A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were purely functional, connected to springs or aqueducts and used to provide drinking water and water for bathing and washing to the residents of cities and villages; until the late 19th century most fountains operated by gravity, needed a source of water higher than the fountain, such as a reservoir or aqueduct, to make the water flow or jet into the air. In addition to providing drinking water, fountains were used for decoration and to celebrate their builders. Roman fountains were decorated with stone masks of animals or heroes. In the Middle Ages and Muslim garden designers used fountains to create miniature versions of the gardens of paradise. King Louis XIV of France used fountains in the Gardens of Versailles to illustrate his power over nature; the baroque decorative fountains of Rome in the 17th and 18th centuries marked the arrival point of restored Roman aqueducts and glorified the Popes who built them.
By the end of the 19th century, as indoor plumbing became the main source of drinking water, urban fountains became purely decorative. Mechanical pumps replaced gravity and allowed fountains to recycle water and to force it high into the air; the Jet d'Eau in Lake Geneva, built in 1951, shoots water 140 metres in the air. The highest such fountain in the world is King Fahd's Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which spouts water 260 metres above the Red Sea. Fountains are used today to decorate city squares. A Splash pad or spray pool allows city residents to get wet and cool off in summer; the musical fountain combines moving jets of water, colored lights and recorded music, controlled by a computer, for dramatic effects. Fountains can themselves be musical instruments played by obstruction of one or more of their water jets. Drinking fountains provide clean drinking water in public buildings and public spaces. Ancient civilizations built stone basins to hold precious drinking water. A carved stone basin, dating to around 2000 BC, was discovered in the ruins of the ancient Sumerian city of Lagash in modern Iraq.
The ancient Assyrians constructed a series of basins in the gorge of the Comel River, carved in solid rock, connected by small channels, descending to a stream. The lowest basin was decorated with carved reliefs of two lions; the ancient Egyptians had ingenious systems for hoisting water up from the Nile for drinking and irrigation, but without a higher source of water it was not possible to make water flow by gravity, no Egyptian fountains or pictures of fountains have been found. The ancient Greeks used gravity-powered fountains to distribute water. According to ancient historians, fountains existed in Athens and other ancient Greek cities in the 6th century BC as the terminating points of aqueducts which brought water from springs and rivers into the cities. In the 6th century BC, the Athenian ruler Peisistratos built the main fountain of Athens, the Enneacrounos, in the Agora, or main square, it had spouts, which supplied drinking water to local residents. Greek fountains were made of stone or marble, with water flowing through bronze pipes and emerging from the mouth of a sculpted mask that represented the head of a lion or the muzzle of an animal.
Most Greek fountains flowed by simple gravity, but they discovered how to use principle of a siphon to make water spout, as seen in pictures on Greek vases. The Ancient Romans built an extensive system of aqueducts from mountain rivers and lakes to provide water for the fountains and baths of Rome; the Roman engineers used lead pipes instead of bronze to distribute the water throughout the city. The excavations at Pompeii, which revealed the city as it was when it was destroyed by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, uncovered free-standing fountains and basins placed at intervals along city streets, fed by siphoning water upwards from lead pipes under the street; the excavations of Pompeii showed that the homes of wealthy Romans had a small fountain in the atrium, or interior courtyard, with water coming from the city water supply and spouting into a small bowl or basin. Ancient Rome was a city of fountains. According to Sextus Julius Frontinus, the Roman consul, named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of Rome in 98 AD, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household and owners of private villas.
Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service. The Romans were able to make fountains jet water into the air, by using the pressure of water flowing from a distant and higher source of water to create hydraulic head, or force. Illustrations of fountains in gardens spouting water are found on wall paintings in Rome from the 1st century BC, in the villas of Pompeii; the Villa of Hadrian in Tivoli featured a large swimming basin with jets of water. Pliny the Younger described the banquet room of a Roman villa where a fountain began to jet water when visitors sat on a marble seat; the water flowed into a basin, where the courses of a banquet were served in floating dishes shaped like boats. Roman engineers built fountains throughout the Roman Empire. Examples can be found today in the ruins of Roman towns in Vaison-la-Romaine and Glanum in France, in Augst and other sites. During the Middle Ages, Roman aqueducts were wrecked or fell into decay, many fountains throughout Europ
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Grey or gray is an intermediate color between black and white. It is a neutral color or achromatic color, meaning that it is a color "without color," because it can be composed of black and white, it is the color of ash and of lead. The first recorded use of grey as a color name in the English language was in AD 700. Grey is the dominant spelling in European and Commonwealth English, although gray remained in common usage in the UK until the second half of the 20th century. Gray has been the preferred American spelling since 1825, although grey is an accepted variant. In Europe and North America, surveys show that grey is the color most associated with neutrality, boredom, old age and modesty. Only one percent of respondents chose it as their favorite color preferences. Grey comes from the Middle English grai or grei, from the Anglo-Saxon graeg, is related to the Dutch grauw and grijs and German grau; the first recorded use of grey as a color name in the English language was in AD 700. In antiquity and the Middle Ages, grey was the color of undyed wool, thus was the color most worn by peasants and the poor.
It was the color worn by Cistercian monks and friars of the Franciscan and Capuchin orders as a symbol of their vows of humility and poverty. Franciscan friars in England and Scotland were known as the grey friars, that name is now attached to many places in Great Britain. During the Renaissance and the Baroque, grey began to play an important role in art. Black became the most popular color of the nobility in Italy and Spain, grey and white were harmonious with it. Grey was frequently used for the drawing of oil paintings, a technique called grisaille; the painting would first be composed in grey and white, the colors, made with thin transparent glazes, would be added on top. The grisaille beneath would provide the shading, visible through the layers of color. Sometimes the grisaille was left uncovered, giving the appearance of carved stone. Grey was a good background color for gold and for skin tones, it became the most common background for the portraits of Rembrandt Van Rijn and for many of the paintings of El Greco, who used it to highlight the faces and costumes of the central figures.
The palette of Rembrandt was composed entirely of somber colors. He composed his warm greys out of black pigments made from charcoal or burnt animal bones, mixed with lead white or a white made of lime, which he warmed with a little red lake color from cochineal or madder. In one painting, the portrait of Margaretha de Geer, one part of a grey wall in the background is painted with a layer of dark brown over a layer of orange and yellow earths, mixed with ivory black and some lead white. Over this he put an additional layer of glaze made of mixture of blue smalt, red ochre, yellow lake. Using these ingredients and many others, he made greys which had, according to art historian Philip Ball, "an incredible subtlety of pigmentation." The warm and rich greys and browns served to emphasize the golden light on the faces in the paintings. Grey became a fashionable color in the 18th century, both for women's dresses and for men's waistcoats and coats, it looked luminous coloring the silk and satin fabrics worn by the nobility and wealthy.
Women's fashion in the 19th century was dominated by Paris. The grey business suit appeared in the mid-19th century in London; the clothing of women working in the factories and workshops of Paris in the 19th century was grey. This gave them the name of grisettes. "Gris" or grey meant drunk, the name "grisette" was given to the lower class of Parisian prostitutes. Grey became a common color for military uniforms. Grey was the color of the uniforms of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, of the Prussian Army for active service wear from 1910 onwards. Several artists of the mid-19th century used different tones of grey to create memorable paintings. Whistler's arrangement of different tones of grey had an effect on the world of music, on the French composer Claude Debussy. In 1894, Debussy wrote to violinist Eugène Ysaÿe describing his Nocturnes as "an experiment in the different combinations that can be obtained from one color – what a study in grey would be in painting." In the late 1930s, grey became a symbol of war.
It was the dominant color of Pablo Picasso's celebrated painting about the horrors of the Spanish Civil War, Guernica. After the war, the grey business suit became a metaphor for uniformity of thought, popularized in such books as The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, which became a successful film in 1956; the whiteness or darkness of clouds is a function of their depth. Small, fluffy white clouds in summer look white because the sunlight is being scattered by the tiny water droplets they contain, that white light comes to the viewer's eye. However, as clouds become larger and thicker, the white light cannot penetrate through the cloud, is reflected off the top. Clouds look darkest grey during thunderstorms, when they can be as much as 20,000 to 30,000 feet high. Stratif
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Ted T. Tanouye
Ted Takayuki Tanouye was a Japanese American soldier in the United States Army who posthumously received the United States military's highest decoration for bravery—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in World War II. Ted "Tak" Tanouye was born in Torrance, California on November 14, 1919; the eldest of six children in a Japanese American family, he graduated from Torrance High School in 1938. At the time of the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, Tanouye was working in the produce department of Ray's Friendly Market, a local Japanese American owned grocery store. On February 19, 1942 President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 authorizing the incarceration of Japanese Americans in designated internment camps. Tanouye's parents and siblings were interned in the Jerome War Relocation Center near Jerome, Arkansas. After the Jerome camp was closed on June 30, 1944 the Tanouye family was transferred to the Rohwer War Relocation Center near Rohwer, Arkansas. Ted Tanouye, was never incarcerated.
