The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank. It is named after General Creighton Abrams, former Army chief of staff, highly mobile, designed for modern armored ground warfare, the M1 is well armed and heavily armored. Notable features include the use of a powerful multifuel turbine engine, the adoption of sophisticated composite armor, weighing nearly 68 short tons, it is one of the heaviest main battle tanks in service. The M1 Abrams entered U. S. service in 1980, the M1 remains the principal main battle tank of the United States Army and Marine Corps, and the armies of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Three main versions of the M1 Abrams have been deployed, the M1, M1A1, and M1A2, incorporating improved armament and these improvements and other upgrades to in-service tanks have allowed this long-serving vehicle to remain in front-line service. In addition, development for the improved M1A3 version was reported in 2009, the M1 Abrams was developed during the Cold War as a successor to the canceled MBT-70.
The M1 Abrams contract went to Chrysler Defense and was the first vehicle to adopt Chobham armor, adaptations before the Persian Gulf War gave the vehicle better firepower and NBC protection. Being vastly superior to Iraqi tanks, very few M1 tanks were hit by enemy fire, Upgrades after the war improved the tanks weapons sights and fire control unit. The Abrams participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, exposing vulnerabilities in urban combat that were addressed with the TUSK modification, the Marine Corps sent a company of M1A1 Abrams tanks to Afghanistan in 2010. The first attempt to replace the aging M60 tank was the MBT-70, the MBT-70 had advanced features such as a height-adjustable air suspension and a very low-profile chassis with the driver located in the turret. The MBT-70 ultimately proved to be too heavy, complex, as a result of the imminent failure of this project, the U. S. Army introduced the XM803, using some technologies from the MBT-70 but removing some of the more troublesome features.
This succeeded only in producing a system with capabilities similar to the M60. Congress canceled the MBT-70 in November and XM803 December 1971, and redistributed the funds to the new XM815, prototypes were delivered in 1976 by Chrysler Defense and General Motors armed with the license-built version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun along with a Leopard 2 for comparison. The turbine-powered Chrysler Defense design was selected for development as the M1, in February 1982, General Dynamics Land Systems Division purchased Chrysler Defense, after Chrysler built over 1,000 M1s. A total of 3,273 M1 Abrams tanks were produced 1979–85, Production at the government-owned, GDLS-operated Lima Army Tank Plant in Lima, was joined by vehicles built at the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant in Warren, Michigan from 1982 to 1996. The M1 was armed with the version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun. An improved model called the M1IP was produced briefly in 1984, the M1IP models were used in the Canadian Army Trophy NATO tank gunnery competition in 1985 and 1987.
Production of M1 and M1A1 tanks totaled some 9,000 tanks at a cost of approximately $4.3 million per unit, by 1999, costs for the tank were upwards of US$5 million a vehicle
Isuzu Motors Ltd. trading as Isuzu, is a Japanese commercial vehicles and diesel engine manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo. Its principal activity is the production and sale of Isuzu commercial vehicles, the company was established in 1916. In 1934, the company fused with the carmaker and was renamed Isuzu, Isuzu has assembly and manufacturing plants in Fujisawa, as well as in the Tochigi and Hokkaidō prefectures. Isuzu-branded vehicles are sold in most commercial markets worldwide, Isuzus primary market focus is on commercial diesel-powered truck and construction, while their Japanese competitor Yanmar focuses on commercial-level powerplants and generators. By 2009, Isuzu had produced over 21 million diesel engines, Isuzu diesel engines are used by dozens of manufacturers, to include Ford Motor Company and Renault-Nissan Alliance. Isuzu Motors history began in 1916, when Tokyo Ishikawajima Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. plan a cooperation with the Tokyo Gas and Electric Industrial Co. to build automobiles.
