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Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection is the total reflection, in the most commonly-recognized case, of light waves at the inteface between water and air, causing an image of the underwater scene to be reflected from the underside of the surface. The phenomenon happens to a wave incident at a sufficiently oblique angle on the interface between two media, of which the second medium is transparent to such waves but has a higher wave velocity than the first medium. TIR is the phenomenon that makes the water-to-air surface in a fish-tank look like a silvered mirror when viewed from below the water level, it occurs not only with electromagnetic waves such as light waves and microwaves, but with other types of waves, including sound and water waves. In the case of a narrow train of waves, such as a laser beam, we tend to describe the reflection in terms of "rays" rather than waves. Refraction is accompanied by partial reflection; when a wavetrain is refracted from a medium of lower propagation speed to a medium of higher propagation speed, the angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence.

Hence, as the angle of incidence approaches a certain limit, called the critical angle, the angle of refraction approaches 90°, at which the refracted ray becomes tangential to the interface. As the angle of incidence increases beyond the critical angle, the conditions of refraction can no longer be satisfied. In an isotropic medium such as air, water, or glass, the ray direction is the direction normal to the wavefront. If the internal and external media are isotropic with refractive indices n1 and n2 the critical angle is given by‍ θ c = arcsin ⁡, is defined if‍ n2 ≤ n1. For example, for visible light, the critical angle is about 49° for incidence from water to air, about 42° for incidence from common glass to air. Details of the mechanism of TIR give rise to more subtle phenomena. While total reflection, by definition, involves no continuing transfer of power across the interface, the external medium carries a so-called evanescent wave, which travels along the interface with an amplitude that falls off exponentially with distance from the interface.

The "total" reflection is indeed total if the external medium is lossless, of infinite extent, but can be conspicuously less than total if the evanescent wave is absorbed by a lossy external medium, or diverted by the outer boundary of the external medium or by objects embedded in that medium. Unlike partial reflection between transparent media, total internal reflection is accompanied by a non-trivial phase shift for each component of polarization, the shifts vary with the angle of incidence; the explanation of this effect by Augustin-Jean Fresnel, in 1823, added to the evidence in favor of the wave theory of light. The phase shifts are utilized by the Fresnel rhomb, to modify polarization; the efficiency of the reflection is exploited by optical fibers, by reflective prisms, such as erecting prisms for binoculars. Although total internal reflection can occur with any kind of wave that can be said to have oblique incidence, including microwaves and sound waves, it is most familiar in the case of light waves.

Total internal reflection of light can be demonstrated using a semicircular-cylindrical block of common glass or acrylic glass. In Fig. 3, a "ray box" projects a narrow beam of light radially inward. The semicircular cross-section of the glass allows the incoming ray to remain perpendicular to the curved portion of the air/glass surface, thence to continue in a straight line towards the flat part of the surface, although its angle with the flat part varies. Where the ray meets the flat glass-to-air interface, the angle between the ray and the normal to the interface is called the angle of incidence. If this angle is sufficiently small, the ray is reflected but transmitted, the transmitted portion is refracted away from the normal, so that the angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence. For the moment, let us call the angle of incidence θi and the angle of refraction θt; as θi increases and approaches a certain "critical angle", denoted by θc, the angle of refraction approaches 90°, the refracted ray becomes fainter while the reflected ray becomes brighter.

As θi increases beyond θc, the refracted ray disappears and only the reflected ray remains, so that all of the energy of the incident ray is reflected. In brief: If θi < θc‍,‍ the incident ray is split, being reflected and refracted. The critical angle is the smallest angle of incidence. For light waves and other electromagnetic waves in isotropic media, there is a well-known formula for the critical angle in terms of the refractive indices. For some

