The Meiji Restoration known as the Meiji Renovation, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the emperor of Japan; the goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period; the Japanese knew that they were behind the Western world when American Commodore Matthew C. Perry came to Japan in 1853 in large warships with armament and technology that far outclassed those of Japan with the intent to conclude a treaty that would open up Japanese ports to trade. Figures like Shimazu Nariakira concluded. Observing Japan's response to the Western powers, Chinese general Li Hongzhang considered Japan to be China's "principal security threat" as early as 1863, five years before the Meiji Restoration.
The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day, bringing to an end the era known as sakoku. The word "Meiji" means "enlightened rule" and the goal was to combine "modern advances" with traditional "eastern" values; the main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, Yamaguchi Naoyoshi. The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain; these two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and restoring the Emperor to power. After Kōmei's death on January 30, 1867, Meiji ascended the throne on February 3; this period saw Japan change from being a feudal society to having a market economy and left the Japanese with a lingering influence of Modernity.
The Tokugawa government had been founded in the 17th century and focused on reestablishing order in social and international affairs after a century of warfare. The political structure, established by Ieyasu and solidified under his two immediate successors, his son Hidetada and grandson Iemitsu, bound all daimyōs to the shogunate and limited any individual daimyō from acquiring too much land or power; the Tokugawa shogunate came to its official end on November 9, 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th Tokugawa shōgun, "put his prerogatives at the Emperor's disposal" and resigned 10 days later. This was the "restoration" of imperial rule – although Yoshinobu still had significant influence and it was not until January 3, the following year, with the young Emperor's edict, that the restoration occurred. Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex-shōgun's army; this forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power.
On January 3, 1868, the Emperor made a formal declaration of the restoration of his power: The Emperor of Japan announces to the sovereigns of all foreign countries and to their subjects that permission has been granted to the Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to return the governing power in accordance with his own request. We shall henceforward exercise supreme authority in all the internal and external affairs of the country; the title of Emperor must be substituted for that of Taikun, in which the treaties have been made. Officers are being appointed by us to the conduct of foreign affairs, it is desirable. All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under "imperial control", thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government. With Fuhanken sanchisei, the areas were split into three types: urban prefectures, rural prefectures and the existing domains. In 1869, the daimyōs of the Tosa, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains, who were pushing most fiercely against the shogunate, were persuaded to "return their domains to the Emperor".
Other daimyō were subsequently persuaded to do so, thus creating, arguably for the first time, a central government in Japan which exercised direct power through the entire "realm". Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo; the defeat of the armies of the former shōgun marked the final end of the Tokugawa shogunate, with the Emperor's power restored. By 1872, the daimyōs, past and present, were summoned before the Emperor, where it was declared that all domains were now to be returned to the Emperor; the 280 domains were turned into 72 prefectures, each under the control of a state-appointed governor. If the daimyōs peacefully complied, they were given a prominent voice in the new Meiji
Awa Province (Chiba)
Awa Province was a province of Japan in the area of modern Chiba Prefecture. It lies on the tip of the Bōsō Peninsula, whose name takes its first kanji from the name of Awa Province and its second from Kazusa and Shimōsa Provinces, its abbreviated form name was Bōshū or Anshū. Awa Province in Shikoku is written with different kanji. Awa is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō. Under the Engishiki classification system, Awa was ranked as a "middle country" and a "far country". Awa was one of four districts of Kazusa Province, it was well-known to the Imperial Court in Nara period Japan for its bountiful seafoods, is mentioned in Nara period records as having supplied fish to the Court as early as the reign of the semi-legendary Emperor Keikō. On May 2, 718 the district of Awa was elevated into status to a full province. On December 10, 741 it was merged back into Kazusa, but regained its independent status in 757; the exact location of the capital of the new province is not known, but is believed to have been somewhere within the borders of the modern city of Minamibōsō, Chiba.