The next step is taken in 1918, when a technical cooperation with Wolseley Motors Limited is initiated, meaning exclusive rights to the production, in 1922 the first Wolseley model, the A-9 car, is domestically produced. The CP truck follows two years later,550 of these are built until 1927, in 1933, Ishikawajima Automotive Works merges with DAT Automobile Manufacturing Inc. and changes its name to Automobile Industries Co. Ltd. The products of company, marketed as Sumiya and Chiyoda, were renamed Isuzu in 1934, following a meeting with the Japanese Governments Ministry of Trade. The word Isuzu translated into English means fifty bells—hence the focus on bell in both the Bellel and the Bellett, in 1937 Automobile Industries is reorganized and formed into a new company, Tokyo Automobile Industries Co. Ltd. It was founded with a capital of ¥1,000,000, only in 1949 is Isuzu adopted as the company name. Meanwhile, in 1942, Hino Heavy Industries was split off from Isuzu, Truck production began anew in 1945, with the permission of the occupation authorities.
Beginning in 1953 the Hillman Minx passenger car is produced under license of Rootes Group, the Minx remained in production until 1962, after the 1961 introduction of Isuzus first own car, the Bellel. Being a small producer making cars which were too large and pricey for the Japanese market at the time. Under pressure from MITI, who were attempting to limit the number of manufacturers in Japan. The Subaru 1000 was even shown in Isuzus 1967 annual vehicle brochure and this tie-up was over by 1968, when an agreement with Mitsubishi was formed. This ended even quicker, by 1969, and the year an equally short-lived collaboration was entered with Nissan. A few months later, in September 1971, what was to prove a more durable capital agreement was signed with General Motors
This article is primarily about four-wheeled vehicle suspension. For information on two-wheeled vehicles suspensions see the motorcycle suspension, motorcycle fork, bicycle suspension, Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems must support both roadholding/handling and ride quality, which are at odds with each other, the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. The suspension protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage, the design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different. An early form of suspension on ox-drawn carts had the swing on iron chains attached to the wheeled frame of the carriage. This system remained the basis for all suspension systems until the turn of the 19th century, no modern automobiles use the strap suspension system. Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse-drawn vehicles, horse-drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds, and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine.
The first workable spring-suspension required advanced metallurgical knowledge and skill, within a decade, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs, wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were often made of steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians, ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of springs in catapults was refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a tree branch could be used as a spring. Horse-drawn carriages and the Ford Model T used this system, and it is used today in larger vehicles. This was the first modern system and, along with advances in the construction of roads. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers, with the advantage of a damped suspension system on his Mors Machine, Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on 20 June 1901.
Fourniers superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec. Coil springs first appeared on a vehicle in 1906 in the Brush Runabout made by the Brush Motor Company. Today, coil springs are used in most cars, in 1920, Leyland Motors used torsion bars in a suspension system
Mazda Motor Corporation, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. In 2011, Mazda was the fifteenth biggest automaker by production worldwide, Mazdas company website states that its name is derived from Ahura Mazda, the Avestan word for God, which is the name of God to Zoroastrians. Specifically, the states that The name was associated with Ahura Mazda. The company website further notes that the name derives from the name of the companys founder. Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co, founded in Hiroshima, Japan,30 January 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd. in 1927, in the late 1920s the company had to be saved from bankruptcy by Hiroshima Saving Bank and other business leaders in Hiroshima. In 1931 Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles with the introduction of the Mazda-Go autorickshaw, Toyo Kogyo produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War, most notably the series 30 through 35 Type 99 rifle.
The company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the bore that name. The Mazda R360 was introduced in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962, both piston-powered and rotary-powered models made their way around the world. The R100 and the RX series led the companys export efforts, during 1968, Mazda started formal operations in Canada although Mazdas were seen in Canada as early as 1959. In 1970, Mazda formally entered the American market and was successful there. To this day, Mazda remains the only automaker to have produced a Wankel-powered pickup truck, additionally, it is the only marque to have ever offered a rotary-powered bus or station wagon. After nine years of development, Mazda finally launched its new model in the U. S. in 1970, Mazdas rotary success continued until the onset of the 1973 oil crisis. As American buyers quickly turned to vehicles with fuel efficiency. Combined with being the least-efficient automaker in Japan, inability to adjust to excess inventory and over-reliance on the U. S. market, the company suffered a huge loss in 1975.
