to Montgomery's Tavern. Although there were concerns over whether Powell and McDonald possessed arms, Mackenzie accepted their denials and said, "well, gentlemen, as you are my townsmen, men of honor, I would be ashamed to show that I question your words by ordering you to be searched."
Despite such assurances, Powell had hidden a pistol and shot rebel Captain Anthony Anderson before escaping back to Toronto, thereby dealing a large blow to the rebel's military expertise. Colonel Robert Moodie attempted to lead a force of loyalists through the rebel roadblock to warn Governor Bond Head in Toronto. Moodie fired his pistol in an attempt to clear the way. A number of the rebels returned fire. On the same day, December 5, Mackenzie's 500 rebels marched upon Toronto's city hall in an effort to seize the arms and ammunition that were stored there; as Mackenzie and his forces marched towards Toronto, Bond Head sent a flag of truce and asked for their demands, to which Mackenzie demanded "Independence and a convention to arrange details." By the time Mackenzie and his followers had reached College Street, Bond Head sent another party to tell Mackenzie that his demands had been rejected. That afternoon, Mackenzie led his troops farther down Yonge Street towards the city, where their advance was stopped by a party of 27 loyalist volunteers, led by William Botsford Jarvis.
The two sides exchanged gunfire. Jarvis' loyalist troops dropped to reload. Thinking the loyalist soldiers had been killed, Van Egmond gave the order to charge and in the ensuing melee many of the rebel soldiers fled or deserted the group; that night, reinforcements for the loyalists arrived from Hamilton. By the next day, these forces were 1,500 strong; the last real engagement prior to the Battle of Montgomery's Tavern occurred on December 6 via a raid on a mail coach, suspected to have government intelligence regarding future actions towards the rebels. It was from this raid that the rebels learned of government plans to soon attack Montgomery's Tavern; the rebels, now under the command of Napoleonic Wars veteran Anthony Van Egmond, had regrouped at Montgomery's Tavern. One hundred and fifty were posted in the woods behind the tavern and another 60 took up positions behind a line of rail fencing; the majority of Mackenzie's supporters, numbering about 300, were gathered around the tavern proper.
These were unarmed and would offer little resistance when pressed. On December 7, Colonel James Fitzgibbon marched an estimated 1,000 regulars and militiamen up Yonge Street and attacked Mackenzie's force at Montgomery's Tavern, putting the building under artillery fire; when Fitzgibbon advanced his infantry, both parties of rebels abandoned their posts and retreated in disarray to the tavern, causing those assembled there to panic and flee. Within 20 minutes, the rebels were gone. Loyalist forces looted the tavern and burned it to the ground, before marching back to York. Following the rebellion, the site of the tavern was used to build a hotel, with the structure of the old Davisville Hotel. In 1858 it was sold to hotelier Charles McBride of Willowdale, who renamed the tavern Prospect House; the tavern would serve as North Toronto township council office. McBride sold the hotel in 1873 to build Bedford Park Hotel, on Yonge Street. Prospect House burned down in 1881, the vacant land was sold to proprietor John Oulcott of Toronto, who rebuilt a three-storey Oulcott's Hotel in 1883.
