The Toronto Transit Commission is the public transport agency that operates bus, subway and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. It is the oldest and largest of the urban transit service providers in the Greater Toronto Area, with numerous connections to systems serving its surrounding municipalities. Established as the Toronto Transportation Commission in 1921, the TTC owns and operates four rapid transit lines with 75 stations, over 149 bus routes, 11 streetcar lines. On an average weekday in 2019, 1.69 million passengers made 2.76 million unlinked trips on the TTC, with the number of trips about evenly divided between the subways and buses and streetcars. The TTC operates door-to-door paratransit service for the elderly and disabled, known as Wheel-Trans; the TTC is the most used urban mass transit system in Canada and the third largest in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a operated transit service.
In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements. In addition to buses and subways, the TTC operated the Toronto Island ferry service from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department; the TTC operated a suburban and regional intercity bus operator, Gray Coach Lines, from 1927 to 1990. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours.
The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA; the TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired; the name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way"; the TTC recovered 69.6% of its operating costs from the fare box in 2017.
From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations. Through the Great Depression and World War II, it accumulated reserves that allowed it to expand after the war, both with subways and major steady growth of its bus services into the suburbs, it was not until 1971 that the Metro Toronto government and the province started to provide operational subsidies, required due to rising costs of delivering transit to low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto and large wage increases. Deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s attributable to recession. In 1997, the Progressive Conservative government under Premier Mike Harris implemented the "Common Sense Revolution" which, among other things, cut CA$42 million in provincial financing support for the Eglinton West subway line, cut $718 million in municipal transit support, placing the entire burden of financing the system on municipalities and leaving the TTC with a $95.8 million/year funding shortfall.
The TTC cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996. Since the TTC has been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, when Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC; as a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009; the TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the City. From 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, the Société de transport de Montréal receives 10% of its operating budget from the Quebec provincial government, OC Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province.
The fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens. Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. However, before about 1960, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, became necessary for areas without streetcar service. After an earlier experim
Acacia obovata is a shrub belonging to the genus Acacia and the subgenus Phyllodineae, endemic to south western Australia. The erect dense shrub grows to a height of 0.3 to 0.6 metres. It is has multiple slender stems and has a woody rootstock with hairy branchlets and narrowly triangular stipules with a length of 1.5 to 4 mm. It has green elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate shaped phyllodes with a length of 1.5 to 5 cm and a width of 1 to 2.5 cm and prominent midrib and marginal nerves. It produces white-cream-yellow flowers; the inflorescences occur singly with spherical flower-heads containing five to nine loosely packed yellow to white coloured flowers that dry to an orange colour. The woody brown seed pods that form after flowering have a linear shape but can be spirally twisted when young; the pods have a length of around 11 cm and a width of 5 to 6 mm to 11 cm long, 5–6 mm wide, coriaceous-crustaceous to subwoody, glabrous. The species was first formally described by the botanist George Bentham in 1842 as a part of William Jackson Hookers' work Notes on Mimoseae, with a synopsis of species as published in the London Journal of Botany.
It was reclassified as Racosperma obovatum by Leslie Pedley in 2003 transferred back to genus Acacia in 2006. It is native to a scattered area along the west coast in the South West and Wheatbelt regions of Western Australia where it grows in lateritic soils, it is found as far north as Jurien Bay with a disjunct distribution south through parts of the Darling Range down to around Augusta where it is a part of Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla forest communities and less in low open heath lands. List of Acacia species
Mohammad Isa bin Abdul Halim is a Singapore international footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Geylang International. He started out playing football as a centre forward in his youth. Isa has played for S. League clubs Woodlands Young Lions and Home United. On 27 June 2015 Isa moved from LionsXII to Tampines Rovers, in the process teaming up with his former coach V. Sundramoorthy, he reckons that the 2018 AFF Suzuki Cup will be of utmost importance to Thailand and the Philippines, in an article by FOX Sports Asia. He made his debut for the Singapore on 11 October 2005 against Cambodia, he was part of the team. He was part of the Singapore Under-23 team that took part in the 2005 Southeast Asian Games in Philippines and won a bronze medal for the 2007 edition in Korat, Thailand. According to an interview done in November 2007, Isa only got interested in football after watching a match Singapore and Malaysia with his grandfather. Isa started playing football competitively when he was 13 years old, back in his secondary school days, playing for Greenridge Secondary School.
But it was only two years when he got selected for Woodlands Wellington's and Singapore Under-16 teams did he take football seriously. Isa used to front the football side of things for German-sportswear company, Adidas in Singapore along with other teammates in the national team like Lionel Lewis. In February 2008, he with a dozen other world-renowned footballers like Lionel Messi, Arjen Robben and David Villa graced the Adidas worldwide launch of the F50 TUNiT football boot at the Centre Convencions Internacional in Barcelona, Spain, he has switched over to Puma along with other Singaporean footballers such as Shi Jiayi, Juma'at Jantan, Lionel Lewis and Erwan Gunawan. International goals LionsXII Malaysia Super League: 2013 FA Cup Malaysia: 2015 Singapore AFF Football Championship: 2007, 2012 Southeast Asian Games: Bronze Medal – 2007 data2.7m.cn fas.org.sg at the Wayback Machine Isa Halim at Soccerway fas.org.sg fas.org.sg goal.com lionsxii.sg