During the Heian period, the province was divided into numerous shōen controlled by local samurai clans. These clans sided with Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Genpei War; the history of the province in the Kamakura period is uncertain, but it came under the control of the Yūki clan and the Uesugi clan in the early Muromachi period. However, by the Sengoku period, the Satomi clan had gained control over much of Awa and Shimōsa provinces; the Satomi sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu in the Battle of Sekigahara, but after being implicated in the political intrigues of Ōkubo Tadachika in 1614, were forced to surrender their domains for Kurayoshi Domain in Hōki Province, Awa became tenryō territory administered by various hatamoto aside from five small domains created at various times in the Edo period, with an additional two domains created at the start of the Meiji period. The entire province had an assessed revenue of 95,736 koku; the various domains and tenryo territories were transformed into short-lived prefectures in July 1871 by the abolition of the han system, the entire territory of Awa Province became part of the new Chiba Prefecture on June 15, 1873.
Asai District – merged into Awa District on April 1, 1897 Awa District – absorbed Asai and Nagasa Districts on April 1, 1897 Heguri District – merged into Awa District on April 1, 1897 Nagasa District – merged into Awa District on April 1, 1897 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Kōchi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the south coast of Shikoku. The capital is the city of Kōchi. Prior to the Meiji Restoration, Kōchi was known as Tosa Province and was controlled by the Chōsokabe clan in the Sengoku period and the Yamauchi clan during the Edo period. Kōchi City is the birthplace of noted revolutionary Sakamoto Ryōma. Kōchi Prefecture comprises the southwestern part of the island of Shikoku, it is bordered by Ehime to Tokushima to the north-east. It is the least populous of Shikoku's four prefectures. Most of the province is mountainous, in only a few areas such as around Kōchi and Nakamura is there a coastal plain. Kōchi is famous for its many rivers. Inamura-yama in Tosa-cho is the highest peak in Kōchi prefecture with an altitude of 1,506 meters above sea level; as of April 1, 2012, 7% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Ashizuri-Uwakai National Park. Eleven cities are located in Kōchi Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: Kōchi Castle, one of only 12 original castles left in Japan Katsurahama Ryugado Cave, one of Japan's top three caves Shimanto River, the only undammed river in Japan Godaisan Anpanman Museum The 2013 movie Hospitality Department is set in Kōchi.
The film shows views of Kōchi Prefecture. The 2009 movie The Harimaya Bridge starring Danny Glover was set in Kochi. Like most areas of Japan, Kōchi advertises itself as specialising in a major food item, in this case, Katsuo no Tataki. Katsuo no Tataki is Skipjack Tuna or Bonito seared. Traditionally this is done over the straw generated as a by-product of the rice harvest. FestivalYosakoi Festival - Yosakoi is a unique style of dance that originated in Japan and, performed at festivals and events all over the country; the sports teams listed below are based in Kōchi. BaseballKōchi Fighting DogsFootballKōchi United SC Tosa Domain 高知県 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Google Books is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, stored in its digital database. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project. Additionally, Google has partnered with a number of magazine publishers to digitize their archives; the Publisher Program was first known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. The Google Books Library Project, which scans works in the collections of library partners and adds them to the digital inventory, was announced in December 2004; the Google Books initiative has been hailed for its potential to offer unprecedented access to what may become the largest online body of human knowledge and promoting the democratization of knowledge. However, it has been criticized for potential copyright violations, lack of editing to correct the many errors introduced into the scanned texts by the OCR process.
As of October 2015, the number of scanned book titles was over 25 million, but the scanning process has slowed down in American academic libraries. Google estimated in 2010 that there were about 130 million distinct titles in the world, stated that it intended to scan all of them. Results from Google Books show up in both the universal Google Search and in the dedicated Google Books search website. In response to search queries, Google Books allows users to view full pages from books in which the search terms appear if the book is out of copyright or if the copyright owner has given permission. If Google believes the book is still under copyright, a user sees "snippets" of text around the queried search terms. All instances of the search terms in the book text appear with a yellow highlight; the four access levels used on Google Books are: Full view: Books in the public domain are available for "full view" and can be downloaded for free. In-print books acquired through the Partner Program are available for full view if the publisher has given permission, although this is rare.
Preview: For in-print books where permission has been granted, the number of viewable pages is limited to a "preview" set by a variety of access restrictions and security measures, some based on user-tracking. The publisher can set the percentage of the book available for preview. Users are restricted from downloading or printing book previews. A watermark reading "Copyrighted material" appears at the bottom of pages. All books acquired through the Partner Program are available for preview. Snippet view: A'snippet view' – two to three lines of text surrounding the queried search term – is displayed in cases where Google does not have permission of the copyright owner to display a preview; this could be because Google can not identify the owner declined permission. If a search term appears many times in a book, Google displays no more than three snippets, thus preventing the user from viewing too much of the book. Google does not display any snippets for certain reference books, such as dictionaries, where the display of snippets can harm the market for the work.