Oulcott sold out in 1912 and the hotel went to various owners. In 1913, the federal government purchased the hotel and remodelled the old hotel as a post office for the North Toronto postal district, it was torn down in the 1930s to be replaced by the current structure. The site of the tavern is now occupied by a two-storey Art Deco post office designed by Murray Brown and built in 1936; the building, Postal Station K, bears the cypher EviiiR, for Edward VIII, King of Canada for eleven months in 1936. As of spring 2016, construction is underway to incorporate the post office into a new building which will include retail space and podium for the 27-storey Montgomery Square luxury rental apartment building. Upper Canada, The Confrontation at Montgomery's Tavern Colonel Moodie Rides Down Yonge Street Rough location of the tavern, with links to sites in the area The Patriot. Statement of proceedings in Toronto against MacKenzie's mob of assassins, prepared for the Upper Canada Herald by three gentlemen who were eye-witnesses, 1837 Review of Mackenzie's publications on the revolt before Toronto, in Upper Canada, 1838
Whitchurch–Stouffville is a municipality in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada 50 kilometres north of downtown Toronto, 55 kilometres north-east of Toronto Pearson International Airport. It is 206.41 square kilometres in size, located in the mid-eastern area of the Regional Municipality of York on the ecologically-sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine. Its motto since 1993 is "country close to the city"; the town is bounded by Davis Drive in the north, York-Durham Line in the east, Highway 404 in the west. The southern boundary conforms with a position 200 metres north of 19th Avenue, is irregular due to the annexation of lands part of Markham Township in 1971. Between 2011 and 2016, the town grew 21.8%, making it the second fastest growing municipality in York Region. The number of private dwellings jumped from 7,642 in 2001 to 15,712 in 2016, with an average of 2.9 people per private dwelling. The town projects a total population of 55,800 by 2021, 60,600 in 2031, with 97% of the growth within the urban boundaries of the Community of Stouffville.
Future growth is governed provincially by the Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Act, the Greenbelt Protection Act and the Places to Grow Act. The intent of these statutes is to prevent urban sprawl on environmentally sensitive land and to accommodate future growth in approved settlement areas only. Whitchurch–Stouffville's future growth is planned as "sustainable development" within the boundaries of urban Stouffville alone, which reflects the vision of "small town tradition between the country and the city"; the Town of Whitchurch–Stouffville consists of several distinct communities and the intermediary countryside. The largest urban area is the community of Stouffville proper, while other communities in the larger town include Ballantrae, Bloomington, Cedar Valley, Lemonville, Musselman's Lake, Pine Orchard, Preston Lake, Vandorf and Wesley Corners; the oldest human artifacts found in Whitchurch Township date back to 1500 BC and were found in the hamlet of Ringwood. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, two Native trails crossed through what is today Whitchurch–Stouffville.
The Vandorf Trail ran from the source waters of the Rouge River to Newmarket, across the heights of the hamlet of Vandorf, the Rouge Trail ran along the Rouge River and northwest from Musselman Lake. The territory was the site of several Native villages, including Iroquois settlements around Preston Lake and Musselman Lake. In 2003, a large 16th-century Huron village was discovered in Stouffville during land development. In 2012, archaeologists revealed that a European forged-iron axehead was discovered at the site--"the earliest European piece of iron found in the North American interior." Other significant late precontact Huron village sites have been located to the south-east and to the north-west of urban Stouffville. The western end of Whitchurch and Markham Townships was purchased by the British crown from the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation in 1787 as part of the Toronto Purchase. Whitchurch Township was created in 1792 as one of ten townships in York County, it was named in honour of the village of Whitchurch, Herefordshire in England, where Elizabeth Simcoe, was born.
The first European settlements in Whitchurch Township were established in the 1790s, though Whitchurch and large areas of southern Ontario were only ceded by the south-Central Ontario Mississaugas in 1923. Between 1800 and 1802, John Stegman completed a survey of the township which created a system of land concessions; this allowed for the organized distribution of land to settlers, with each concession containing five, 200-acre lots. This layout remains visible today, as the road network in the area reflects the locations of the boundaries between concession blocks. Early settlers of this period included Quakers and Mennonites—two pacifist groups from the nearby American states of Pennsylvania and New York. Both groups were seeking religious freedom, were identified by the Upper Canadian government as people with necessary skills and abilities for establishing viable communities that could, in turn, attract others to settle in the region. Mercenary German Hessian soldiers, like Stegman, were granted land in Upper Canada by Britain in exchange for their service in the American Revolution against the 13 Colonies.