S. Army on February 20, 1942. Tanouye joined the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a unit composed entirely of Japanese American soldiers, in 1943 and shipped out for Europe in 1944; the 442nd was sent to Western Italy to aid the Allies' advance up the Northern Italian coast. On July 7, 1944—only his third day on the front line—Tanouye was serving as a Technical Sergeant in the 442nd's Company K. During a battle on that day, near Molino a Ventoabbto, Italy, he advanced ahead of his unit to attack opposing German forces alone, despite intense return fire. Although wounded by a grenade blast, he continued to fight until his platoon had succeeded in taking their objective, the crest of "Hill 140". Tanouye refused to be evacuated. After recovering from his wounds, Tanouye returned to the front lines where, on September 1, 1944, he was wounded by an exploding land mine near San Mauro Cilento, Italy, he died five days on September 6, 1944. Tanouye was buried in Italy. In 1948 his body was returned to Los Angeles.
A funeral service was held at the Buddhist Temple in Little Tokyo and Tanouye was interred in Evergreen Cemetery, Los Angeles, California. For his heroic actions on July 7, 1944, Ted T. Tanouye was posthumously awarded the Army's second-highest decoration, the Distinguished Service Cross. A 1996 review of service records for Asian Americans who received the Distinguished Service Cross during World War II led to Tanouye's award being upgraded to the Medal of Honor. In a ceremony at the White House on June 21, 2000, his surviving family was presented with his Medal of Honor by President Bill Clinton. Twenty-one other Asian Americans received the medal during the ceremony, all but seven of them posthumously. In addition to receiving the Medal of Honor, Tanouye was posthumously awarded the Bronze Star, Purple Heart with Oak Leaf Cluster, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, Combat Infantryman Badge, World War II Victory Medal. Tech. Sgt. Ted "Tak" Tanouye was honored in 2002 by the city of Torrance, California with a permanent display in the Torrance Historical Society Museum.
The Torrance, California National Guard Armory was dedicated on May 2002 in Tanouye's honor. On July 7, 2004, a stone and bronze memorial to Tanouye was dedicated in Triangle Park, located across the street from Torrance High School, where Tanouye had graduated in 1938, in Torrance, California. Technical Sergeant Ted T. Tanouye's official Medal of Honor citation reads: Technical Sergeant Ted T. Tanouye distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 7 July 1944, near Molino A Ventoabbto, Italy. Technical Sergeant Tanouye led his platoon in an attack to capture the crest of a strategically important hill that afforded little cover. Observing an enemy machine gun crew placing its gun in position to his left front, Technical Sergeant Tanouye crept forward a few yards and opened fire on the position, killing or wounding three and causing two others to disperse. An enemy machine pistol opened fire on him, he killed or wounded three more enemy soldiers. While advancing forward, Technical Sergeant Tanouye was subjected to grenade bursts, which wounded his left arm.
Sighting an enemy-held trench, he raked the position with fire from his submachine gun and wounded several of the enemy. Running out of ammunition, he crawled 20 yards to obtain several clips from a comrade on his left flank. Next, sighting an enemy machine pistol that had pinned down his men, Technical Sergeant Tanouye crawled forward a few yards and threw a hand grenade into the position, silencing the pistol, he located another enemy machine gun firing down the slope of the hill, opened fire on it, silenced that position. Drawing fire from a machine pistol nest located above him, he opened fire on it and wounded three of its occupants. Taking his objective, Technical Sergeant Tanouye organized a defensive position on the reverse slope of the hill before accepting first aid treatment and evacuation. Technical Sergeant Tanouye's extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, the United States Army.
