Redondo Beach, California
Redondo Beach is coastal city in Los Angeles County, United States, located in the South Bay region of the Greater Los Angeles area. It is one of three adjacent beach cities along the southern portion of Santa Monica Bay; the population was 66,748 at the 2010 census, up from 63,261 at the 2000 census. Redondo Beach was part of the 1785 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that became the South Redondo area; the city's territory has an unusual shape including an area along the beach and another strip inland from Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach. The primary attractions include Municipal Pier and the sandy beach, popular with tourists and a variety of sports enthusiasts; the western terminus of the Metro Rail Green Line is in North Redondo Beach. The Chowigna Indians used the site of today's Hopkins Wilderness Park Nike missile site LA-57 from 1956 to 1963, in Redondo Beach, California, as a lookout place; the wetlands located at the site of today's AES power plant in Redondo Beach were a source of foods including halibut and sea bass, of salt.
In the 1700s, the Chowigna bartered salt from the old Redondo Salt Lake, "a spring-fed salt lake about 200 yards wide and 600 yards long situated about 200 yards from the ocean", with other tribes. Their village by the lake was called "Onoova-nga", or "Place of Salt." The Chowigna were relocated to missions in 1854, when Manuel Dominguez sold 215 acres of Rancho San Pedro, including the lake, to Henry Allanson and William Johnson for the Pacific Salt Works. Moonstone Beach was a tourist attraction from the late 1880s to the early 1920s. Tourists gathered moonstones from the many mounds; the City of Redondo Beach is a Charter City in Southern California. Two thirds of the residents in LA County, the majority in Southern California, a plurality of Californians live in Charter Cities according to the 2010 US Census; as a Californian Charter City, Redondo Beach can adopt Amendments to the City Charter. In response to alleged overdevelopment, a group of Redondo’s residents formed a PAC called Building a Better Redondo and worked to place Measure DD on the ballot.
The City Council responded with Measure EE. Both measures are initiative petitions which would amend the Charter of the City of Redondo Beach by requiring both City Council approval and voter approval before a “major change in allowable land use” would become effective. However, the difference was in scope. Measure DD would apply to any zoning changes that would have the effect of converting any public land to private use. Measure DD was an initiative that earned a place on the ballot because its supporters collected over 6,000 signatures on petitions, while Measure EE was placed on the November ballot through the referral process by a vote of the Redondo Beach City Council. Out of Redondo’s 39,155 registered voters, 29,653 voted on Measure DD, 28,570 voted on Measure EE, with the turnout being 75.7 percent and 72.9 percent respectively. Measure DD passed 52.7 – 41.3 percent, Measure EE passed 50.9 – 49.1 percent. When two initiative measures conflict, the one with the greatest number of votes wins, since Measure DD defeated Measure EE by 2,884 votes, it was added to the Redondo Beach City Charter.
On July 30th, 2010 the Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Robert O’Brien confirmed that Measure DD was broad in scope, as intended by the voters. Measure DD led to the passage of Measure G, it passed, 12,622 votes to 11,422 votes. Building a Better Redondo proposed Measure A in November of 2013, which would have zoned 60 percent of the AES property as parkland and the rest – commercial. AES spent over $650K on the campaign promising everything from power failures to huge lawsuits if Measure A won. Measure A failed, with 6,553 "no" 6,295 "yes" votes. Buoyed by Measure A’s failure, AES, the operator of the powerplant and owner of the property, proposed Measure B, a mixed use development with residential and commercial components, poured over $1M into the campaign. Measure B failed, with 6,684 "no" 6,072 "yes" votes. In 2017 another activist group, Rescue Our Waterfront, which had quite a few crossover members from Building a Better Redondo, proposed Measure C; this was in reaction to a project called "The Waterfront", which moved the required boat ramp to Mole B, which would impact outrigger canoe clubs and was deemed dangerous by Harbor Patrol staff.