Many of the first settlements in Whitchurch Township were developed at the intersections of main roads throughout the township and /or near streams where mills could built to process the timber cleared from the land. Stoufferville was one such hamlet that grew around the saw and grist mills of Abraham Stouffer, a Mennonite who with his wife Elizabeth Reesor Stouffer came from Chambersburg, Pennsylvania in 1804, acquired 600 acres of land. Elizabeth's brother Peter Reesor established what is today Markham, first called Reesorville. Fifty-five more families from Pennsylvania Mennonite, arrived in Stoufferville in the next few years. Stouffer's sawmill was in operation by 1817 on Duffin's Creek on the Whitch
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Bronze is an alloy containing copper, but instead of zinc it has tin. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium and silicon; the distinction is historical. Modern practice in museums and archaeology avoids both terms for historical objects in favour of the all-embracing "copper alloy". Brass is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance, it is used in zippers. Brass is used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than zinc; the low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.
The density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre. Today 90% of all brass alloys are recycled; because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are extruded into the desired form and size; the general softness of brass means that it can be machined without the use of cutting fluid, though there are exceptions to this. Aluminium makes brass more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide to be formed on the surface, thin and self-healing. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. To enhance the machinability of brass, lead is added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a lower melting point than the other constituents of the brass, it tends to migrate towards the grain boundaries in the form of globules as it cools from casting.
The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available lead surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching. In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface; these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content. In October 1999 the California State Attorney General sued 13 key manufacturers and distributors over lead content. In laboratory tests, state researchers found the average brass key, new or old, exceeded the California Proposition 65 limits by an average factor of 19, assuming handling twice a day. In April 2001 manufacturers agreed to reduce lead content to 1.5%, or face a requirement to warn consumers about lead content. Keys plated with other metals are not affected by the settlement, may continue to use brass alloys with higher percentage of lead content. In California, lead-free materials must be used for "each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes and pipe fittings, plumbing fittings and fixtures."
On January 1, 2010, the maximum amount of lead in "lead-free brass" in California was reduced from 4% to 0.25% lead. The so-called dezincification resistant brasses, sometimes referred to as CR brasses, are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present, or deviating water qualities play a role. DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems; this brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures. The high malleability and workability good resistance to corrosion, traditionally attributed acoustic properties of brass, have made it the usual metal of choice for construction of musical instruments whose acoustic resonators consist of long narrow tubing folded or coiled for compactness. Collectively known as brass instruments, these include the trombone, trumpet, baritone horn, tenor horn, French horn, many other "horns", many in variously-sized families, such as the saxhorns.
Other wind instruments may be constructed of brass or other metals, indeed most modern student-model flutes and piccolos are made of some variety of brass a cupronickel alloy similar to nickel silver/German silver. Clarinets low clarinets such as the contrabass and subcontrabass, are sometimes made of metal because of limited supplies of the dense, fine-grained tropical hardwoods traditionally preferred for smaller woodwinds. For the same reason, some low clarinets and contrabassoons feature a hybrid construction, with long, straight sections of wood, curved joints, and/or bell of metal; the use of metal avoids the risks of exposing wooden instruments to changes in temperature or humid
King is a township in York Region north of Toronto, within the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. The rolling hills of the Oak Ridges Moraine are the most prominent visible geographical feature of King; the Holland Marsh, considered to be Ontario's "vegetable basket", straddles King Township and Bradford West Gwillimbury. King is known for its horse and cattle farms. Though King is predominantly rural, most of its residents inhabit the communities of King City and Schomberg. Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe named King Township for John King, an English Under-Secretary of State for Home Office from 1794 to 1801 for the Home Department in the Portland administration when Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool was Secretary of State; the township was created as part of the subdivision of York County, itself a subdivision of the Home District. The lands were acquired by the British in an agreement with the Mississaugas, known as the Toronto Purchase. Acquisition of the lands for the townships of Etobicoke, King and York, Upper Canada was completed at a meeting between the Mississaugas and the British at the Credit River on 1 August 1805, where 250,808 acres were exchanged for £1,700.
