click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Torpedo tube

A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.

The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.

If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.

For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.

SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats

Maison Souquet

Maison Souquet is a 5-star hotel, part of Maisons Particulieres Collection, located at 10, rue de Bruxelles in Paris, on the outskirts of Montmartre. The hotel is inspired by the Parisian brothels from the Belle Époque period. Maison Souquet is decorated by the French designer Jacques Garcia. Between 1871 and 1880, the building hosted a school for girls, named l'École Paulin. In 1905, Mme. Souquet created a discrete maison close echoing the Parisian customs and aesthetics of the Belle Époque period. From 1907 onwards, Maison Souquet became a regular hotel. In 2013, Maisons Particulieres Collection acquired the building and started a two-year renovation period in order to create a 5-star hotel. At its opening in 2015, Maison Souquet joined the "Small Luxury Hotel of the World" Collection. To create a special atmosphere at the hotel, Jacques Garcia drew his inspiration from the Parisian brothels of the Belle Époque period. All of the decorative elements were from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.

The Maison Souquet consists of a succession of salons, reflecting the original configuration of the houses of pleasure. Today we can see the Le Salon des Mille et Une Nuits, the Salon des Petits Bonheurs and the Jardin d'Hiver; the first lounge was known as a "chat room" or "social room". It was reserved for men. Politicians, captains of industry and artists gathered there in a private club format to talk about world affairs and business.. Purchased in 2013 from a renowned Belgian antique dealer, the 1001-night show is a unique piece; this salon was in a private mansion in the heart of Brussels. This as a special order made by a wealthy Belgian aristocrat to reproduce in his mansion a setting worthy of the greatest Moorish palaces of the 19th century; this decoration was completed in 1895. It consists of precious enamel, polychrome wood with gold highlights, adorned with Cordoba leather; this required meticulous work to be adapted to the demanding specification of Maison Souquet. This second lounge was once used as a "presentation room".

Courtesans and guests met before going to one of the rooms of the house. Today renamed Salon des Petits Bonheurs, it consists of a hidden bar where refined dishes and precious spirits are found, a library, board games, a monumental fireplace and woodwork inherited from the late nineteenth century; this last salon was called the "salon after". It served as an "After Lounge" where men could extend their evening around a last drink. Reserved for guests who request the key, the secret spa is decorated with a celestial ceiling whose gold stars shimmer across a cobalt blue sky; the stars sparkle above a 9 metre long swimming pool, adjacent to a steam bath and a body treatment room. Maison Souquet is composed of 20 rooms including six suites and two apartments with unique decorations. Decorations are inspired by several styles including those of Napoleon III, Chinese, Japanese and French 18th century; each room is named after a famous courtesan, among them are La Castiglione, La Paiva, Liane de Pougy and La Belle Otero.

The rooms are embellished with different fabrics and embroidery. At its opening, Maison Souquet partnered Musée d'Orsay for its exhibition entitled "Splendeurs et misères. Images of prostitution, 1850-1910"; the collaboration included the publication of a book entitled Splendeurs & misères by Editions Flammarion. Best luxury hotels in France. Top 25 best luxury hotels in the world. Top 25 best romantic hotels in the world. Top 5 best hotels in Paris. Jacques Garcia Musée d'Orsay Parisian Brothels Official website of Maison Souquet Official website of Maisons Particuliere Collection Official website of Small Luxury Hotel of the World

Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia

Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by challenges and achievements. One of the main challenges is water scarcity. In order to overcome water scarcity, substantial investments have been undertaken in seawater desalination, water distribution and wastewater treatment. Today about 50% of drinking water comes from desalination, 40% from the mining of non-renewable groundwater and only 10% from surface water in the mountainous southwest of the country; the capital Riyadh, located in the heart of the country, is supplied with desalinated water pumped from the Persian Gulf over a distance of 467 km. Water is provided for free to residential users. Despite improvements, service quality remains poor, for example in terms of continuity of supply. Another challenge is weak institutional capacity and governance, reflecting general characteristics of the public sector in Saudi Arabia. Among the achievements is a significant increase in desalination, in access to water, the expansion of wastewater treatment, as well as the use of treated effluent for the irrigation of urban green spaces, for agriculture.