Measure C, or the King Harbor CARE Act, would tighten up the zoning passed in Measure G. It was designed to ensure long established recreational uses and views of the harbor were protected in future development and prevent the impacts of the proposed "Waterfront" project; the measure passed, with 9,229 “yes” votes and 6,925 “no” votes, swept Mayor Bill Brand, Councilmembers Todd Lowenstein and Nils Nehrenheim into office. The developer responded with a lawsuit. On August 9th, 2018, the California Coastal Commission certified Measure C, as is, without the additions that were suggested by its own staff, thus ending the ten year old saga. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.2 square miles, over 99% of it land. Redondo Beach was part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Sp
Los Angeles International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport, locally referred to as LAX, is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles, California. LAX is in the Westchester district of the city of Los Angeles, California, 18 miles southwest of Downtown Los Angeles, with the commercial and residential areas of Westchester to the north, the city of El Segundo to the south and the city of Inglewood to the east. Owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports, an agency of the government of Los Angeles known as the Department of Airports, the airport has over 3,500 acres of land, LAX has four parallel runways. In 2018, LAX handled 87,534,384 passengers, making it the world's fourth busiest and the United States' second busiest airport following Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport; as the largest and busiest international airport on the U. S. West Coast, LAX is a major international gateway to the United States, serves a connection point for passengers traveling internationally; the airport holds the record for the world's busiest origin and destination airport, since relative to other airports, many more travelers begin or end their trips in Los Angeles than use it as a connection.
It is the only airport to rank among the top five U. S. airports for both passenger and cargo traffic. LAX serves as a hub or focus city for more passenger airlines than any other airport in the United States, it is the only airport that four U. S. legacy carriers have designated as a hub and is a focus city for Air New Zealand, Allegiant Air, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Southwest Airlines, Volaris. While LAX is the busiest airport in the Greater Los Angeles Area, several other airports, including Hollywood Burbank Airport, John Wayne Airport, Long Beach Airport, as well as Ontario International Airport serve the area. In 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected 640 acres in the southern part of Westchester for a new airport; the fields of wheat and lima beans were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings. It was named Mines Field for the real estate agent who arranged the deal; the first structure, Hangar No. 1, is in the National Register of Historic Places. Mines Field opened as the airport of Los Angeles in 1930 and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937.
The name became Los Angeles Airport in 1941 and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949. In the 1930s the main airline airports were Burbank Airport in Burbank and the Grand Central Airport in Glendale. Mines Field did not extend west of Sepulveda Boulevard. A tunnel was completed in 1953 allowing Sepulveda Boulevard to revert to straight and pass beneath the two runways. For the next few years the two runways were 8,500 feet long. Before the 1930s, existing airports used a two-letter abbreviation based on the weather stations at the airports. At that time, "LA" served as the designation for Los Angeles Airport, but with the rapid growth in the aviation industry the designations expanded to three letters c. 1947, "LA" became "LAX." The letter "X" has no specific meaning in this identifier. "LAX" is used for the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro and by Amtrak for Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The "Imperial Hill" area in El Segundo is a prime location for aircraft spotting for takeoffs. Part of the Imperial Hill area has been set aside as Clutter's Park.
Another popular spotting location sits under the final approach for runways 24 L&R on a lawn next to the Westchester In-N-Out Burger on Sepulveda Boulevard. This is one of the few remaining locations in Southern California from which spotters may watch such a wide variety of low-flying commercial airliners from directly underneath a flight path. At 12:51 p.m. on Friday, September 21, 2012, a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at LAX on runway 25L. An estimated 10,000 people saw the shuttle land. Interstate 105 was backed up for miles at a standstill. Imperial Highway was shut down for spectators, it was taken off the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified Boeing 747, was moved to a United Airlines hangar. The shuttle spent about a month in the hangar while it was prepared to be transported to the California Science Center; the distinctive white googie Theme Building, designed by Pereira & Luckman architect Paul Williams and constructed in 1961 by Robert E. McKee Construction Co. resembles a flying saucer that has landed on its four legs.