List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War II List of Asian American Medal of Honor recipients List of Japanese Americans List of Asian Americans "Army Secretary Lionizes 22 World War II Heroes" at Defense.gov "Citizen Tanouye" - PBS documentary on Ted Tanouye
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Buffy the Vampire Slayer
Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American supernatural drama television series based on the 1992 film of the same name. It was created by Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions, with co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, David Greenwalt, Doug Petrie, Marti Noxon, David Solomon; the series premiered on March 10, 1997, on The WB and concluded on May 20, 2003, on UPN. The series narrative follows Buffy Summers, the latest in a line of young women known as "Vampire Slayers", or "Slayers". In the story, Slayers or the'Chosen Ones' are "called" to battle against vampires and other forces of darkness. Buffy wants to live a normal life. Like previous Slayers, Buffy is aided by a Watcher, who guides and trains her. Unlike her predecessors, Buffy surrounds herself with a circle of loyal friends who become known as the "Scooby Gang"; the series received critical and popular acclaim being listed as one of the greatest TV shows of all time, reached between four and six million viewers on original airings.
Although such ratings are lower than successful shows on the "big four" networks, they were a success for the new and smaller WB Television Network. The success of Buffy has led to hundreds of tie-in products, including novels and video games; the series has received attention in fandom and academia, has influenced the direction of other television series. The series, as well as its spinoff series Angel, extensions thereof, have been collectively termed the "Buffyverse"; as of 2018, a reboot of the series is being developed for television, with Monica Owusu-Breen as showrunner. Buffy Summers is the "Slayer", one in a long line of young women chosen by fate to battle evil forces; this mystical calling endows her with powers that increase physical strength, agility, accelerated healing, a limited degree of clairvoyance in the form of prophetic dreams. She is known as a reluctant hero who wants to live a normal life. However, she learns to embrace her destiny as the vampire slayer. Buffy receives guidance from Rupert Giles.
Giles referred to by his first name, is a member of the Watchers' Council, whose job is to train and guide the Slayers. Giles researches the supernatural creatures that Buffy must face, offers insights into their origins and advice on how to defeat them, helps her train to stay in fighting form. Buffy is helped by friends she meets at Sunnydale High: Willow Rosenberg and Xander Harris. Willow is a wallflower who excels at academics, providing a contrast to Buffy's outgoing personality and less-than-stellar educational record, they share the social isolation that comes with being different, from being exceptional young women. As the series progresses, Willow becomes a more assertive character and a powerful witch, comes out as a lesbian. In contrast, with no supernatural skills but athletic, provides comic relief and a grounded perspective, it is Xander who provides the heart to the series, in season six, becomes the hero in place of Buffy who defeats the "Big Bad." Buffy and Willow are the only characters.
The cast of characters grew over the course of the series. Buffy first arrives in Sunnydale with her mother, Joyce Summers, who functions as an anchor of normality in the Summers' lives after she learns of Buffy's role in the supernatural world. Buffy's younger sister. A vampire tortured with a soul in return for horrific deeds committed in the past to many, including a young gypsy girl and her family, Angel, is Buffy's love interest throughout the first three seasons, he leaves Buffy. He goes on to search for redemption in his own spin-off, Angel, he makes several guest appearances in the remaining seasons, including the last episode. At Sunnydale High, Buffy meets several other students besides Willow and Xander willing to join her fight for good, an informal group tagged the "Scooby Gang" or "Scoobies." Cordelia Chase, the archetypal shallow cheerleader, reluctantly becomes involved. Daniel "Oz" Osbourne, a fellow student, rock guitarist and werewolf, joins the group through his relationship with Willow.
Jenny Calendar, Sunnydale's computer science teacher, joins the group after helping destroy a demon trapped in cyberspace during season 1. She becomes Giles' love interest. Anya, a former vengeance demon who specialized in avenging scorned women, becomes Xander's lover after losing her powers and joins the group in season four. In Buffy's senior year at high school, she meets Faith, the other current Slayer, "called" forth when Slayer Kendra Young was killed by vampire Drusilla, in season two. Although Faith fights on the side of good with Buffy and the rest of the group, she comes to stand against them and sides with Mayor Richard Wilkins after accidentally killing a human in season three, she reappears in the fourth season, looking for vengeance, moves