Google maintains. No preview: Google displays search results for books that have not been digitized; as these books have not been scanned, their text is not searchable and only the metadata such as the title, publisher, number of pages, ISBN, subject and copyright information, in some cases, a table of contents and book summary is available. In effect, this is similar to an online library card catalog. In response to criticism from groups such as the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, Google announced an opt-out policy in August 2005, through which copyright owners could provide a list of titles that it did not want scanned, Google would respect the request. Google stated that it would not scan any in-copyright books between August and 1 November 2005, to provide the owners with the opportunity to decide which books to exclude from the Project. Thus, Google provides a copyright owner with three choices with respect to any work: It can participate in the Partner Program to make a book available for preview or full view, in which case it would share revenue derived from the display of pages from the work in response to user queries.
It can let Google scan the book under the Library Project and display snippets in response to user queries. It can opt out of the Library Project. If the book has been scanned, Google will reset its access level as'No preview'. Most scanned works are commercially available. In addition to procuring books from libraries, Google obtains books from its publisher partners, through the "Partner Program" – designed to help publishers and authors promote their books. Publishers and authors submit either a digital copy of their book in EPUB or PDF format, or a print copy to Google, made available on Google Books for preview; the publisher can control the percentage of the book available for preview, with the minimum being 20%. They can choose to make the book viewable, allow users to download a PDF copy. Books can be made available for sale on Google Play. Unlike the Library Project, this does not raise any copyright concerns as it is conducted pursuant to an agreement with the publisher; the publisher can choose to withdraw from the agreement at any time.
For many books, Google Books displays the original page numbers. However, Tim Pa
Nankoku is a city located in Kōchi Prefecture, Japan. Strong in the fishing industry and the market industry, Nankoku-shi supplies most of Kochi's agricultural needs, because of the amount of fields and plantations. Kōchi Ryōma Airport, which serves the city of Kochi, is located southeast of Nankoku-shi; the city was formally named on October 1, 1959. As of March 31, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 47‚776, with 21‚952 households and a population density of 380 persons per km²; the total area is 125.35 km². Kōchi Ryōma Airport JR ShikokuDosan LineTosa Kuroshio RailwayTosa Kuroshio Railway Asa LineTosaden KōtsūTosaden Kōtsū Gomen Line Kochi Prefectural Museum of History OKō Castle Tosa Kokubunji Zenjibuji Hiroshi Miyama, enka singer Yuji Okabayashi, professional wrestler Nankoku City official website Kitaro Shikoku Peace Bell Project Geographic data related to Nankoku, Kōchi at OpenStreetMap Nankoku travel guide from Wikivoyage
Shima Province was a province of Japan which consisted of a peninsula in the southeastern part of modern Mie Prefecture. Its abbreviated name was Shishū. Shima bordered on Ise Province to the west, on Ise Bay on the north and south. Shima is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō, was the smallest of all provinces. Under the Engishiki classification system, Shima was ranked as a "inferior country" and a "near country", in terms of its distance from the capital. Shima was an autonomous district of Ise Province, noted as a prosperous fishing region, during the Nara period governors of the district were responsible for providing annual gifts of fish and abalone to the Emperor, it was separated from Ise Province during early 8th centuries. During the Asuka period and Nara period it was dominated by the Takahashi clan; as the arable land area of Shima Province was small, portions of the rice lands of Ise Province, as well as Mikawa Province and Owari Province were considered as part of the taxable revenues of Shima Province for the purpose of upkeep of its provincial capital and temples.