A restaurant with a sweeping view of the airport is suspended beneath two arches. The Los Angeles City Council designated the building a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1992. A $4 million renovation, with retro-futuristic interior and electric lighting designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, was completed before the Encounter Restaurant opened there in 1997. Visitors are able to take the elevator up to the roof of the "Theme Building", which closed after the September 11, 2001 attacks for security reasons and reopened to the public on weekends beginning on July 10, 2010. Additionally, a memorial to the victims of the 9/11 attacks is located on the grounds, as three of the f
Union Station (Los Angeles)
Los Angeles Union Station is the main railway station in Los Angeles and the largest railroad passenger terminal in the Western United States. It opened in May 1939 as the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, replacing La Grande Station and Central Station. Approved in a controversial ballot measure in 1926 and built in the 1930s, it served to consolidate rail services from the Union Pacific, Santa Fe, Southern Pacific Railroads into one terminal station. Conceived on a grand scale, Union Station became known as the "Last of the Great Railway Stations" built in the United States; the structure combines Art Deco, Mission Revival, Streamline Moderne style. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Today, the station is a major transportation hub for Southern California, serving 110,000 passengers a day, it is Amtrak's fifth-busiest station, by far the busiest in the Western United States and the tenth-busiest in the entire country. Four of Amtrak's long-distance trains originate and terminate here: the Coast Starlight to Seattle, the Southwest Chief and Texas Eagle to Chicago, the Sunset Limited to New Orleans.
The state-supported Amtrak California Pacific Surfliner regional trains run to San Diego and to Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo. The station is the hub of the Metrolink commuter trains, several Metro Rail subway and light rail lines serve it as well, with more in construction or planning; the Patsaouras Transit Plaza, on the east side of the station, serves dozens of bus lines operated by Metro and several other municipal carriers. In 1926, a measure was placed on the ballot giving Los Angeles voters the choice between the construction of a vast network of elevated railways or the construction of a much smaller Union Station to consolidate different railroad terminals; the election would take on racial connotations and become a defining moment in the development of Los Angeles. The proposed Union Station was located in the heart of. Reflecting the prejudice of the time, the anti-railroad Los Angeles Times, a lead opponent of elevated railways, argued in editorials that Union Station would not be built in the "midst of Chinatown" but rather would "forever do away with Chinatown and its environs."
The Times attacked the elevateds for blocking out the California sun and in general being antithetical to the ethos of Los Angeles. Two questions were put to vote in 1926. First, the voters approved Union Station instead of elevated railways by 61.3 to 38.7 percent margin. Second, the electorate voted in favor of the Los Angeles Plaza as the site of the new station but by a much smaller 51.1 to 48.9 percent margin. Due to the efforts of preservationist Christine Sterling and Los Angeles Times publisher Harry Chandler, Union Station would not replace the Plaza, but be built across the street in Chinatown, demolished for the project; the glamorous new $11 million station took over from La Grande Station which had suffered major damage in the 1933 Long Beach earthquake and Central Station, which had itself replaced the Arcade Depot in 1914. Passenger service was provided by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, Southern Pacific Railroad, Union Pacific Railroad, as well as the Pacific Electric Railway and Los Angeles Railway.
The famed Super Chief luxury train carried Hollywood stars and others to Chicago and thence the East Coast. Union Station saw heavy use during World War II, but saw declining patronage due to the growing popularity of air travel and automobiles. In 1948 the Santa Fe Railroad's Super Chief lost its brakes coming into the station, smashed through a steel bumper and concrete wall, stopped with one third of the front of the locomotive dangling over Aliso St. No one was killed or injured; the station was designated as a Los Angeles Historic–Cultural Monument No. 101 on August 2, 1972 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The first commuter rail service to Union Station was the short-lived CalTrain that began operating on October 18, 1982 between Los Angeles and Oxnard; the service faced economic and political problems from the start and was suspended in March 1983. The next attempt at commuter rail came in 1990 with the launch of the Amtrak-operated Orange County Commuter.
The once-daily round-trip served stations between San Juan Capistrano. Metrolink commuter rail service began on October 26, 1992, with Union Station as the terminus for the San Bernardino Line, the Santa Clarita Line and the Ventura County Line. In January 1993, Metro's Red Line subway began service to the station, followed by Metrolink's Riverside Line in June; the Orange County Commuter train was discontinued on March 28, 1994 and replaced by Metrolink's Orange County Line. In May 2002, Metrolink added additional service to stations in Orange and Riverside counties with the opening of the Via Fullerton Line. Light Rail service arrived at Union Station on July 26, 2003 when Metro's Gold Line began operating to Pasadena from tracks 1 and 2; the line was expanded south over US 101 in November 2009 with the opening of the Gold Line Eastside Extension. In February 2011, the board of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority approved the purchase of Union Station from Prologis and Catellus Development for $75 million.
