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Tosefta

The Tosefta is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the late 2nd century, the period of the Mishnah. In many ways, the Tosefta acts as a supplement to the Mishnah; the Mishnah is the basic compilation of the Oral law of Judaism. The Tosefta corresponds to the Mishnah, with the same divisions for sedarim and masekhot, it is written in Mishnaic Hebrew, with some Aramaic. At times the text of the Tosefta agrees nearly verbatim with the Mishnah. At others there are significant differences; the Tosefta attributes laws that are anonymous in the Mishnah to named Tannaim. It augments the Mishnah with additional glosses and discussions, it offers additional aggadic and midrashic material, it sometimes contradicts the Mishnah in the ruling of Jewish law, or in attributing in whose name a law was stated. According to rabbinic tradition, the Tosefta was redacted by Ḥiya bar Abba and one of his students, Hoshaiah. Whereas the Mishna was considered authoritative, the Tosefta was supplementary; the Talmud utilizes the traditions found in the Tosefta to examine the text of the Mishnah.

The traditional view is that the Tosefta should be dated to a period concurrent with or shortly after the redaction of the Mishnah. This view pre-supposes that the Tosefta was produced in order to record variant material not included in the Mishnah. Modern scholarship can be divided into two camps. Some, such as Jacob N. Epstein, theorize that the Tosefta as we have it developed from a proto-Tosefta recension which formed much of the basis for Amoraic debate. Others, such as Hanokh Albeck, theorize that the Tosefta is a compendium of several baraitot collections which were in use during the Amoraic period. More recent scholarship, such as that of Yaakov Elman, concludes that since the Tosefta, as we know it, must be dated linguistically as an example of Middle Hebrew 1, it was most compiled in early Amoraic times from oral transmission of baraitot. Shamma Friedman has found that the Tosefta draws on early Tannaitic source material and that parts of the Tosefta predate the Mishnah. Alberdina Houtman and colleagues theorize that while the Mishnah was compiled in order to establish an authoritative text on halakhic tradition, a more conservative party opposed the exclusion of the rest of tradition and produced the Tosefta to avoid the impression that the written Mishnah was equivalent to the entire oral Torah.

The original intention was that the two texts would be viewed on equal standing, but the succinctness of the Mishnah and the power and influence of Judah ha-Nasi made it more popular among most students of tradition. The state of the source material is such to allow divergent opinions to exist; these opinions serve to show the difficulties in establishing a clear picture of the origins of the Tosefta. Rabbi Sherira Gaon, in a letter written to the heads of the Jewish community in Kairuan, has disclosed somewhat about the authority of the Tosefta in relation to the Mishnah. There, he writes: We do not follow the opinion of R. Ḥiya, as expressed in a Baraita, if he disputes with Rebbe. For example, let us suppose that a certain halacha had been a matter of dispute between R. Meir and R. Yosi. Had R. Ḥiya come along, in the Tosefta, stated that the halacha had been a matter of dispute - though it has now been reported anonymously - we follow the Mishnah rather than take up the episode which places the rabbis at variance.

Whenever R. Meir and R. Yosi disagree, the halacha follows R. Yosi. Since in the Mishnah, Rebbe mentioned only R. Meir's opinion, we follow R. Meir. Rabbi Sherira Gaon brings down the reverse of this example: "Or, let us suppose that Rebbe in the Mishnah records a dispute between R. Meir and R. Yosi. However, R. Ḥiya prefers R. Meir's argument, therefore records it in a Baraita without mentioning R. Yosi's opposing view. In such a case, we do not accept decision." Three manuscripts exist of the Tosefta, they are:'Vienna','Erfurt', and,'London'. The Editio Princeps was printed in Venice in 1521 as an addendum to Isaac Alfasi's Halakhot. All four of these sources, together with many Cairo Geniza fragments, have been published online by Bar Ilan University in the form of a searchable database. Two critical editions have been published; the first was that of Moses Samuel Zuckermandl in 1882, which relied on the Erfurt manuscript of the Tosefta. Zuckermandl's work has been characterized as "a great step forward" for its time.

This edition was reprinted in 1970 with additional notes and corrections. In 1955 Saul Lieberman first began publishing his monumental Tosefta ki-Feshutah. Between 1955 and 1973, ten volumes of the new edition were published, representing the text and the commentaries on the entire orders of Zera'im, Mo'ed and Nashim. In 1988, three volumes were published posthumously on the order of Nezikin, including tractates Bava Kama, Bava Metzia, Bava Batra. Lieberman's work has been called the "pinnacle of modern Tosefta studies." Major commentaries on the Tosefta include those by: David Pardo: Chasdei David. Y

Barium

Barium is a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal; because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern times as baryta, does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate; the most common occurring minerals of barium are barite and witherite, both insoluble in water. The name barium originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", from Greek βαρύς, meaning "heavy". Baric is the adjectival form of barium. Barium was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808 with the advent of electrolysis. Barium has few industrial applications, it was used as a getter for vacuum tubes and in oxide form as the emissive coating on indirectly heated cathodes. It is a component of YBCO and electroceramics, is added to steel and cast iron to reduce the size of carbon grains within the microstructure. Barium compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green color.

