Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act. Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, forms of torture can vary in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment, extortion, political re-education, coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false, or the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observing the torture. Alternatively, some forms of torture are designed to inflict psychological pain or leave as little physical injury or evidence as possible while achieving the same psychological devastation; the torturer may or may not kill or injure the victim, but torture may result in a deliberate death and serves as a form of capital punishment.

Depending on the aim a form of torture, intentionally fatal may be prolonged to allow the victim to suffer as long as possible. In other cases, the torturer may be indifferent to the condition of the victim. Although torture is sanctioned by some states, it is prohibited under international law and the domestic laws of most countries. Although illegal and reviled, there is an ongoing debate as to what is and is not defined as torture, it is a serious violation of human rights, is declared to be unacceptable by Article 5 of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Signatories of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols I and II of 8 June 1977 agree not to torture captured persons in armed conflicts, whether international or internal. Torture is prohibited for the signatories of the United Nations Convention Against Torture, which has 163 state parties. National and international legal prohibitions on torture derive from a consensus that torture and similar ill-treatment are immoral, as well as impractical, information obtained by torture is far less reliable than that obtained by other techniques.

Despite these findings and international conventions, organizations that monitor abuses of human rights report widespread use condoned by states in many regions of the world. Amnesty International estimates that at least 81 world governments practice torture, some of them openly; the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, in force since 26 June 1987, provides a broad definition of torture. Article 1.1 of the UN Convention Against Torture reads: For the purpose of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him, or a third person, information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.

It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to, lawful sanctions. This definition was restricted to apply only to nations and to government-sponsored torture and limits the torture to that perpetrated, directly or indirectly, by those acting in an official capacity, such as government personnel, law enforcement personnel, medical personnel, military personnel, or politicians, it appears to exclude: torture perpetrated by gangs, hate groups, rebels, or terrorists who ignore national or international mandates. Some professionals in the torture rehabilitation field believe that this definition is too restrictive and that the definition of politically motivated torture should be broadened to include all acts of organized violence. An broader definition was used in the 1975 Declaration of Tokyo regarding the participation of medical professionals in acts of torture: For the purpose of this Declaration, torture is defined as the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force another person to yield information, to make a confession, or for any other reason.

This definition includes torture as part of domestic violence or ritualistic abuse, as well as in criminal activities. The Rome Statute is the treaty; the treaty was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and went into effect on 1 July 2002. The Rome Statute provides a simplest definition of torture regarding the prosecution of war criminals by the International Criminal Court. Paragraph 1 under Article 7 of the Rome Statute provides that: "Torture" means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering

Enrico Caruso discography

The following discography is a work in progress. It contains all known published recordings by Enrico Caruso made through 1904 and some from his early years recording for the Victor Talking Machine Company in the United States; the recordings are listed chronologically by recording date, title and matrix number. A list of unpublished recordings follows the main discography; when more than one "take" was recorded for a selection, only the published take number appears after the matrix number. If only one take was recorded, no take number is listed after the matrix number. Matrix numbers should not be confused with catalog numbers; the Gramophone & Typewriter Co. Ltd. Milan, 11 April 1902. Accompanied by Salvatore Cottone, piano. Germania: Studenti! Udite Matrix no. 1782 Rigoletto: Questa o quella 1783 Aida: Celeste Aida 1784 Manon: Chiudo gli occhi 1785 L'elisir d'amore: Una furtiva lagrima 1786 Mefistofele: Giunto sul passo estremo 1787 Germania: No, non ciuder gli occhi vaghi 1788 Mefistofele: Dai campi, dai prati 1789 Tosca: E lucevan le stelle 1790 Iris: Apri la tua finestra 1791The Gramophone & Typewriter Co. Ltd.

Milan, 30 November 1902. Accompanied by Salvatore Cottone, piano. Mefistofele: Dai campi, dai prati matrix no. 2871 Fedora: Amor ti vieta 2872 Aida: Celeste Aida 2873 La Gioconda: Cielo e mar 2874 Pagliacci: Recitar... Vesti la giubba 2875 Cavalleria rusticana: O Lola 2876 Non t'amo piu 2877The Gramophone & Typewriter Co. Ltd. Milan, 1 December 1902. La mia canzone Matrix no. 2879 Accompanied by piano. Adriana Lecouvreur: Non piu nobile 2880 Accomponied by Cilea, piano. Luna fedel 2882 Accompanied by piano; the Anglo-Italian Commerce Co. Milan, 19 April 1903. Accompanist unknown. Un bacio ancora Matrix X-1550 Luna fedel X-1551 L'Elisir d'amore: Una furtiva lagrima X-1552 Tosca: E lucevan le stelle X-1553 Germania: No, non ciuder gli occhi vaghi X-1554 Rigoletto: La donna e mobile X-1555 Cavalleria rusticana: O Lola X-1556The Anglo-Italian Commerce Co. Milan, Autumn, 1903. Accompanist unknown. Tu non mi vuoi piu ben Matrix 84003 Tosca: E lucevan le stelle 84004 Gli Uginotti: Qui sotto il ciel 84006 The Gramophone & Typewriter Co. Ltd.