John Bradby Blake

John Bradby Blake was an English botanist. Working in China as a resident supercargo for the British East India Company, he sent seeds of local plants to Britain and the American colonies for propagation while recording and studying Chinese plants and culture. Though he died at the age of 27, Bradby Blake left behind a rich archive of his work and correspondence that gives insight into cross-cultural interactions and botanical study in China at the time. John Bradby Blake was the son of his wife Mary. John Blake, like his father, was a ship's captain. At the age of 20, he sailed for southeast Asia with the East India Company ship the Halifax, serving as second mate. John Blake sailed with the Halifax again on the ship's next voyage. Through voyages with the East India Company and through command of private vessels in Asia, Captain Blake became a wealthy man. From the 1760s he was manager of a business transporting fresh fish to a market in Westminster, an attempt to circumvent the monopoly of the fishmonger's company, although stepped away from that project due to financial difficulties.

He married Mary Tymewell on November 17, 1743. Of the couple's 12 children, only three would survive beyond the age of two. While John Bradby Blake was working in Canton and Macao, Captain Blake was an essential part of his son's international botanical network. Involved in the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, Captain Blake connected John Bradby Blake's shipments of seeds and other botanical materials with botanists and merchants around the world; this included correspondence with John Ellis, whose designs for transporting live plants across the ocean are similar to John Bradby Blake's, Henry Laurens, a future signer of the American Declaration of Independence. It was Captain John Blake who, with the help of Whang-y-Tong, compiled an archive of Bradby Blake's work and correspondence after his death; as well as their botanical interests, the Blakes were involved to a degree in predatory lending practices based around the tea trade, something that led to a minor financial crisis and Britain's first embassy to China.

John Bradby Blake was born in London. John Bradby Blake was educated at Westminster School, his academic studies at that time would have consisted of Latin and biblical study. He learned botany from his father and may have been influenced by the numerous plant nurseries that were located in the part of London where Bradby Blake grew up. On 29 August 1764, Bradby Blake applied for the position of either writer or junior supercargo with the British East India Company, following in his father's footsteps. Though the Company did not accept his first application, Bradby Blake applied again on August 27, 1766; this time he was successful, that year Bradby Blake travelled to Canton in China as a supercargo of the East India Company. Following a brief return to London in 1768, Bradby Blake sailed again for China, this time as a resident supercargo. Staying in Macao in between trading seasons, Bradby Blake would spend the remainder of his short life in Asia, he devoted his spare time in Canton to natural science botany, as well as some attempts to record and study Chinese language and culture.

His plan was to procure the seeds of commercially useful plants found in China and to send to Europe and the Americas these seeds and the plants producing them. His idea was that they might be propagated in Great Britain and Ireland as well as in the British colonies; as discussed further below, Blake's scheme was in many ways successful. Cochinchina rice was grown in South Carolina, he sent to England some specimens of fossils and ores. He fell ill and died in Canton on 16 November 1773, aged 28, he was unmarried. A proposal for Blake's membership of the Royal Society, made in February 1774, was withdrawn when news of his death became known; when not working as Resident Supercargo for the East India Company in China, Bradby Blake was devoting his time to botany and horticulture, as well as some study of Chinese language and culture. His goals were several: first, to cultivate and ship commercially viable plants back to Europe and beyond and, second, to "form a Compleat Chinensis of Drawings copied from Nature, with a Collection of Specimens, Seeds, etc. etc. with every necessary description relative to their Uses, Culture, Parts of Fructification, when in bloom."

As well as these larger projects, Bradby Blake engaged in the creation of an English-Chinese dictionary, in which Chinese characters are accompanied by illustrations, English phonetic spellings, English translations. It is important to note that all of Bradby Blake's artistic endeavors were undertaken with the help of Chinese artists and interlocutors, namely Whang-y-Tong and an artist known as Mauk-Sow-U, making the existing record of his work the result of an international and cross-cultural collaboration. Mauk-Sow-U was hired from one of the factories that made Canton export art, a style of painting that provided European sailors with paintings of Asia to take home as souvenirs; the style of the work in the John Bradby Blake archive, however, is markedly different from the style of