The deal was closed on 14 April 2011. Since taking over ownership of the station, Metro has focused on increasing services for passengers at the station. One of the most noticeable changes is the addition of several retail and dining businesses to the concourse. Amtrak opened a
Hybrid vehicle drivetrain
Hybrid vehicle drivetrains transmit power to the driving wheels for hybrid vehicles. A hybrid vehicle has multiple forms of motive power. Hybrids come in many configurations. For example, a hybrid may receive its energy by burning petroleum, but switch between an electric motor and a combustion engine. Electrical vehicles have a long history combining internal combustion and electrical transmission –as in a diesel-electric powertrain–, although they have been used for rail locomotives. A diesel-electric powertrain fails the definition of hybrid because the electrical drive transmission directly replaces the mechanical transmission rather than being a supplementary source of motive power. One of the earliest forms of hybrid land vehicle is the'trackless' trolleybus of the 1930s, which used traction current delivered by wire; the trolleybus was fitted with an internal combustion engine either to directly power the bus or to independently generate electricity. This enabled the vehicle to manoeuvre around broken overhead transmission wires.
The powertrain includes all of the components used to transform stored potential energy. Powertrains may either use chemical, nuclear or kinetic and make them useful for propulsion; the oldest example is the galley that used oars. A common modern example is the electric bicycle. Hybrid electric vehicles combine a battery or supercapacitor supplemented by an ICE that can recharge the batteries or power the vehicle. Other hybrid powertrains use flywheels to store energy. Among the different types of hybrid vehicles, only the electric/ICE type was commercially available as of 2016. One variety operated in parallel to provide power from both motors. Another operated in series with one source providing the power and the second providing electricity. Either source may provide the primary motive force, with the other augmenting the primary. Other combinations offer efficiency gains from superior energy management and regeneration that are offset by expense and the battery limitations. Combustion-electric hybrids have battery packs with far larger capacity than a combustion-only vehicle.
A combustion-electric hybrid has batteries that are light that offer higher energy density that are far more costly. ICEs require only a battery large enough to ignite the engine. Parallel hybrid systems have both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that can both individually drive the car or both coupled up jointly giving drive; this is the most common hybrid system as of 2016. If they are joined at an axis, the speeds at this axis must be identical and the supplied torques add together; when only one of the two sources is in use, the other must either rotate, be connected by a one-way clutch or freewheel. With cars the two sources may be applied to the same shaft, turning at equal speeds and the torques adding up with the electric motor adding or subtracting torque to the system as necessary. Parallel hybrids can be further categorized by the balance between the different motors are at providing motive power: the ICE may be dominant or vice versa. Parallel hybrids rely more on regenerative braking and the ICE can act as a generator for supplemental recharging.
This makes them more efficient in urban'stop-and-go' conditions. They use a smaller battery pack than other hybrids. Honda's Insight and Accord hybrids are examples of production parallel hybrids. General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck and BAS Hybrids such as the Saturn VUE and Aura Greenline and Chevrolet Malibu hybrids employ a parallel hybrid architecture. An alternative parallel hybrid is the'through the road' type. In this system a conventional drivetrain powers one axle, with an electric motor or motors driving another; this arrangement was used by the earliest'off track' trolleybuses. It in effect provides a complete backup power train. In modern motors batteries can be recharged through regenerative braking or by loading the electrically driven wheels during cruise; this allows a simpler approach to power-management. This layout has the advantage of providing four-wheel-drive in some conditions. Vehicles of this type include the Audi 100 Duo II, Subaru VIZIV and Peugeot 307 Hybrid HDi concept cars, the PSA Group vehicles Peugeot 3008, Peugeot 508, 508 RXH, Citroen DS5 all using the HYbrid4 system, the Volvo V60 plug-in hybrid, the BMW 2 Series Active Tourer, BMW i8, the second generation Honda NSX.