Barium sulfate is used as an insoluble additive to oil well drilling fluid, as well as in a purer form, as X-ray radiocontrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract. The soluble barium ion and soluble compounds are poisonous, have been used as rodenticides. Barium is a silvery-white metal, with a slight golden shade when ultrapure; the silvery-white color of barium metal vanishes upon oxidation in air yielding a dark gray oxide layer. Barium has good electrical conductivity. Ultrapure barium is difficult to prepare, therefore many properties of barium have not been measured yet. At room temperature and pressure, barium has a body-centered cubic structure, with a barium–barium distance of 503 picometers, expanding with heating at a rate of 1.8×10−5/°C. It is a soft metal with a Mohs hardness of 1.25. Its melting temperature of 1,000 K is intermediate between those of the lighter strontium and heavier radium; the density is again intermediate between those of radium. Barium is chemically similar to magnesium and strontium, but more reactive.

It always exhibits the oxidation state of +2. Most exceptions are in a few rare and unstable molecular species that are only characterised in the gas phase such as BaF, but a barium species has been reported in a graphite intercalation compound. Reactions with chalcogens are exothermic. Reactions with other nonmetals, such as carbon, phosphorus and hydrogen, are exothermic and proceed upon heating. Reactions with water and alcohols are exothermic and release hydrogen gas: Ba + 2 ROH → Ba2 + H2↑ Barium reacts with ammonia to form complexes such as Ba6; the metal is attacked by most acids. Sulfuric acid is a notable exception because passivation stops the reaction by forming the insoluble barium sulfate on the surface. Barium combines with several metals, including aluminium, zinc and tin, forming intermetallic phases and alloys. Barium salts are white when solid and colorless when dissolved, barium ions provide no specific coloring, they are denser than the calcium analogs, except for the halides.

Barium hydroxide was known to alchemists. Unlike calcium hydroxide, it absorbs little CO2 in aqueous solutions and is therefore insensitive to atmospheric fluctuations; this property is used in calibrating pH equipment. Volatile barium compounds burn with a green to pale green flame, an efficient test to detect a barium compound; the color results from spectral lines at 455.4, 493.4, 553.6, 611.1 nm. Organobarium compounds are a growing field of knowledge: discovered are dialkylbariums and alkylhalobariums. Barium found in the Earth's crust is a mixture of seven primordial nuclides, barium-130, 132, 134 through 138. Barium-130 undergoes slow radioactive decay to xenon-130 by double beta plus decay, with a half-life of ×1021 years, its abundance is ≈ 0.1 %. Theoretically, barium-132 can undergo double beta decay to xenon-132; the radioactivity of these isotopes are so weak. Of the stable isotopes, barium-138 composes 71.7% of all barium. In total, barium has about 40 known isotopes, ranging in mass between 114 and 153.

The most stable artificial radioisotope is barium-133 with a half-life of 10.51 years. Five other isotopes have half-lives longer than a day. Barium has 10 meta states, of which barium-133m1 is the most stable with a half-life of about 39 hours. Alchemists in the early Middle Ages knew about some barium minerals. Smooth pebble-like stones of mineral baryte were found in volcanic rock near Bologna, so were called "Bologna stones". Alchemists were attracted to them; the phosphorescent properties of baryte heated with organics were described by V. Casciorolus in 16

HCalendar

HCalendar is a microformat standard for displaying a semantic HTML representation of iCalendar-format calendar information about an event, on web pages, using HTML classes and rel attributes. It allows parsing tools to extract the details of the event, display them using some other website, index or search them, or to load them into a calendar or diary program, for instance. Multiple instances can be displayed as timelines. Consider this semi-fictional example: The English Wikipedia was launched on 15 January 2001 with a party from 2-4pm at Jimmy Wales' house; the HTML mark-up might be: hCalendar mark-up may be added using span HTML elements and the classes vevent, dtstart, dtend and url: Note the use of the abbr element to contain the machine readable, ISO8601, date-time format for the start and end times. Concerns have been expressed that, where it occurs, the use of the abbr element in the above manner causes accessibility problems, not least for users of screen readers and aural browsers.