Air Japan

Air Japan Co. Ltd. is a charter airline based in Narita International Airport in Narita, Chiba in Japan. It operates scheduled services under the ANA brand, it was announced on 2 April 2010 that Air Japan and ANA & JP Express will merge, with Air Japan being the surviving company. Air Japan shares the same callsign with All Nippon Airways on all flights except routes to and from Seoul Incheon, Hong Kong and Honolulu which use the Air Japan call sign. Air Japan was established as World Air Network on 29 June 1990 and became the charter airline arm of ANA, but ceased operation since September 1995. In 2000, World Air Network was renamed Air Japan and relaunched service in 2001, the first flight departed from Osaka to Seoul, South Korea; the airline has its headquarters at the ANA Sky-center 3B, Narita International Airport in Narita, Chiba. The headquarters used to be in Ōta, Tokyo. In addition to its headquarters, Air Japan used to have offices at Shiodome City Center in Minato, Tokyo. Air Japan passenger flights serve the following destinations: All passenger routes are code-shared with All Nippon Airways and wear ANA livery.

The Air Japan fleet consists of aircraft from the ANA mainline fleet. It is made up of 2 Boeing 767-300, 28 Boeing 767-300ER, 22 Boeing 787-8 and 28 Boeing 787-9 aircraft; these aircraft are all operated by both Air Japan pilots. Air Japan Company Information ANA's press release of the Air Japan launch Official website

Goetz Oertel

Goetz Oertel is an American physicist and science manager. Oertel was born in West Prussia, Germany. In January 1945, Oertel escaped from the advancing Red Army with his parents, milling director Egon Oertel and his wife Margarete westwards to Gransee in Brandenburg continuing to Triptis in Thuringia, captured by US forces rather than the Soviets; when Thuringia fell under Soviet control in the course of the Potsdam Agreement, the flight continued by horse and carriage, further westwards to Öhringen in southwestern Württemberg. Goetz's father was able to support the family through his hobby, genealogy, his hometown, lying east of the Oder–Neisse line, was transferred to Poland after the war. After the Abitur at the Robert-Mayer-High School in Heilbronn and first work experiences in the private economy at the energy corporation AEG in Stuttgart, Oertel commenced his studies of physics at the Christian-Albrechts University in Kiel in 1953. A son of a member of the Corps Masovia, he sought membership in the Kiel Corps Palaiomarchia-Masovia, where he sustained in four fencing duels.

Goetz followed his supervisor of his doctoral thesis to the US in 1957 with a Fulbright stipend, got a position as physics research associate at the University of Maryland. He married Brigitte Beckmann in 1960, became neighbor as well as friends with Karl-Ludwig Stellmacher, a German – American mathematician. After his successful PhD promotion he was hired by NASA in January 1963 at their Langley Research Center as a researcher; the agency promoted his naturalization to US citizenship and provided him with responsibility over a current research project. He had to convince the NASA and General Electric engineers that the project was unviable and had to be restructured substantially. At the same time, his experimental research results from his PhD thesis became published and resulted in the application for two patents. In 1967, the NASA HQ offered Goetz Oertel a senior position in Washington, D. C. and thus enabled a continuation of his theoretical work. When he was named leader of the program of the ATM of Skylab, consequentially becoming responsible for continuously increasing roles and functions, was promoted Chief of Solar Physics, he had to come to an end with his experimental work, albeit successfully.

In 1974, the Nixon administration drafted its Federal Executive Development Program, with the goal to reduce the isolation of the Federal ministries among the higher level civil servants, the so-called super-grades. As a consequence, management skills gained a higher weight than the academic knowledge of the subject matter. Around 8.000 mid-level civil servants had to apply for 25 positions. Oertel applied and was offered „free choice“ among the Federal ministries. After the introduction course in Charlottesville, South Carolina he became, for six months each, scientific advisor to the President and at the Office of Management and Budget of the President's Office – Department for Space and Energy. In 1975, he was appointed Head of the Astronomy Program at the Ministry of Science, in 1976 Chief of Staff of the Assistant Administrator for nuclear energy. From 1977 to 1984, he served as director for nuclear energy facilities in the newly created Department of Energy. New positions at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in Albuquerque brought responsibilities for 32,000 employees and an overall budget of USD 3 billion.

