Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs. The Oxford Living Dictionaries defines "total war" as "A war, unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued one in which the laws of war are disregarded."In the mid-19th century, scholars identified total war as a separate class of warfare. In a total war, to an extent inapplicable in less total conflicts, the differentiation between combatants and non-combatants diminishes, sometimes vanishing due to the capacity of opposing sides to consider nearly every human resource that of non-combatants, to be a part of the war effort; the phrase "total war" can be traced back to the 1935 publication of German general Erich Ludendorff's World War I memoir, Der totale Krieg. Some authors extend the concept back as far as classic work of Carl von Clausewitz, On War, as "absoluter Krieg", even-though he did not use the term.
Total war describes the French "guerre à outrance" during the Franco-Prussian War. In his December 24, 1864 letter to his Chief of Staff during the American Civil War, Union general Henry Halleck wrote the Union was "not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, must make old and young and poor, feel the hard hand of war, as well as their organized armies," defending Sherman's March to the Sea, the operation that inflicted widespread destruction of infrastructure in Georgia. United States Air Force General Curtis LeMay updated the concept for the nuclear age. In 1949, he first proposed that a total war in the nuclear age would consist of delivering the entire nuclear arsenal in a single overwhelming blow, going as far as "killing a nation". During the Middle Ages, destruction under the Mongol Empire in the 13th century exemplified total war; the military forces of Genghis Khan slaughtered whole populations and destroyed any city that resisted: As an aggressor nation, the ancient Mongols, no less than the modern Nazis, practiced total war against an enemy by organizing all available resources, including military personnel, noncombatant workers, transport and provisions.
The concept of'total war' is most reserved to describe conflicts between modern industrial nations but the term may be applied to the conflict between the Pawnees and the Sioux and Cheyennes in North America. During this conflict violence was not restricted to combatants but was directed against the whole population; the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 is considered one of the first modern examples of total warfare. As Indians and Tory forces killed livestock and burned buildings in remote areas George Washington advised Sullivan to seek "the total destruction and devastation of their settlements and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible"; the expedition devastated "14 towns and most flourishing crops of corn" in New York but, despite the large scale destruction, failed to drive the Indians off the land. During the American Civil War, Union Army General Philip Sheridan's stripping of the Shenandoah Valley, beginning on September 21, 1864 and continuing for two weeks, was considered "total war".
Its purpose was to eliminate food and supplies vital to the South's military operations, as well as to strike a blow at Southern civilian morale. Sheridan took the opportunity when he realized opposing forces had become too weak to resist his army. Union Army General William Tecumseh Sherman's'March to the Sea' in November and December 1864 destroyed the resources required for the South to make war. General Ulysses S. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln opposed the plan until Sherman convinced them of its necessity. Scholars taking issue with the notion that Sherman was employing "total war" include Noah Andre Trudeau, who believes that Sherman's goals and methods do not meet the definition of total war and to suggest as much is to "misread Sherman's intentions and to misunderstand the results of what happened"; the French Revolutionary Wars introduced to mainland Europe some of the first concepts of total war, such as mass conscription. The fledgling republic found; the only solution, in the eyes of the Jacobin government, was to pour the entire nation's resources into an unprecedented war effort—this was the advent of the levée en masse.
The following decree of the National Convention on August 23, 1793 demonstrates the immensity of the French war effort, when the French front line forces grew to some 800,000 with a total of 1.5 million in all services—the first time an army in excess of a million had been mobilized in Western history: From this moment until such time as its enemies shall have been driven from the soil of the Republic all Frenchmen are in permanent requisition for the services of the armies. The young men shall fight. In the Russian campaign of 1812 the Russians resorted to destroying infrastructure and agriculture in their retreat in order to hamper the French and strip them of adequate supplies. In the campaign of 1813, Allied forces in the German theater alone amounted to nearly one million whilst two years in the Hundred Days a French decree called for
Tegan and Sara are a Canadian indie pop band formed in 1998 in Calgary, composed of identical twin sisters Tegan Rain Quin and Sara Keirsten Quin. Both musicians are multi-instrumentalists; the pair have released numerous EPs. The duo earned a Grammy nomination in 2012 for their DVD/Live Album Get Along, their ninth album, Hey, I'm Just Like You, was released on September 27, 2019. Their memoir, High School, was released on September 24, 2019. Tegan and Sara began playing guitar and writing songs at age 15, forming a band called Plunk without a drummer or bass player. In 1997, they used their school's recording studio to record two demo albums: Who's in Your Band? and Play Day. In 1998, they won Calgary's "Garage Warz" competition, using the studio time they won to record their first professional demo under the name "Sara and Tegan", Yellow tape, followed by Orange tape and Red tape, their first "big-time show" was in May 1998 in Calgary, opening for Hayden. In 1999, they released their debut album Under Feet Like Ours independently under the "Sara and Tegan" name with producer Jared Kuemper.
Two songs from Red tape appeared on the album, two from Orange tape. They changed their name to "Tegan and Sara" because people thought they were a solo act named "Sara Antegan"; the new name was more memorable and their first album was reprinted under the name Tegan and Sara. In 1999 they signed with Neil Young's Vapor Records and released This Business of Art through the label in 2000, they have toured extensively since then. In 2002, the band released their third album, their fourth album, So Jealous, was released in 2004 and led to wider success and attention, both locally and internationally. This album was released through both Sanctuary. One track of the album, "Walking with a Ghost", was covered by The White Stripes, who released it on their Walking with a Ghost EP, their 2007 album, The Con, was released by Vapor and Sire because Sanctuary chose to no longer release new music in the United States. The album was co-produced by Chris Walla. Jason McGerr of Death Cab for Cutie, Matt Sharp of The Rentals and Weezer, Hunter Burgan of AFI, Kaki King all appeared and collaborated on the album.