Simcoe planned Yonge Street, built between 1793 and 1796 by the Queen's Rangers. The first seven land patents were issued in 1797. By 1801, Timothy Rogers, a Loyalist from Vermont, had travelled the road and found an area on its western boundary southwest of Newmarket appealing, he applied for and received a grant for land totalling 40 farms, each of 200 acres, subsequently returned to Vermont to recruit families to operate those farms. By February 1802, he had set out for King Township with the first group of settlers for those forty farms. A second group followed that month; the area would become known in honour of its first settler Amos Armitage. It was the first of King's settlements, now part of Newmarket. Soon after the establishment of Armitage, the communities of Kettleby and Lloydtown were established to the west. More settlers arrived from New York and other Loyalist enclaves over the subsequent years to populate the region, drawn by the abundant, fertile land being apportioned cheaply to newcomers.
A "considerable area of land...in different concessions" of King were patented to the Canada Company after its establishment in 1826. By 1842, the township consisted of 53,240 acres of land, of which 13,818 acres had been cleared and was being cultivated; the principal villages at the time were Lloydtown, Brownsville and Tyrwhitt's Mills. In 1851, the township annexed from West Gwillimbury the portion of land north of its extant and east of the Holland River as a result of the formation of Simcoe County. 86,840 acres of land were administered by the township in 1878, according to the Historical Atlas of York County, but by 1973 this had been reduced to 82,000. The first survey of King Township was conducted in 1800 by Hessian soldier Johann Stegmann. At the time, the area's population was twenty residents. According to a letter by Benjamin Cody to the Newmarket Era published on 7 May 1892, there were church records listing births in the area, the first white child in King may have been Sarah Rogers, born April 1800.
At least four children were born in King by July 1802. By 1809, the township's population had increased sevenfold, to 160, it wasn't until 1820, with the construction of roads into the township, that its population began to grow. By 1842, the population of 2,625 residents was principally Irish, included those of English, Scottish and American descent. Further surveys were conducted in 1836–1838 by Callighan, in 1852 by John Ryan, completed in 1859 by Whelock; the townships population grew to 5574 in 1850, nearly 8000 in 1875, after which it declined to 4588 in 1914. There is some evidence of a large Huron encampment at Hackett Lake. Residents in the area in the 1950s and 1960s discovered arrowheads and other archaeological items indicating a Huron presence; this is consistent with the fact that the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a major route used in the 17th and 18th centuries, passes through the township. The route was used by explorer Étienne Brûlé, who first travelled along the trail with twelve Huron guides in 1615.
Early settlements in the area developed around gristmills and sawmills. These were important economic engines in the region during the 19th century, which resulted in the establishment of other communities and businesses nearby. By 1842, there were eight grist mills and 12 saw mills in King; some settlements have since been abandoned, or are no longer communities per se, including Bell's Lake, Davis Corners, King Ridge. In 1971, with the formation of the Regional Municipality of York and dissolution of York County, the township's boundaries were changed, shifting west by one concession from Yonge Street to Bathurst Street, north by one lot from the King-Vaughan town line; the township's boundaries are East: Bathurst Street South: a line north of the King-Vaughan Road West: the Caledon/King Townline, which connects two roads in a straight line North: Highway 9 from the Caledon/King Townline to east of Highway 27 cuts north following branches of the Holland River until it meets Bathurst StreetThe majority of King is located on the Oak Ridges Moraine, the origin for the headwaters of many
Old Toronto is the retronym of the area contained within the original boundaries of Toronto, Canada, from 1834 to 1998. It was first incorporated as a city in 1834, after being known as the town of York, became part of York County. In 1954, it became the administrative headquarters for the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the city expanded in size by annexation of surrounding municipalities, reaching its final boundaries in 1967. In 1998, it was amalgamated with the other cities of Metropolitan Toronto; this was not a traditional annexation of the surrounding municipalities, but rather a new municipal entity, the successor of the original city. "Old Toronto" referred to Toronto's boundaries before the Great Toronto Fire of 1904, when much of city's development was to the east of Yonge Street. Since the amalgamation, the former city is variously referred to as the "former city of Toronto" or "Old Toronto." It is sometimes referred to as "downtown" or as "the core." Old Toronto has a population density of 8,210 people per square kilometre, which would rank it as the densest in Canada among cities with a population over 250,000 if it were still a separate city.