Series hybrids are referred to as extended-range electric vehicles or range-extended electric vehicles. Electric transmission has been available as an alternative to conventional mechanical transmissions since 1903. Mechanical transmissions impose many penalties, including weight, noise, complexity and a drain on engine power with every gear-change, whether accomplished manually or automatically. Unlike ICEs, electric motors do not require a transmission. In effect the entire mechanical transmission between the ICE and the wheels is removed and replac
El Segundo, California
El Segundo is a city located in Los Angeles County, United States. El Segundo, from Spanish, means "The Second" in English. Located on the Santa Monica Bay, it was incorporated on January 18, 1917, part of the South Bay Cities Council of Governments; the population was 16,654 at the 2010 census up from 16,033 at the 2000 census. The El Segundo and Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva Native American tribes thousands of years ago; the area was once a part of Rancho Sausal Redondo. Rancho Sausal Redondo extended from Playa Del Rey in the North to Redondo Beach in the South. A Mexican land grant owned by Antonio Ygnacio Avila, the rancho was purchased by a Scottish baronet named Sir Robert Burnett. After his return to Scotland, the property was purchased by current manager of the rancho, Daniel Freeman. Daniel Freeman sold portions of the rancho to several persons. George H. Peck owned the 840 acres of land. Peck developed land in neighboring El Porto where a street still bears his name.
The city earned its name as it was the site of the second Standard Oil refinery on the West Coast, when Standard Oil of California purchased the 840 acres of farm land in 1911. The city was incorporated in 1917; the Standard Oil Company was renamed Chevron in 1984. The El Segundo refinery entered its second century of operation in 2011; the Douglas Aircraft Company plant in El Segundo was one of the major aircraft manufacturing facilities in California during World War II. It was one of the major producers of SBD Dauntless dive bombers, which achieved fame in the Battle of Midway; the facility, now operated by Northrop Grumman, is still an aircraft plant. The north and south boundaries of the town are Los Angeles International Airport and Manhattan Beach, with the Pacific Ocean as the western boundary, its eastern boundary is Aviation Blvd. El Segundo is located at 33°55′17″N 118°24′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, over 99% of, land.
Guinness World Records has listed El Segundo as having the most roads with a grade. The 2010 United States Census reported that El Segundo had a population of 16,654; the population density was 3,047.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of El Segundo was 12,997 White, 337 African American, 68 Native American, 1,458 Asian, 38 Pacific Islander, 799 from other races, 957 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2,609 persons; the Census reported that 16,578 people lived in households, 66 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 10 were institutionalized. There were 7,085 households, out of which 2,183 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,050 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 729 had a female householder with no husband present, 326 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 369 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships. 2,254 households were made up of individuals and 570 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34. There were 4,105 families; the population was spread out with 3,719 people under the age of 18, 1,120 people aged 18 to 24, 5,182 people aged 25 to 44, 4,955 people aged 45 to 64, 1,678 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.8 males. There were 7,410 housing units at an average density of 1,356.1 per square mile, of which 3,034 were owner-occupied, 4,051 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.4%. 8,177 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,401 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, El Segundo had a median household income of $84,341, with 4.8% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the 2000 Census, the population density was 2,894.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,261 housing units at an average density of 1,310.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 83.61% White, 1.17% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 6.41% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 3.51% from other races, 4.55% from two or more races. 11.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,060 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 38.7% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $61,341, the median income for a family was $74,007.
Males had a median income of $52,486 versus $41,682 for females. The per capita income for
A transit bus is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses; these are distinct from all-seated coaches used for longer distance journeys and smaller minibuses, for more flexible services. A transit bus will have: large and sometimes multiple doors for ease of boarding and exiting minimal or no luggage space bench or bucket seats, with no coachlike head-rests destination blinds / displays such as headsigns or rollsigns or electronic dot matrix/LED signs legal standing-passenger capacity fare taking/verification equipment pull cord or bus stop request buttonModern transit buses are increasingly being equipped with passenger information systems, multimedia, WiFi, USB charging points, entertainment/advertising, passenger comforts such as heating and air-conditioning; some industry members and commentators promote the idea of making the interior of a transit bus as inviting as a private car, recognising the chief competitor to the transit bus in most markets.