The newer h-event microformat therefore uses the HTML5 element time instead: The Geo microformat is a part of the hCalendar specification, is used to include the coordinates of the event's location within an hCalendar. For a full list of attributes, see the hCalendar cheat-sheet. Notable organisations and other websites using hCalendar include: Birmingham Town Hall and Symphony Hall Facebook Google The Opera web browser website The Radio Times The University of Bath The University of Washington Upcoming.org Wikipedia Yahoo!, on Yahoo! Local hCalendar at the Microformats Wiki

The Economic Information and Education Center

The Economic Information and Education Center is an affiliated organization of Korea Development Institute, a leading think tank of Korea. EIEC aims to enhance the public understanding of economy by providing accurate economic information, publishing economic policy-related periodicals, hosting workshops and training programs and distributing economic educational materials, conducting public-opinion surveys on economic issues. KDI was founded in March 1971. Following integration with the National Institute for Economic System and Information, the Center for Economic Education was established in 1991 as a subordinate entity of KDI. In 1998, the Center for Economic Education was renamed as the Economic Information and Education Center. EIEC is headed by an executive director whose position is held by Dr. Koh Il-dong, a senior research fellow and economist at the KDI. EIEC consists of two divisions: the Division of Economic Information and the Division of Economic Education. Division of Economic Information The main responsibility of the Division of Economic Information is to collect and disseminate various economy-related information.

The division publishes monthly economic policy magazines both in Korean and English, reviews latest news from domestic and international mass media, surveys and analyzes the views of opinion leaders and the general public. Division of Economic Education The Division of Economic Education conducts various types of activities such as economics camps for students, economics seminars for school teachers, scholastic competitions relating to economics for high school students, conferences on national and global economic issues for government officials, it develops and distributes various educational contents and teaching-learning materials in order to promote a higher level of economic education. EIEC publishes various economic policy-related journals including monthly Narakyungje, an exclusive economic policy magazine in Korea, Economic Bulletin, an English-written magazine which focuses on the Korean economy. EIEC publishes study materials such as Click! Economic Education, a monthly publication that provides summaries and commentaries on economy-related curricula and current economic affairs.

KDI Official Website EIEC Official Website

The Dark Side (DarkSun album)

The Dark Side is the third studio album by power metal band DarkSun, the English version of El Lado Oscuro, the album was released in September 2007. The Dark was released in September 2007 through FC Metal Recordings; the critics were as good as the Spanish version, like "the album can be defined with one word: brilliant!". The band collaborated on Rage's album Speak of the Dead, with a Spanish version of the song "Full Moon" entitled "La Luna Reine," which appeared as a bonus track. Just after the release of The Dark Side drummer Rafael Yugueros left DarkSun to form part of power metal band WarCry replacing former drummer Alberto Ardines. Yugueros had worked with WarCry on their 1997's demo Demon 97; the band re-recruited Daniel Cabal. On the summer of 2008 DarkSun announced that Cabalwas leaving the band, all these occurred in a professional and friendly way from both parties. On the same announcement the band presented new drummer Jose Ojeda, who had performed drums on Spanish bands like Rivendel Lords, among others.

Invocation The Dark Side A Hero Reborn Slaves of Fear Blood Brothers Prisoners of Fate Echoes of the Past Elegy I, confrontation Elegy II, light between the darkness Elegy III, agony Legend Dani González - vocals, guitars Tino Hevia - guitars Pedro Junquera - bass Víctor Fernández - keyboards Rafael Yugueros - drums DarkSun's Website

Variations for Orchestra (Carter)

Variations for Orchestra is an orchestral composition by the American composer Elliott Carter. The work was commissioned by the Louisville Orchestra and was composed between 1953 and 1955, it was given its premiere on 21 April 1956 by the Louisville Orchestra under the conductor Robert Whitney, both to whom the work is dedicated. This is Carter's next major work after his first String Quartet Variations for Orchestra has a duration of 24 minutes and consists of twelve connected movements comprising an introduction, a theme, nine variations, a finale: Introduction: Allegro Theme: Andante Variation 1: Vivace leggero Variation 2: Pesante Variation 3: Moderato Variation 4: Ritardando molto Variation 5: Allegro misterioso Variation 6: Accelerando molto Variation 7: Andante Variation 8: Allegro giocoso Variation 9: Andante Finale: Allegro molto The work is scored for an orchestra comprising two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two trombones, bass trombone, timpani, percussion and strings.

Variations for Orchestra has been praised by music critics. Anthony Tommasini of The New York Times wrote, " goal was to write a work of exhilarating variety. Indeed, one way to listen to this piece is to forget everything about the theme-and-variations form and revel instead in the boldly contrasting moods, harmonies and characters of the music." Tim Page of The Washington Post remarked:As with so much of Carter's music, this work is based on clashes of musical opposites. The "theme" in these variations is augmented by two significant but different motifs. One has the sensation that all of the variations are being played at once.