Milan, 8 April 1904. Mattinata Matrix 2181-h Accompanied by Leoncavallo, piano The Pearl Fishers: Mi par d'udir ancora 268-i Accompanied by Cottone, piano. 1 February 1904. Piano. Rigoletto: Questa o quella Matrix B994 Rigoletto: La donna e mobile B995 L'Elisir d'amore: Una furtiva lagrima B996 L'Elisir d'amore: Un solo istante C966-1 Aida: Celeste Aida C997 Tosca: E lucevan le stelle B998 Tosca: Recondita armonia B999 Cavalleria rusticana: O Lola B1000 Pagliacci Recitar... Vesti la giubba B10029 February 1904. Piano. Manon: Chiudo gli occhi B1001-227 February 1905. Piano. Don Pasquale Com e gentil Matrix C2340 Carmen Il fior che avevi a me tu dato C2341 Gli Uginotti Bianca al par di neve alpina C2342 La Gioconda Cielo e mar C2343 Cavalleria Rusticana Vivia il vino spumeggiante C234411 February 1906. Orchestra. Martha M'appari tutt' amor C3100-1 La Bohème Che gelida manina C3101 Faust Salut demeure chaste et pure C3102 Il Trovatore Di quella pira B3103 La Favorita Spirto gentil, ne sogni miei C310413 March 1906.

Orchestra. La Forza Del Destino with Antonio Scotti C3179 Aida Celeste Aida C3180-130 December 1906. Orchestra. Triste Ritorno C4159 Ideale C416220 February 1907. Orchestra. L'Africana Mi batte il cor. Orchestra. La Bohème O Mimi tu piu non torni with Antonio Scotti C4315 Andrea Chenier Un di all' azzurro spazio C4316 Pagliacci Recitar, mentre preso dal delerio. Pekka Gronow, Ilpo Saunio, International History of the Recording Industry, Continuum, 1999 ISBN 030470590X. Conversation with John Bolig about his book, Caruso Records: A History and Discography

Framing (construction)

Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are wood, engineered wood, or structural steel; the alternative to framed construction is called mass wall construction, where horizontal layers of stacked materials such as log building, rammed earth, etc. are used without framing. Building framing is divided into two broad categories, heavy-frame construction if the vertical supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing, pole building framing, or steel framing. Light-frame construction using standardized dimensional lumber has become the dominant construction method in North America and Australia due to the economy of the method. Modern light-frame structures gain strength from rigid panels, but until carpenters employed various forms of diagonal bracing to stabilize walls. Diagonal bracing remains a vital interior part of many roof systems, in-wall wind braces are required by building codes in many municipalities or by individual state laws in the United States.

Special framed shear walls are becoming more common to help buildings meet the requirements of earthquake engineering and wind engineering. People fitted shaped wooden poles together as framework and began using joints to connect the timbers, a method today called traditional timber framing' or log framing. In the United States, timber framing was superseded by balloon framing beginning in the 1830s. Balloon framing makes use of many lightweight wall members called studs rather than fewer, heavier supports called posts; the studs in a balloon frame extend two stories from sill to plate. Platform framing is the standard wooden framing method today; the name comes from each floor level being framed as platform. Framed construction was used in Scandinavia before the 20th century because of the abundant availability of wood, an abundance of cheap labour, the superiority of the thermal insulation of logs. Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions, both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls.

These stick members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels, serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall. The platforms may be the boxed structure of a ceiling and roof, or the ceiling and floor joists of the story above. In the building trades, the technique is variously referred to as stick and frame and platform, or stick and box, as the sticks give the structure its vertical support, the box-shaped floor sections with joists contained within length-long post and lintels, support the weight of whatever is above, including the next wall up and the roof above the top story; the platform provides the lateral support against wind and holds the stick walls true and square. Any lower platform supports the weight of the platforms and walls above the level of its component headers and joists. Framing lumber is subject to regulated standards that require a grade-stamp, a moisture content not exceeding 19%.

There are three common methods of framing a house. Post and beam, now used predominantly in barn construction. Balloon framing using a technique suspending floors from the walls was common until the late 1940s, but since that time, platform framing has become the predominant form of house construction. Platform framing forms wall sections horizontally on the sub-floor prior to erection, easing positioning of studs and increasing accuracy while cutting the necessary manpower; the top and bottom plates are end-nailed to each stud with two nails at least 3.25 in in length. Studs are at least doubled at openings, the jack stud being cut to receive the lintels that are placed and end-nailed through the outer studs. Wall sheathing a plywood or other laminate, is applied to the framing prior to erection, thus eliminating the need to scaffold, again increasing speed and cutting manpower needs and expenses; some types of exterior sheathing, such as asphalt-impregnated fiberboard, oriented strand board and waferboard, will provide adequate bracing to resist lateral loads and keep the wall square.

Others, such as rigid glass-fiber, asphalt-coated fiberboard, polystyrene or polyurethane board, will not. In this latter case, the wall should be reinforced with a diagonal wood or metal bracing inset into the studs. In jurisdictions subject to strong wind storms local codes or state law will require both the diagonal wind braces and the stiff exterior sheathing regardless of the type and kind of outer weather resistant coverings. A multiple-stud post made up of at least three studs, or the equivalent, is used at exterior corners and intersections to secure a good tie b