Since 2000, the government has relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants. Since the creation of the National Water Company in 2008, the operation of urban water distribution systems in the four largest cities has been delegated to private companies as well; the apparent paradox of low water tariffs and water privatization is explained by government subsidies. The government buys desalinated water from private operators at high prices and resells the bulk water for free; the government directly pays private operators that run the water distribution and sewer systems of large cities under management contracts. Furthermore, it subsidizes investments in water distribution and sewers. Water utilities are expected to recover an increasing share of their costs from the sale of treated effluent to industries. In January 2016 water and sewer tariffs were increased for the first time in more than a decade, which resulted in discontent and in the sacking of the Minister of Water and Energy Abdullah Al-Hussayen in April 2016.

According to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of the WHO and UNICEF, the latest reliable source on access to water and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is the 2004 census. It indicates that 97% of the population had access to an improved source of drinking water and 99% had access to improved sanitation. For 2015, the JMP estimates that access to sanitation increased to 100%. Sanitation was through on-site solutions and only about 40% of the population was connected to sewers. In 2015, still 886 thousand people lacked access to "improved" water. Drinking water. Despite clear improvements, the quality of service remains insufficient. For example, few cities enjoy continued service, water pressure is inadequate. In Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. This is still better than in 2008, when the respective figures were 23 days. While systematic data on service quality are now available for several cities, they are not publicly available.

In some localities groundwater used for drinking water supply is contaminated with levels of fluoride in excess of the recommended level of 0.7 to 1.2 mg/l. For example, a 1990 study showed. In Riyadh the level of fluoride is reduced far below the recommended level by blending groundwater with desalinated seawater. Wastewater. There are 33 wastewater treatment plants with a capacity of 748 million cubic meters per year, 15 more are under construction. Much of the treated wastewater is being reused to water green spaces in the cities, for irrigation in agriculture and other uses. Concentrated sewage from septic tanks is collected through trucks. In Jeddah the trucks dumped sewage for 25 years in a valley, euphemistically called the "Musk Lake"; the pond, holding more than 50 million cubic meters of sewage overflowed during heavy rains in November 2009 threatening to flood parts of the city. After that, the King ordered the lake to be dried up within a year with the help of the National Water Company.

Total municipal water use in Saudi Arabia has been estimated at 2.28 cubic kilometers per year in 2010, or 13% of total water use. Agriculture accounts for 83% of water use and industry for only 4%. Demand has been growing at the rate of 4.3 % in tandem with urban population growth. Water supply is not metered, neither at the source nor the distribution point, it is tentatively estimated that average water consumption for those connected to the network is about 235 liters per capita per day, a level lower than in the United States. Water reuse in Saudi Arabia is growing, both at the level of cities. For example, ablution water in mosques is being reused for the flushing of toilets. At the city level, treated wastewater is being reused for landscaping, irrigation and in industries such as refining. In Riyadh 50 million cubic meter per year is pumped over 40 km and 60m elevation to irrigate 15,000 hectares of wheat, fodder and palm trees. Water conservation measures, such as awareness campaigns through the media and educational pamphlets, have been carried out.

In addition, in Riyadh a leakage control program has been carried out and a special, higher water tariff has been introduced. Furthermore, free water appliances were distributed resulting in a decrease of residential water use of bet

Robert S. Stevens

Robert S. Stevens was an American politician, bank president, railroad executive, Kansas State Senator and U. S. Representative from New York. Robert Wadleigh Smith Stevens was born in Attica, Wyoming County, New York on March 27, 1824; the only son of Judge Alden Sprague and Achsa Stevens, he was educated in preparation to attend college, but his formal schooling was ended when his family went through a period of financial hardship. Stevens continued to study on his own while working as a clerk at an auction house and a local post office, he achieved certification as a teacher in 1844. While teaching he read law with the Wyoming County District Attorney, he was admitted to the bar in 1846; as a lawyer, Stevens became involved in several business ventures. He became friendly with Governor Wilson Shannon, in 1856 Stevens moved to Kansas Territory, where he practiced law with Shannon, subsequently became involved in real estate development, coal mining, constructing and operating railroads. A Democrat, Stevens was a supporter of James Buchanan for President in 1856.