As they are used in a public transport role, transit buses can be operated by publicly run transit authorities or municipal bus companies, as well as private transport companies on a public contract or independent basis. Due to the local authority use, transit buses are built to a third-party specification put to the manufacturer by the authority. Early examples of such specification include the Greater Manchester Leyland Atlantean, DMS-class London Daimler Fleetline. New transit buses may be purchased each time a route/area is contracted, such as in the London Buses tendering system; the operating area of a transit bus may be defined as a geographic metropolitan area, with the buses used outside of this area being more varied with buses purchased with other factors in mind. Some regional-size operators for capital cost reasons may use transit buses interchangeably on short urban routes as well as longer rural routes, sometimes up to 2 or 3 hours. Transit bus operators have a selection of'dual-purpose' fitted buses, standard transit buses fitted with coach-type seating, for longer-distance routes.
Sometimes transit buses may be used as express buses on a limited-stopping or non-stop service at peak times, but over the same distance as the regular route. Fare payment is done via Smart card single or multi-ride coupon/ticket cash and is done upon Pre-payment, done at ticket machines located at the bus stops or at other locations, before getting on the bus. Boarding departing both, e.g. after crossing fare zone boundaries in transit, via an attendant or bus conductor Depending on payment systems in different municipalities, there are different rules with regard to which door, front or rear, one must use when boarding/exiting. For rear doors, most buses have doors opened by patron. Most doors on buses use air-assist technology, the driver controlled doors, use air pressure to force them open, patron-operated doors, can push them open, the doors are heavy, so the touch-to-open or push bar mechanism, sends pressurized air to open the doors. Most doors will signify that they are unlocked and open with lights, this gives guide to those who are going up or down the door steps to not trip and fall.
Unlocked or open doors, will trigger a brake locking mechanism on the bus to prevent it from moving while someone could be entering or exiting the bus, when the door is closed, the lock will release, this is implemented on rear doors, not on front doors, since the driver will be paying attention to the front door. Transit buses can be double-decker, rigid or articulated. Selection of type has traditionally been made on a regional as well as operational basis. Depending on local policies, transit buses will usually have two, three or four doors to facilitate rapid boarding and alighting. In cases of low-demand routes, or to navigate small local streets, some models of minibus and small midibuses have been used as transit type buses; the development of the midibus has given many operators a low-cost way of operating a transit bus service, with some midibuses such as the Plaxton SPD Super Pointer Dart resembling full size transit type vehicles. Due to their public transport role, transit buses were the first type of bus to benefit from low-floor technology, in response to a demand for equal access public service provision.
Transit buses are now subject to various disability discrimination acts in several jurisdictions which dictate various design features applied to other vehicles in some cases. Due to the high number of high-profile urban operations, transit buses are at the forefront of bus electrification, with hybrid electric bus, all-electric bus and fuel cell bus development and testing aimed at reducing fuel usage, shift to green electricity and decreasing environmental impact. Developments of the transit bus towards higher capacity bus transport include tram-like vehicles such as guided buses, longer bi-articulated buses and tram-like buses such as the Wright StreetCar as part of Bus Rapid Transit schemes. Fare collection is seeing a shift to off-bus payment, with either the driver or an inspector verifying fare payments. A commuter or express bus service is a fixed-route bus characterized by service predominantly in on
NFI Group Inc.
NFI Group Inc. is North America's largest bus manufacturer specializing in the manufacturing of heavy-duty transit buses and motorcoaches and the distribution of aftermarket parts. Its headquarters are in Winnipeg, with manufacturing and service centers in both Canada and the United States. New Flyer manufactures integral buses, building both the supporting chassis; the company sells vehicles under three brands: New Flyer Xcelsior transit buses, offered with various drive systems and in several lengths. It sold Daimler’s Setra S407 and S417 coaches until 2018. NFI supports MCI, ARBOC, New Flyer buses with NFI Parts, its parts and training division. NFI is the largest bus and coach manufacturer and distributor in North America and employs over 6,000 people across 31 facilities; the company had a 45% market share of all heavy-duty transit buses and a 39% market share of all motorcoaches produced for North America in 2016. It is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange under the symbol NFI, is a constituent of the S&P/TSX Composite Index.