Fortunately, the company had not totally turned its back on piston engines, the smaller Familia line in particular became very important to Mazdas worldwide sales after 1973, as did the somewhat larger Capella series. Mazda refocused its efforts and made the engine a choice for the sporting motorist rather than a mainstream powerplant. Starting with the lightweight RX-7 in 1978 and continuing with the modern RX-8 and this switch in focus resulted in the development of another lightweight sports car, the piston-powered Mazda Roadster, inspired by the concept jinba ittai
The Mitsubishi Delica is a range of trucks and multi-purpose vehicles built by Mitsubishi since 1968. It was originally based on a pickup truck introduced the previous year, called the Delica. The passenger car versions were known as Delica Star Wagon from 1979 until the 1994 introduction of the Delica Space Gear, the most recent version is called the Delica D,5. With the exception of the generation, all five generations are still sold in various international markets. In Japan, the Delica Cargo nameplate was used on badge-engineered Mazda Bongos between 1999 and 2010, since 2011, the Delica D,2 name has been applied to a rebadged Suzuki Solio. The production of the Delica light commercial cab-over pickup began in July 1968 and it received the chassis code T100, in line with the recently introduced T90 Canter. Using a KE441,088 cc engine producing 58 PS, a year later, in line with consumer needs, a cargo van and a passenger van were added to the line-up. The passenger van, discontinued in 1976, was called the Delica Coach, the engine was upgraded to 62 PS in 1969.
In March 1971 a slightly facelifted version, called the Delica 75 and this received a small grille rather than the naked metal front of the earliest Delicas, and a new 1. 4-liter Neptune engine rated at 64 kilowatts was added to the line-up. The smaller 1. 1-liter engine may have remained available in a 600 kilograms version of the truck but if so, after a fall 1974 facelift, the Delica received a new nose with lots of plastic cladding and double headlights, now mounted beneath the swage line. It was now only as the Delica 1400, as this was the only engine with which it was available. A longer wheelbase 1-ton truck was added in 1976, in export markets, this car was sometimes called simply the Colt T100 / T120. Record, a Greek manufacturer of vehicles, plagiarized the Delica T120 design for their fibreglass-bodied GS2000 truck. The Delica series was replaced in June 1979 by an all new design, bringing overall width up to the maximum 1, 690-millimetre dictated by Japanese regulations for compact vehicles.
Suspended at the front by an independent wishbone construction and a spring at the rear. The line-up was expanded to include ten model variations encompassing a variety of passenger, cargo. A four-wheel drive option was available in 1982, a first in the Japanese van market. Engines were all well known from MMCs passenger cars and included the 1,439 cc,80 PS Saturn and 1. 6-liter Saturn engines
Twist-beam rear suspension
The twist-beam rear suspension is a type of automobile suspension based on a large H or C shaped member. The front of the H attaches to the body via rubber bushings, the cross beam of the H holds the two trailing arms together, and provides the roll stiffness of the suspension, by twisting as the two trailing arms move vertically, relative to each other. The coil springs usually bear on a pad alongside the stub-axle, often the shock is colinear with the spring, to form a coilover. This location gives them a high motion ratio compared with most suspensions, which improves their performance. The longitudinal location of the cross beam controls important parameters of the behaviour, such as the roll steer curve and toe. The closer the cross beam to the axle stubs the more the camber, a key difference between the camber and toe changes of a twist beam vs independent suspension is the change in camber and toe is dependent on the position of the other wheel, not the cars chassis. In a traditional independent suspension the camber and toe are based on the position of the relative to the body.
