The Torre del Oro is a dodecagonal military watchtower in Seville, southern Spain. It was erected by the Almohad Caliphate in order to control access to Seville via the Guadalquivir river. Constructed in the first third of the 13th century, the tower served as a prison during the Middle Ages, its name comes from the golden shine. The tower is divided into three levels, the first level, was built in 1220 by order of the Almohad governor of Seville, Abù l-Ulà. Rebuilding of the third level was made by Brusselian military engineer Sebastian Van der Borcht in 1760; the Torre de la Plata, an octagonal tower, is located nearby, is believed to have been constructed during the same era. It is one of two anchor points for a large chain; the other anchor-point has since been demolished or disappeared collapsing during the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The chain was used in the city's defense against the Castilian fleet under Ramón de Bonifaz in the 1248 Reconquista. Bonifaz isolated Seville from Triana; the Tower of Gold was built 1220–1221, by order of the Almohad governor of Seville, Abu l-Ulà, with a twelve-sided base.
It barred the way to the Arenal district with a section of wall joining it to the Tower of Silver, a part of the city walls that defended the Alcazar. The tower was badly damaged by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, the Marquis of Monte Real proposed demolishing it to widen the way for horse-drawn coaches and straighten access to the bridge of Triana. In 1760, the damage was repaired, with repairs to the bottom floor of the tower, reinforcement with rubble and mortar, the creation of a new main access via the passageway to the path around the wall; that same year, the upper cylindrical body was built, a work of the military engineer Sebastian Van der Borcht architect of the Royal Tobacco Factory of Seville. These works changed the appearance of the tower as compared to what is seen in engravings from the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries. On August 13, 1992, the Torre del Oro was made a brother to the Tower of Belem of Lisbon to celebrate the Universal Exposition in Seville; as of 2008 the museum displayed a variety of old navigational instruments and models, as well as historical documents and nautical charts, relating Seville to the Guadalquivir River and the sea.
The tower was again restored in 2005. The Torre del Oro in Seville Guide of Gold Tower in Seville
The ABC Motsepe League known as the Vodacom League between 1998–2012, was founded in 1998 as the current Second Division and the overall third tier of South African football. The competition is regulated by SAFA, until 2012 had been sponsored by mobile telecommunications company Vodacom, it features 144 teams in total, divided into 9 divisions, borderly decided by the 9 geo-political provinces of South Africa: Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu Natal, Northern Cape, Western Cape, Limpopo and North West. This means; the winner of each Provincial division qualifies for the annual Promotional Playoffs, where the winners of two streams, will get promoted to the National First Division. In each Province, the two lowest-ranked teams by the end of the season, will be relegated to U21 SAB Regional League, which in return will promote two playoff winners from the Regional Championships. An important rule to note, is that all clubs in South Africa are allowed to compete with youth teams and/or a Reserve team in a lower SAFA league.
If a club opt to field such teams, the U19 teams will start out at the fifth level in the U19 National League, while U21 teams or Reserve teams will start out at the fourth level in the U21 SAB Regional League. If any U19 team win promotion for U21 SAB Regional League or SAFA Second Division, this promotion is accepted. No club are however entitled to field two teams at the same level, rule 4.6.4 of the SAFA regulations states, that if the mother club play in the National First Division or Premier Soccer League the highest level these additional Youth/Reserve teams are allowed to compete, will be the SAFA Second Division. In such cases, where a non-promotable team manage to win their regional division, the ticket for the promotional playoffs will instead be handed over to the second-best team in the division. In the 2010–11 season these promotional restrictions mean, that: Ajax Cape Town U19, Bay Academy, Bid Boys, Celtic Colts, SuperSport T. H. Academy and Mitchells Plain United, were all accepted to play in the league, but without any possibility of further promotion.
In March 2014, the Motsepe Foundation signed a five-year deal for the naming rights of the competition worth 40 million ZAR. Patrice Motsepe named the competition in honour of Augustine Butana Chaane Motsepe; the 9 geographical provinces of South Africa, each have a local division in the SAFA Second Division. These divisions belong either to the Inland Stream or Coastal Stream, which are used to place the provincial winners into two round robin groups, at the promotional playoff stage by the end of the season; the Coastal Stream comprises: Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Cape, Western Cape. In previous years, until August 2008, the Free State province belonged to the Inland Stream. Free State belonged to the Inland Stream from 1998 to 2008, but was transferred to the Coastal Stream for subsequent seasons. In the seasons from 1998 to 2003, the four best teams from the Vodacom League—determined by annual playoffs among the winners and runners-up of the 9 provinces in South Africa—won promotion for the National First Division.
The playoff system divided the teams into an Inland Stream and Coastal Stream, where the best two teams from each stream won promotion. In the seasons after 2003, the number of annually promoted teams decreased to 2; the concept of the playoff system, remained the same, in regards of dividing the teams into a Coastal Stream and Inland Stream, but now of course only to reward the winner of both streams with promotion. Both promoted teams will finally meet to play the overall final, where the overall league championship trophy is at stake; the list below show all the promoted teams, since 1998. South Africa Football Association: Database with logs and results
The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area or Greater Bay Area, is a megalopolis known as the Pearl River Delta, consisting of nine cities and two special administrative regions in south China. On 7 December 2016, the concept for the area was mentioned in the English version of China's 13th Five-Year Plan. On 13 April 2017, the heading of a piece of news released at the English.gov.cn website of the State Council adopted the name "Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Bay Area". Just over two months on 1 July 2017, the "Framework Agreement on Deepening Guangdong - Hong Kong - Macau Cooperation in the Development of the Bay Area" was signed in Hong Kong; the GBA consists of Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Jiangmen and Zhaoqing, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Huangpu Bridge Nansha Bridge Humen Pearl River Bridge Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge Urban rail transit is expanding fast. Hong Kong MTR was the first, its model has subsequently been applied to other networks in the region.
The total length of all cities' metro lines is now 924.8 km. MetroDongguan Rail Transit Foshan Metro Guangzhou Metro Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Macau Light Rapid Transit Shenzhen MetroRegional and commuter railwaysCR C-train Light rail and tramsGuangzhou Trams Hong Kong Light Rail Hong Kong Tramways Hong Kong Peak Tram Shenzhen Tram Zhuhai Tram Guangzhou–Kowloon through train Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link Hong Kong section Guangzhou–Foshan–Zhaoqing intercity railway Guangzhou–Shenzhen railway Dongguan–Huizhoo intercity railway Hong Kong International Airport Macau International Airport Shenzhen Baoan International Airport Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Zhuhai Jinwan Airport Foshan Shadi Airport Huizhou Pingtan Airport Pearl River Delta Pearl River Delta Economic Zone Pearl River Bocca Tigris Metropolitan regions of China Yangtze River Delta Yellow River Delta and Bohai Sea National Central City