Oertel returned to the Ministry of Energy in 1985 as deputy assistant. Dealing with the consequences of the Challenger space shuttle accident and the Chernobyl disaster, the appointment to President and Chief Executive of AURA came at a suitable moment. AURA operated the Hubble Space Telescope, space- and solar observatories in Arizona, New Mexico and Chile, more also the Gemini Observatorys in Hawaii and Chile. After thirteen successful years at this position, Oertel declined a five-year renewal of his contract. Oertel remains an active member of The National Academy of Sciences, continues his work for various foundations and universities, as well as for ministries of science in North- and South America; the National Academies elected him as Associate for life. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers honored him with the Dixy Lee Ray Prize; the International Astronomic Union baptized an asteroid after him: 5074 Goetzoertel. Oertel and his wife have one son, he is a member of Palaiomarchia.

He is an active member of the Cosmos Club in Washington D. C. Interview NASA, Asteroid goetzoertel Retirement from AURA The war of our childhood Dixy Lee Ray Award Goetz Oertel Research Grants

Rorgo Fretellus

Rorgo Fretellus spelled Fetellus, was a Frankish priest in the Kingdom of Jerusalem who wrote a circulated description of the Christian holy places in the Holy Land, the Descriptio de locis sanctis. Fretellus was born in the County of Ponthieu and went to the Holy Land around 1110. In 1119 he was the chancellor of the Prince of Galilee and by 1121 he was a canon of the archdiocese of Nazareth. By about 1148 he had become the archdeacon of the patriarchate of Antioch, or of Nazareth; the Descriptio survives in several variants, all descended from a model composed by Fretellus in 1128–1132 or as early as 1119–1121. The earliest finished version dates to 1137 or 1138 and was dedicated to Jindřich Zdík, bishop of Olomouc. A revised version was published by Fretellus and dedicated to Count Rodrigo González de Lara, governor of Toledo; this second version may have been made about the same time as the first or as late as 1148. According to one modern editor, the dedication was in fact to a count of Toulouse Count Raymond V, was made in 1148, during the Second Crusade.

A third edition was produced at the Avignonese curia between 1356 and 1362, when Cardinal Nicolau Rossell incorporated into a copy of the Liber censuum. The Descriptio is not a original work, it incorporates much earlier material, to which Fretellus had access in the library of the cathedral of Nazareth, including Pseudo-Eugesippus' Tractatus de distantiis locorum Terrae Sanctae. Although "it does not tell us much about the conditions in the towns and villages under Frankish rule", it is still a useful source on the learning to which a crusader cleric had access in the twelfth century; the Descriptio begins by describing the location of Jerusalem: "The city of Jerusalem is situated in the hill-country of Judea, in the province of Palestine". It is probable that in this famous passage Fretellus has combined his Biblical geography with the name of the former Arab province. Macpherson, James Rose, ed. Fetellus. London: Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1896. Hiestand, Rudolf. "Un centre intellectuel en Syrie du Nord?

Notes sur la personnalité d'Aimery d'Antioche, Albert de Tarse et Rorgo Fretellus". Le Moyen Âge, 100: 7–36

Angus John Bateman

Angus John Bateman was an English geneticist. He is most notable for his 1948 study of sexual selection in fruit flies which established Bateman's principle. Bateman was a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain during the Lysenko affair, he was an anti-Lysenkoist within the Party whilst writing in defense of Lysenko for non-Party audiences. Bateman received his B. Sc from King's College London in 1940, received his Ph. D. and D. Sc. from the same institution. In 1942 he moved to Cyril Darlington's Genetics Department at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Merton Park. Bateman was an acquaintance of Ronald Fisher and critically discussed the manuscript of his 1948 paper with him. Bateman moved to the Paterson Institute in Manchester and worked on mutagenicity