If both wheels compress together their camber and toe will not change, thus if both wheels started perpendicular to the road and car compressed together they will stay perpendicular to the road. The camber and toe changes are the result of one wheel being compressed relative to the other and this suspension is commonly used on a wide variety of front wheel drive cars, and was almost ubiquitous on European superminis. It was popularised by Volkswagen when they changed from rear engined RR layout cars in the 1970s and this can mildly compromise the handling and ride quality of the vehicle. For this reason, some manufacturers have changed to different linkage designs, general Motors in Europe Vauxhall/Opel have continued to use twist- or torsion- beam suspension. This is at a cost saving of €100 per car compared to multi-link rear suspension and their latest version as used in the 2009-on Opel Astra uses a Watts linkage at a cost of €20 to address the drawbacks and provide a competitive and cost effective rear suspension.
The Renault Megane and Citroen C4 have stayed with the twist beam, toyota switched from torsion beam to multilink with the 2007 Auris E150. Alignment geometry is factory-set and not generally adjustable, any deviation from factory specifications/tolerances could mean a bent axle or compromised mounting points. Trailing arm and Semi-trailing arm suspension, a picture of a twist beam
Sport utility vehicle
A sport utility vehicle or suburban utility vehicle is a vehicle classified as a light truck, but operated as a family vehicle. They are similar to a station wagon or estate car. Some SUVs include the capacity of a pickup truck with the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. Popular in the late-1990s and early–mid-2000s, SUVs sales temporarily declined due to oil prices. The traditional truck-based SUV is gradually being supplanted by the crossover SUV, by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing, in spite of high gas prices. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a utility vehicle is a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon. The SUV term is defined as a vehicle that is designed to be used on rough surfaces. The SUV acronym is used to describe nearly anything with available all-wheel drive. There is no one definition for an SUV, Most government regulations simply have categories for off-highway vehicles, which in turn are lumped in with pickup trucks and minivans as light trucks.
The auto industry has not settled on one definition, starting in 2004, the United States Environmental Protection Agency began to hold sport utility vehicles to the same tailpipe emissions standards as cars. Many people question how can an SUV be called a truck, for industry production statistics, SUVs are counted in the light truck product segment. Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, and not all passenger vehicles are SUVs. While automakers tout an SUVs off-road prowess with advertising and naming, in India, all SUVs are classified in the Utility Vehicle category per the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers definitions and carry a 27% excise tax. Those that are 4 metres long, have a 1,500 cc engine or larger, although designs vary, SUVs have historically been mid-size passenger vehicles with a body-on-frame chassis similar to that found on light trucks. Early SUVs were mostly two-door models, and were available with removable tops, consumer demand pushed the SUV market towards four doors, by 2002 all full-size two-door SUVs were gone from the market.
Two-door SUVs were mostly carry-over models, and their sales were not viable enough to warrant a redesign at the end of their design cycle. The Jeep Wrangler remained as a compact two-door body style, although it was joined by a four-door variant starting with the 2007 model year. The number of two-door SUV models increased in the 2010s with the release of the Range Rover Evoque, Most SUVs are designed with an engine compartment, a combined passenger and cargo compartment, and no dedicated trunk such as in a station wagon body
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, and in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches, the Renault–Nissan Alliance is the fourth-largest automotive group. Renault has a 43. 4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 37% indirectly-owned stake in AvtoVAZ of Russia, Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Oyak-Renault, Renault Pars, Carlos Ghosn is the current chairman and CEO. The French government owns a 19. 73% share of Renault as of April 2015, Renault Trucks, previously known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of Volvo Trucks since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008, together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in sport, particularly rallying, Formula 1.
Its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics, the Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business, the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898. In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines, until it had purchased them from De Dion-Bouton, the first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis. These vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname Taxi de la Marne. By 1907, a significant percentage London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault, Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units, becoming the countrys largest car manufacturer, the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles.
Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained very involved, Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from very early on, at the time, cars were luxury items. The price of the smallest Renaults at the time were ₣3000 francs, in 1905 the company introduced mass-production techniques and Taylorism in 1913
The Morris Minor is a British car that debuted at the Earls Court Motor Show, London, on 20 September 1948. Designed under the leadership of Alec Issigonis, more than 1.3 million were manufactured between 1948 and 1972 in three series, the MM, the Series II and finally the 1000 series. It was the first British car to sell one million examples and is considered a classic example of automotive design. The Minor was conceived in 1941, vic Oak, the companys chief engineer, had already brought to Thomas attention a promising junior engineer, Alec Issigonis. Issigonis had been employed at Morris since 1935 and specialised in suspension design, Issigonis had come to Oaks particular attention with his work on the new Morris Ten, which was in development during 1936/7. This was the first Morris to use unitary construction and was conceived with independent front suspension, Issigonis designed a coil-sprung wishbone system which was dropped on cost grounds. Although the design would be used on the MG Y-type, despite his brief being to focus on the Tens suspension Issigonis had drawn up a rack and pinion steering system for the car.
With virtually all resources required for the war effort, Thomas nonetheless approved the development of a new family car that would replace the Morris Eight. Although Oak were in charge of the project it was Issigonis who was ultimately responsible for the design. Issigonis wanted the car to be as spacious as possible for its size, Issigonis design included the same ideas he had proposed for the Ten before the war, Independent suspension and rack and pinion steering plus the continued use of unitary construction. The French car, launched in 1934, had been an example of rack. Nearly every feature of the Minor serves the joint aims of good roadholding, for example, Issigonis specified 14-inch wheels for the Mosquito. These were smaller than any production car of the time. These small wheels reduced intrusion into the space and minimised unsprung mass for better ride comfort. The wheels themselves were placed as far as possible in each corner of the Mosquitos floorpan for the same reasons, the same went for the placement of the engine, far towards the front of the engine compartment.
With most cars of the time having a front beam axle, the new Morris independent suspension meant there was no front axle, allowing the engine to placed low down and far forwards. Placing the engine forward maximised cabin space, the engine itself as proposed by Issigonis was radical, being a water-cooled flat four unit. At the same time Thomas wanted the car to appeal to the all-important export markets, Issigonis solution was the flat-four engine which could easily be produced in two versions - a narrow-bore 800cc version for the British market and a wide-bore 1100cc version for export
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, which was manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance and competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world, on its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it the most beautiful car ever made. In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, in March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the worlds 100 most beautiful cars of all time. In popular culture the car features in the Austin Powers film series which parodies the Swinging London fashion scene of the 1960s, the E-Type was initially designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible. A 2+2 four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released years later. Later model updates of the E-Type were officially designated Series 2 and Series 3, as with other largely hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over exactly what is a Series 1 car.
This is of more academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and particularly Series 1 OTS examples—have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a Series 1½ or Series 1.5, over time, the pure 4. 2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965-1967. The 4. 2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, the Series 1.5 left hand drive OTS has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968, the Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable, essentially fall into two categories, Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3. The 4. 2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3. 8-litre with a reliable unit. The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power, as of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still, being a British made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types, particularly at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. Worldwide, including left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,8283. 8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built. Of the Series 1 cars, Jaguar manufactured some limited-edition variants, inspired by motor racing, Jaguar planned to produce 18 units but ultimately only a dozen were reportedly built. Of those, two have been converted to low drag form and two others are known to have been wrecked and deemed to be beyond repair, although one has now been rebuilt and these are exceedingly rare and sought after by collectors. *The Low Drag Coupé was a technical exercise which was ultimately sold to a Jaguar racing driver
FCA US is one of the Big Three American automobile manufacturers. FCA US has its headquarters in Auburn Hills and sells vehicles worldwide under its flagship Chrysler brand, as well as the Dodge, other major divisions include Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT, its performance automobile division. The Chrysler Corporation was founded by Walter Chrysler in 1925, out of what remained of the Maxwell Motor Company, Chrysler greatly expanded in 1928, when Mr. The brand diversification efforts were inspired by Mr. Chryslers time working for General Motors, in the 1960s the company expanded into Europe, by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies, Chrysler Europe was sold in 1978 to PSA Peugeot Citroën for $1. Chrysler struggled through the 1970s to adapt to changing markets, increased US import competition, the company began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, and began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America.