On October 26, 2009, Tegan and Sara released their sixth album Sainthood, produced by Chris Walla and Howard Redekopp. The duo put out a three-volume book set titled ON, IN, AT, a collection of stories, essays and photos of the band on tour in America in the fall of 2008, writing together in New Orleans, touring Australia; the photographs in the book are taken by Ryan Russell. The album "Sainthood" debuted on the Billboard top 200 albums at number 21 selling 24,000 copies in its first week. While recording Sainthood and Sara spent a week writing songs together in New Orleans; the song "Paperback Head" was the only song written by the pair to appear on the album, making it the first song on any Tegan and Sara album that they wrote together. Spin magazine gave Sainthood four out of five stars and wrote, "Tegan and Sara's music may no longer be the stuff of teens, but its strength remains in how much it feels like two people talking." In 2011, they launched "2011: A Merch Odyssey", which saw at least one new item in the official online stores every month, all year long.
A live CD/DVD combination package titled Get Along was released on November 15 and contains three films titled "States", "India" and "For The Most Part". Get Along was nominated in the 2013 Grammy Awards for "Best Long Form Music Video". Tegan and Sara started recording their seventh studio album, Heartthrob, on February 20, 2012. Eight songs were produced by Greg Kurstin. Joey Waronker contributed drums to these songs. Two songs were produced by Mike Elizondo, with Victor Indrizzo contributing drums, Josh Lopez contributing guitar and Dave Palmer contributing piano; the last two songs were produced by Justin Meldal-Johnsen. The first single, "Closer", was released on September 25, 2012; the album was released on January 29, 2013 and debuted on the Billboard top 200 at number 3, the band's highest charting record to date, selling 49,000 copies in its first week. Heartthrob debuted at number 2 on the Canadian chart, digital downloads chart and hit number 1 on the rock and alternative album charts.
In July 2013, the album was shortlisted for the 2013 Polaris Music Prize. In March 2014 Tegan and Sara won three Juno Awards for Song of the Year, Pop Album of the Year and Group of the Year. Tegan and Sara finished their eighth studio album on November 30, 2015. On March 10, 2016, the band announced via their Facebook account that the album's title would be Love You To Death, with the release date set for June 3, they released the lead single from the album, "Boyfriend", on April 8. On April 25 tour dates were announced for their 2016 worldwide tour for the Love You To Death album; the duo released a music video for each track on the album. For the tenth anniversary of the release of their album The Con and Sara collaborated with 17 artists including Cyndi Lauper to create The Con X: Covers in 2017; the participating artists created covers of The Con's original songs which created a cohesive album sold to benefit the Tegan and Sara Foundation. Tegan and Sara toured an acoustic version of The Con in 2017 with a portion of the proceeds supporting the Tegan and Sara Foundation.
On December 11, 2018, Tegan and Sara announced a memoir entitled High School, sharing the story of their youth, to be released fall 2019, along with new music. In early 2019, Tegan and Sara announced they were working on their next record for release that year. On July 9, 2019, they announced via Instagram that their ninth album is called Hey, I'm Just Like You, consists o
The 1994 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 31 July 1994 at the Hockenheimring, Hockenheim. It was the ninth race of the 1994 Formula One World Championship; the 45-lap race was won from pole position by Austrian driver Gerhard Berger. Berger achieved the first victory for the Ferrari team since the 1990 Spanish Grand Prix, some 59 races previously. In a race of high attrition, including eleven retirements on the opening lap, only eight cars finished, with French drivers Olivier Panis and Éric Bernard second and third in their Ligier-Renaults; the fast Hockenheim circuit had been modified from the year before, with the fast Senna chicane being made slower. The Ferraris qualified first and second, with Gerhard Berger in pole position and Jean Alesi lining up alongside; the race was notable with 11 retirements on the opening lap. Within ten seconds of the start Alessandro Zanardi and Andrea de Cesaris tangled towards the back of the pack, taking out both Michele Alboreto and Pierluigi Martini before reaching the first corner.
Mika Häkkinen and David Coulthard tangled going into the first corner, the Finn sliding in front of a group of cars into the wall on the outside of the circuit while the Scot continued to the pits to replace his front wing. Mark Blundell braked hard to avoid the McLaren only to be hit from behind by Eddie Irvine, while Rubens Barrichello had nowhere to go but the gravel. In the melee behind this incident, Johnny Herbert and Martin Brundle tangled, the Lotus spinning to a halt while the second McLaren continued. Heinz-Harald Frentzen was pushed into the gravel and managed to continue, but stopped towards the end of the lap with broken suspension and a punctured tyre. Damon Hill damaged his suspension in a first-lap contact with Ukyo Katayama and, as a result, circulated outside the points for the remainder of the race; this result would have significant consequences for Hill at the end of the season. In a race where the 12th and 14th placed Ligiers finished on the podium, the remaining points going to customer Ford HB engined teams on a circuit where power was a distinct advantage.
Meanwhile Jean Alesi had gotten away unscathed, having qualified second, only for his Ferrari to stop with electrical problems on the run to the first chicane. It was a bad weekend for the Benetton team. After the first lap mayhem, Schumacher went on to take on the leading Ferrari of Gerhard Berger but fell away with engine problems quickly. Benetton driver Jos Verstappen came into the pits; the Dutchman escaped the incident with burns around his eyes, as he had his visor up during the pit stop. No other crew members or any persons were injured or killed; as well as Ferrari winning its first and only race of the 1994 Formula One season, the race was good for Ligier with Olivier Panis finishing second and Éric Bernard coming home third