New Flyer was founded by John Coval in 1930 as Truck Body Works Ltd.. Reflecting an increased focus on bus manufacturing, it changed its name in 1948 to Western Flyer Coach. In the 1960s, the company further focused on the urban transit bus market. In 1971, the then-financially struggling Western Flyer was sold to the Manitoba Development Corporation, an agency of the Manitoba government, renamed Flyer Industries Limited. On July 15, 1986, Jan den Oudsten, a descendant of the family who formed Dutch bus manufacturer Den Oudsten Bussen BV, purchased Flyer Industries from the Manitoba government, changing its name to New Flyer Industries Limited. In March 2002, New Flyer was acquired by KPS Capital Partners, an investment company that specializes in turning around struggling businesses; that year Jan den Oudsten retired as CEO. He was inducted into the American Public Transportation Association's Hall of Fame for his work at the company. On December 15, 2003, New Flyer was purchased by private equity firms Harvest Partners and Lightyear Capital.
The company's CEO, John Marinucci, called the purchase an indicator that the company's operational and financial turnaround had been accomplished. On August 19, 2005, New Flyer became a publicly traded company on the Toronto Stock Exchange. In October 2008, New Flyer was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, announced in The Globe and Mail newspaper, the company was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine; that month, New Flyer was named one of Manitoba's Top Employers, announced by the Winnipeg Free Press newspaper. The company converted to a corporate structure from a trust-like structure in October 2011. Brazilian bus manufacturer Marcopolo S. A. acquired a 19.99% stake of New Flyer on January 23, 2013 for $116 million, the maximum it could acquire without offering to buy out other shareholders. As competing manufacturer Daimler exited the North American market in 2013, New Flyer purchased the aftermarket parts business for its Orion brand of heavy-duty transit buses for $29 million. Under the agreement, New Flyer acquired the Orion parts inventory, the company's accounts, license to use proprietary part designs and agreed to provide parts for customer warranty support.
On June 21, 2013, New Flyer agreed to acquire competing heavy-duty transit bus manufacturer, North American Bus Industries. Upon completion of NABI's outstanding orders, New Flyer converted the former NABI factory in Anniston, AL into a fourth facility to produce the Xcelsior heavy-duty transit bus. In November 10, 2015, New Flyer agreed to acquire motorcoach manufacturer Motor Coach Industries from KPS Capital Partners for US$459 million, with the deal closing on December 18, 2015. On September 22, 2016, Marcopolo S. A. reduced its stake in New Flyer to 10.8 %. On December 1, 2017, New Flyer acquired small and mid-sized bus manufacturer ARBOC Specialty Vehicles for US$95 million. New Flyer designed and tested North America's first low-floor bus in 1988 and delivered the first production model, called the D40LF, to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in 1991. In 1994, New Flyer delivered the first compressed natural gas bus in North America and the world's first hydrogen fuel cell powered bus.
In 1995, the company delivered the first low-floor articulated bus in North America to Strathcona County Transit. In 2003, King County Metro in Seattle placed an order for 213 hybrid buses, the world's first large order for hybrid buses.2005 saw a restyling of New Flyer's popular low-floor coaches with new front and rear endcaps, to modernize and streamline the exterior appearance of the bus. In May 2012, New Flyer and Alexander Dennis announced a joint venture to design and manufacture medium-duty low-floor bus for the North American market; the bus, called the New Flyer MiDi was based on the design of the Alexander Dennis Enviro200. Alexander Dennis engineered and tested the bus, it was built and marketed by New Flyer under contract. During the partnership around 200 buses were delivered to 22 operators in Canada and US. In May 2017, New Flyer and Alexander Dennis announced their joint venture would end and production of the bus would transition to Alexander Dennis' new North American factory in Indiana where it is produced alongside the double-deck Enviro500 series bus.
In June 2012 New Flyer, in a joint venture with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the Manitoba Government, Manitoba Hydro and Red River College, unveiled a electric batte