The exact location of the provincial capital is not known, but is traditionally believed to have been in Ago part of the city of Shima where the ruins of the Kokubun-ji of Shima Province have been discovered. The Ichinomiya of the province is the Izawa-no-miya, one of the subsidiary shrines within the Ise Grand Shrine complex. During the Kamakura period Shima came under the control of Hōjō clan, followed by the Kitabatake clan for much of the Muromachi period, although the Kuki clan pirates in Ise Bay based at Toba Castle dominated much of the coastal areas by the end of the Sengoku period. Ohama Kagetaka was a pirate operating in the Ise Bay area of Shima Province during the 16th century. With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, Kuki Moritaka was confirmed as daimyō of Toba with revenues of 35,000 koku, growing to 55,000 koku under his son Kuki Hisataka, transferred to Sanda Domain in Settsu Province; the Kuki were replaced by the tozama Naitō clan, which ruled Toba to 1680. The domain reverted to tenryō status under the direct control of the Shogunate for one year.
It came under the control of the Doi clan, Ogyu-Matsudaira clan, Itakura clan, Toda-Matsudaira clan before coming under the Inagaki clan, where it remained until the Meiji Restoration. During the Boshin War, Inagaki Nagayuki remained loyal to the Shogunate, as a result was fined by the Meiji government and forced into retirement, his son, Inagaki Nagahiro became domain governor, after the abolition of the han system in July 1871, Toba Domain became "Toba Prefecture", which merged with the short lived "Watarai Prefecture" of former Ise Province in November 1871, which became part of Mie Prefecture. Mie Prefecture Ago District - merged with Tōshi District to become Shima District on March 29, 1896 Tōshi District - merged with Ago District to become Shima District on March 29, 1896 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Shima Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Chōsokabe Motochika was a Japanese Sengoku-period daimyō. His childhood name was Yasaburō, he was the 21st chief of the Chōsokabe clan of Tosa Province. He was the son and heir of Chōsokabe Kunichika and his mother was a daughter of the Saitō clan of Mino Province. In the 1562 Battle of Asakura Chosakabe Motochika defeated Motoyama Shigetoki and gained control of Shikoku Island, he went on to take Aki Castle in the 1569 Siege of Aki. In the 1575 Battle of Shimantogawa, he defeated the Ichijo family. In 1575, Motochika was victorious at the Battle of Watarigawa, gaining control of Tosa Province. Over the ensuing decade, he extended his power to all of Shikoku; this included the Battle of Hikita. However, in 1585, Hashiba Hideyoshi invaded that island with a force of 100,000 men, led by Ukita Hideie, Kobayakawa Takakage, Kikkawa Motonaga, Hashiba Hidenaga, Hashiba Hidetsugu. Motochika surrendered, forfeited Awa and Iyo Provinces. Under Hideyoshi and his son Nobuchika participated in the invasion of neighboring Kyūshū, in which Nobuchika died.
In 1590, Motochika led a fleet in the Siege of Odawara, fought in the Japanese invasions of Korea in 1592. In 1596 the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked in Chōsokabe territory while en route from Manila to Acapulco. Motochika seized the cargo of the ship, the incident escalated all the way up to Hideyoshi, leading to the crucifixion of 26 Christians in Nagasaki, the first lethal persecution of Christians by the state in Japan. Motochika died in 1599 at age 60 at his mansion in Fushimi, his successor was Chōsokabe Morichika. Father: Chōsokabe Kunichika Mother: Daughter of the Saitō clan Wife: Lady Motochika Concubine: Koshōshō, or Lady Ōgata Sons: Chōsokabe Nobuchika by Lady Motochika Kazawa Chikakaze by Lady Motochika Tsuno Chikatada by Lady Motochika Chōsokabe Morichika by Lady Motochika Chōsokabe Ukondaifu by Lady Ogata Chōsokabe Yasutoyo Daughters: Unknown daughter by Lady Motochika Akohime by Lady Motochika Unknown daughter by Lady Motochika Unknown daughter by Lady Motochika He is a playable character in Pokémon Conquest, with his partner Pokémon being Dewott and Samurott.
Motochika is a playable character from Samurai Warriors 2 Xtreme Legends onwards, where he wields a shamisen, he continuously calls himself as "The Bat King", due to Nobunaga referring to him as a "the bat who refuses to fly away from its home". Motochika is a playable character in the Sony PlayStation game, Sengoku Basara where he wields an anchor and appears as a pirate, he appears in the anime adaptation of the game Sengoku Basara: Samurai Kings. 新井政義（編集者）『日本史事典』。東京：旺文社 1987