The former town of York was incorporated on March 6, 1834, reverting to the name Toronto to distinguish it from New York City, as well as about a dozen other localities named "York" in the province, to dissociate itself from the negative connotation of "dirty Little York", a common nickname for the town by its residents. The population was recorded in June 1834 at 9,252. In 1834, Toronto was incorporated with the boundaries of Bathurst Street to the west, 400 yards north of Lot Street to the north, Parliament Street to the east. Outside this formal boundary were the "liberties", land pre-destined to be used for new wards; these boundaries were today's Dufferin Street to the west, Bloor Street to the north, the Don River to the east, with a section along the lakeshore east of the Don and south of today's Queen Street to the approximate location of today's Maclean Street. The liberties formally became part of the city in 1859 and the wards were remapped. William Lyon Mackenzie, a Reformer, was Toronto's first mayor, a position he only held for one year, losing to Tory Robert Baldwin Sullivan in 1835.
Sullivan was replaced by Dr. Thomas David Morrison in 1836. Another Tory, George Gurnett, was elected in 1837; that year, Toronto was the site of the key events of the Upper Canada Rebellion. Mackenzie would lead an assault on Montgomery's Tavern, beginning the Upper Canada Rebellion; the attacks were ineffectual, as British regulars, the Canadian militia in Toronto went out to the rebel camp at Montgomery's Tavern and dispersed the rebels. Mackenzie and other Reformers escaped to the United States, while some rebel leaders, such as Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were hanged. Toronto would elect a succession of Tory or Conservative mayors, it was not until the 1850s that a Reform member would be mayor again. Shortly after the rebellion, Toronto was ravaged by its first great fire in 1849; the fire was one of two great fires to occur in the city, with the other occurring in 1904. In their efforts to control the city and its citizens, the Tories were willing to turn to extra-governmental tools of social control, such as the Orange Order in Canada.
As historian Gregory Kealey concluded, "Following the delegitimation of Reform after the Rebellions were suppressed, the Corporation developed into an impenetrable bastion of Orange-Tory strength." By 1844, six of Toronto's ten aldermen were Orangemen, over the rest of the 19th century, twenty of twenty-three mayors would be as well. A parliamentary committee reporting on the 1841 Orange Riot in Toronto concluded that the powers granted the Corporation made it ripe for Orange abuse. Orange influence dominated the emerging police force, giving it a "monopoly of legal violence, the power to choose when to enforce the law." Orange Order violence at elections and other political meetings was a staple of the period. Between 1839 and 1866, the Orange Order was involved in 29 riots in Toronto, of which 16 had direct political inspiration. At its height in 1942, 16 of the 23 members of city council were members of the Orange Order; every mayor of Toronto in the first half of the 20th century was an Orangeman.
This continued until the 1954 election when the Jewish Nathan Phillips defeated radical Orange leader Leslie Howard Saunders. The boundaries of Toronto remained unchanged into the 1880s. Toronto expanded into the west by annexing the Town of Brockton in 1884, the Town of Parkdale in 1889, properties west to Swansea by 1893. In the 1880s, Toronto expanded to the north, annexing Yorkville in 1883, The Annex in 1887, Seaton Village in 1888. In the 1900s, Toronto expanded again to the north, annexing Rosedale in 1905, Deer Park in 1908, the City of West Toronto and Wychwood Park in 1909, Dovercourt Park and Earlscourt in 1910, Moore Park and North Toronto in 1912. To the east, Toronto annexed Riverdale in 1884, a strip east of Greenwood in 1890, Town of East Toronto in 1908, an extension east to Victoria Park Avenue in 1909, the Midway in 1909. By 1908, the named wards were abolished, replaced by a simple numbering scheme of War
York is a former city within the current city of Toronto, Canada. It is located northwest of Old Toronto, southwest of North York and east of Etobicoke, where it is bounded by the Humber River; as a separate city, it was one of six municipalities that amalgamated in 1998 to form the current city of Toronto. The City of York was created by the amalgamation of several villages, including the present-day neighbourhoods of Lambton Mills and Weston. York Township was incorporated by Canada West in 1850, bounded in the west by the Humber River, in the east by what would become Victoria Park Avenue, in the north by what would become Steeles Avenue. Etobicoke Township and Scarborough Township were located west and east while the townships of Vaughan and Markham bordered on the north. York Township was home to one of the original Black communities in the Toronto area, populated by many African American fugitive slaves. By 1861, the township had the second-largest Black population in the Toronto area, after St. John's Ward, most of whom lived in York Township West.