By the late 1970s, Chrysler was on the verge of bankruptcy, New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the Chrysler-Mitsubishi relationship, in 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was hit hard by the industry crisis of 2008–2010. On June 10,2009, Chrysler emerged from the proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S. p. A. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts, by May 24,2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years Fiat gradually acquired the other parties shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period. On January 1,2014, Fiat S. p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust.
The deal was completed on January 21,2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S. p. A, in May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV was established by merging Fiat S. p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014, Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15,2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger. The Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6,1925, Walter Chrysler arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s. He was hired to overhaul the companys troubled operations, in late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile, the Chrysler was a 6-cylinder automobile, designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, but at a more affordable price than they might expect. The original 1924 Chrysler included an air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication
Nissan Motor Company Ltd, usually shortened to Nissan, is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. The company sells its cars under the Nissan, since 1999, Nissan has been part of the Renault–Nissan Alliance, a partnership between Nissan and French automaker Renault. As of 2013, Renault holds a 43. 4% voting stake in Nissan, Carlos Ghosn serves as CEO of both companies. Taken together, the Renault–Nissan Alliance would be the fourth largest automaker, however Nissan is the leading Japanese brand in China, Russia. Nissan is the worlds largest electric vehicle manufacturer, with sales of more than 275,000 all-electric vehicles as of mid-December 2016. Masujiro Hashimoto founded the Kaishinsha Motor Car Works 1 July 1911, in 1914, the company produced its first car, called DAT. DAT Motors built trucks in addition to the DAT and Datsun passenger cars, beginning in 1918, the first DAT trucks were produced for the military market. At the same time, Jitsuyo Jidosha Co.
Ltd. produced small trucks using parts, Commercial operations were placed on hold during Japans participation in World War I, and the company contributed to the war effort. In 1926 the Tokyo-based DAT Motors merged with the Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co. Ltd. a. k. a, Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo to become DAT Jidosha Seizo Co. Ltd Automobile Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in Osaka until 1932, from 1923 to 1925, the company produced light cars and trucks under the name of Lila. In 1931, DAT came out with a new car, called the Datsun Type 11. Later in 1933 after Nissan Group zaibatsu took control of DAT Motors, in 1933, the company name was Nipponized to Jidosha-Seizo Co. Ltd. and was moved to Yokohama. In 1928, Yoshisuke Aikawa founded the holding company Nihon Sangyo, the name Nissan originated during the 1930s as an abbreviation used on the Tokyo Stock Exchange for Nihon Sangyo. This company was the famous Nissan Zaibatsu which included Tobata Casting, at this time Nissan controlled foundries and auto parts businesses, but Aikawa did not enter automobile manufacturing until 1933.
The zaibatsu eventually grew to include 74 firms, and became the fourth-largest in Japan during World War II, in 1931, DAT Jidosha Seizo became affiliated with Tobata Casting, and was merged into Tobata Casting in 1933. As Tobata Casting was a Nissan company, this was the beginning of Nissans automobile manufacturing, in 1934, Aikawa separated the expanded automobile parts division of Tobata Casting and incorporated it as a new subsidiary, which he named Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. The shareholders of the new company however were not enthusiastic about the prospects of the automobile in Japan, at this time, Nissan Motor effectively became owned by Nihon Sangyo and Hitachi. In 1935, construction of its Yokohama plant was completed,44 Datsuns were shipped to Asia and South America