After winning the presidential election, Buchanan appointed Stevens as a special commissioner, in this capacity Stevens arranged the sale of land ceded to the United States in 1854 by the Kaskaskia, Peoria and Wea tribes. Stevens served as Mayor of Lecompton in 1858, served in the Kansas State Senate from 1862 to 1863. While in the Senate he was a target of the effort to remove Governor Charles L. Robinson. Robinson was accused of selling state bonds to Stevens at a discount, with Stevens re-selling the bonds at a profit and splitting the proceeds with Robinson; the state legislature attempted to impeach Robinson. Stevens was involved in a federally sanctioned venture to commercially develop Sac and Fox reservations; the project, which included wood houses and small factories was looked on with disfavor by the Native American residents, who preferred to keep to their traditional ways of life. Stevens lost much of his fortune in this effort, the federal government failed to reimburse him as called for in Stevens' contract, so it took him 20 years to retire the debt.

Stevens became president of a local bank. During the Lawrence Massacre he intervened with Quantrill's Raiders in an effort to have them end their attack. In 1869 Stevens won the contract to supervise construction of the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad, nicknamed M-K-T or Katy, the first railroad to reach Indian Territory, after which it continued into Texas; as head of construction, the railroad's General Manager, Stevens was responsible for the founding of Parsons in Kansas, Denison in Texas, other towns along the route. Several of these towns have streets named after Stevens, he left the railroad during the period. The Katy became profitable after construction, Stevens became wealthy while in its employ, enabling him pay back his creditors in full by the end of the 1870s. In 1879 Stevens retired and returned to Attica, where he lived in retirement as a gentleman farmer and invested in local businesses, including railroads, he became involved in several civic and charitable causes, including constructing a library, named for him and expanding local schools and rebuilding the Attica Presbyterian Church.

In 1880 Stevens was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress. Stevens was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth Congress and served in the United States House of Representatives as United States Representative for the Thirty-first Congressional District of New York from March 4, 1883 to March 3, 1885, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1884. Stevens is interred at Forest Hill Cemetery. In 1852 Stevens married Mary Proctor Smith, a distant cousin whose family operated a successful lumber business in Manchester, Massachusetts, their son Frederick C. Stevens served in the New York State Senate and as the state Superintendent of Public Works. United States Congress. "Robert S. Stevens". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Robert S. Stevens at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov

Sidi Slimane, Morocco

Sidi Slimane is a small city in the northwestern centre of Morocco in the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra economic region. It is the administrative headquarters for Sidi Slimane Province and is located between the major cities of Kenitra and Meknes; the city recorded a population of 92,989 in the 2014 Moroccan census, up from 78,060 inhabitants in 2004. The economy is focused on agriculture, its population is of rural migrants. The society is still plagued with major problems such as illiteracy and slums. Sidi Slimane is renowned for its quality citrus products, it has a public library, a downtown called "filaj" and a local stadium. Sidi Slimane is home to Sidi Slimane Air Base, it lies on the main railway line from Tanger to Oujda. Thomas and Thomas, Lowell Jr. Our Flight to Adventure Doubleday, OCLC 1328511 official website (French

Afro-Jaws

Afro-Jaws is an album by saxophonist Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis recorded in 1960 and released on the Riverside label. The Allmusic site awarded the album four stars with the review by Scott Yanow stating, "The Afro-Cuban setting is perfect for the tough-toned tenor, who romps through the infectious tunes". All compositions by Gil Lopez except as indicated "Wild Rice" - 4:53 "Guanco Lament" - 5:18 "Tin Tin Deo" - 5:10 "Jazz-A-Samba" - 4:14 "Alma Alegre" - 5:24 "Star Eyes" - 6:20 "Afro-Jaws" - 7:36 Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis - tenor saxophone Clark Terry - flugelhorn, trumpet John Ballo, Ernie Royal, Phil Sunkel - trumpet Lloyd Mayers - piano Larry Gales - bass Ben Riley - drums Ray Barretto - congas, bongos Gil Lopez - arranger