The legacy of York's original Black community continues today. Humewood–Cedarvale was developed in the 1910s to attract development in the growing township. Oakwood–Vaughan was developed during this time. In the 1920s, the character of the township changed, with its southern reaches abutting the city of Toronto taking on a more urban character, compared with the rural character of the north; the decision was made to split the township in two, with the northern, rural portion becoming North York in 1922. The remaining, two pockets of unincorporated urban development at the north end of the city, were split by the village of North Toronto, by a part of the City of Toronto. Within years, the Province of Ontario saw that this arrangement of having an exclave was impractical, further subdivided York, creating the township of East York out of the eastern pocket; the Township of York contracted streetcar and bus services from the Toronto Transportation Commission, but remained independent from Toronto.
During this time, American novelist Ernest Hemingway resided in the Humewood–Cedarvale community, writing for the Toronto Star. North and west of Oakwood–Vaughan is the Fairbank community. Silverthorn is west of Fairbank. Silverthorn is described as "Toronto's hidden San Francisco" in reference to its "steep streets and unusual views of houses built in what must be the hilliest part of the city." This is due to Toronto's topography being shaped by its deep ravines being similar to the hills of San Francisco. Another community in York, Mount Dennis, contained the former campus of Kodak, being repurposed for Line 5 Eglinton's Eglinton Maintenance and Storage Facility. In 1954, along with other municipalities south of Steeles Avenue were severed from York County, forming the new upper-tier government of Metropolitan Toronto. In 1967, it absorbed the town of Weston, became the Borough of York known as the City of York.. York was amalgamated into the new City of Toronto on 1 January 1998, its former council and administrative building, York Civic Centre, is located at 2700 Eglinton Avenue West, between Black Creek Drive and Keele Street.
Four public school boards offers schooling to students residing in York, Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, Conseil scolaire Viamonde, the Toronto Catholic District School Board, the Toronto District School Board. CSV and TDSB operate as secular public school boards, the former operating French first language institution, whereas the latter operated English first language institutions; the other two school boards, CSCM and TCDSB, operate as public separate school boards, the former operating French first language separate schools, the latter operating English first language separate schools. Before York was amalgamated with the rest of Metropolitan Toronto, the York Board of Education oversaw public secular schools in the former city; as with the other school boards in Metro Toronto, they were amalgamated to form TDSB in 1998. Presently the school board operates several institutions that offer secondary education. Secondary schools in York that are operated by TDSB include: TDSB operated another secondary school in York, Vaughan Road Academy.
The secondary school was closed in 2017 due to its lack of student population resulting from students in the local catchment area attending other nearby high schools. Vaughan Road Academy is repurposed as a temporary elementary school for students in the Yonge and Davisville area in Midtown Toronto since the 2018–19 school year to accommodate the construction of a new school building. TCDSB operate one secondary school in St. Oscar Romero Catholic Secondary School. Neither CSCM or CSV operate a secondary school in York, with CSV/CSCM students residing in York attending secondary schools located in adjacent districts of Toronto. Presently, the Toronto Public Library operates several branches within York. Prior to York's amalgamation of Toronto in 1997, the city operated its own library system, known as York Public Library; as a result of amalgamating the municipalities in Metropolitan Toronto, York Public Library was merged with the other library systems of the new City of Toronto to form the new Toronto Public Library.
York's first public library was the Mount Dennis branch, which operated out of rented premises since 1923. In 1945, the Township of York Public Library Board was estab