Totnes is a market town and civil parish at the head of the estuary of the River Dart in Devon, England within the South Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It is about 21 miles south-southwest of Exeter and is the administrative centre of the South Hams District Council. Totnes has a long recorded history, dating back to 907. By the twelfth century it was an important market town, its former wealth and importance may be seen from the number of merchants' houses built in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Today, the town is a thriving centre for music, art and natural health, it has a sizeable alternative and "New Age" community, is known as a place where one can live a bohemian lifestyle. Two electoral wards mention Totnes, their combined populations at the 2011 UK Census was 8,076. According to the Historia Regum Britanniae written by Geoffrey of Monmouth in around 1136, "the coast of Totnes" was where Brutus of Troy, the mythical founder of Britain, first came ashore on the island.
Set into the pavement of Fore Street is the'Brutus Stone', a small granite boulder onto which, according to local legend, Brutus first stepped from his ship. As he did so, he was supposed to have declaimed:Here I stand and here I rest, and this town shall be called Totnes. The stone is far above the highest tides and the tradition is not to be of great antiquity, being first mentioned in John Prince's Worthies of Devon in 1697, it is possible that the stone was the one from which the town crier, or bruiter called his bruit or news. According to the Historia, Aurelius Ambrosius and his brother Uther Pendragon landed at Totnes to win back the throne of Britain from the usurper Vortigern. Despite this legendary history, the first authenticated history of Totnes is in AD 907, when it was fortified by King Edward the Elder as part of the defensive ring of burhs built around Devon, replacing one built a few years earlier at nearby Halwell; the site was chosen. Between the reigns of Edgar and William II Totnes intermittently minted coins.
Some time between the Norman Conquest and the compilation of the Domesday Book, William the Conqueror granted the burh to Juhel of Totnes, responsible for the first construction of the castle. Juhel did not retain his lordship for long, however, as he was deprived of his lands in 1088 or 1089, for rebelling against William II; the name Totnes headland. Before reclamation and development, the low-lying areas around this hill were marsh or tidal wetland, giving the hill much more the appearance of a "ness" than today. By the 12th century, Totnes was an important market town, due to its position on one of the main roads of the South West, in conjunction with its easy access to its hinterland and the easy navigation of the River Dart. By 1523, according to a tax assessment, Totnes was the second richest town in Devon, the sixteenth richest in England, ahead of Worcester and Lincoln. In 1553, King Edward VI granted Totnes a charter allowing a former Benedictine priory building, founded in 1088 to be used as Totnes Guildhall and a school.
In 1624, the Guildhall was converted to be a magistrate's court. Soldiers were billeted here during the English Civil War and Oliver Cromwell visited for discussions with the general and parliamentary commander-in-chief Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron in 1646; until 1887, the Guildhall was used as the town prison with the addition of prison cells. It remained a magistrate's court until 1974. In 2006 Totnes become the first transition town of the transition initiative. Permaculture designer Rob Hopkins developed this idea with his students and with Naresh Giangrande developed the transition model in his home town of Totnes, which has since featured in many articles and films showing this concept. Totnes' borough charter was granted by King John around 1206. Totnes lost its borough status in local government reorganisation in 1974. Totnes was served by Totnes electoral borough from 1295 until the reform act of 1867, but was restored by the 1884 Franchise Act; the constituency of Totnes was abolished a second time in 1983, formed part of the South Hams constituency until 1997, when it was restored as the Totnes county constituency: as such it returns one MP to Parliament.
In August 2009, Totnes became the first constituency to select the Conservative PPC through an open primary, organised by the local Conservative Association. Current MP, Dr Sarah Wollaston, won the Totnes primary in August 2009, went on to be elected to Parliament at the 2010 general election. In 2009, Totnes Rural was the only county division in Devon to elect a Green councillor. Totnes has a mayor, elected by the sixteen town councillors each year. Follaton House, on the outskirts of the town, is the headquarters of the South Hams District Council; the town is twinned with the French town of Vire, after which Vire Island on the River Dart near the "Plains" is named. There is a local longstanding joke that Totnes is twinned with the fantasy land of Narnia; the town is built on a hill rising from the west bank of the River Dart, which separates Totnes from the suburb of Bridgetown. It is at the lowest bridging point of the river which here is tidal and forms a winding estuary down to the sea at Dartmouth.
The river continues to be tidal for about 1 mile (1.6
Still waters run deep is a proverb of Latin origin now taken to mean that a placid exterior hides a passionate or subtle nature. It carried the warning that silent people are dangerous, as in Suffolk's comment on a fellow lord in William Shakespeare's play Henry VI part 2: Smooth runs the water where the brook is deep, And in his simple show he harbors treason... No, no, my sovereign, Gloucester is full of deep deceit. According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, the first mention of the proverb appeared in Classical times in the form altissima quaeque flumina minimo sono labi in a history of Alexander the Great by Quintus Rufus Curtius and is there claimed as being of Bactrian origin; the earliest use in English sources goes back to 1400. In about 1490 the Italian writer Laurentius Abstemius expanded the proverb into a short fable in Latin titled De rustico amnem transituro in his Hecatomythium and this was subsequently included in European collections of Aesop's fables. In 1692 Roger L'Estrange included an outline of the Abstemius version in his edition of the fables under the title of A Country-man and a River, along with the interpretation that men of few words are dangerous: A Country-man, to pass a River, sounded it up and down to try where it was most fordable: and upon Trial he made this Observation on't: Where the Water ran Smooth, he found it Deepest.
There's More Danger in Silent, than in a Noisy, Babbling Enemy. Earlier than L'Estrange's translation, there was an amplified version of the story in La Fontaine's Fables under the title "The torrent and the river", it tells of a man trying to escape a robber who fords a turbulent stream but drowns in a smooth-flowing river, ending on the caution that'Silent folk are dangerous'. The French proverb, the nearest equivalent to the English'still waters run deep' emphasizes this danger:'no water is worse than quiet water'; when the caricaturist J. J. Grandville illustrated La Fontaine's fable, he further underlined this meaning by transposing it into a seduction scene. In the background a capering donkey and a shrew are advancing along the road, watched by a woman whose hands are clasped by a sleek cat. Unnoticed at her feet, a snake is slithering through the grass
In mathematics, negaFibonacci coding is a universal code which encodes nonzero integers into binary code words. It is similar to Fibonacci coding, except that it allows both positive and negative integers to be represented. All codes have no "11" before the end; the Fibonacci code is related to negaFibonacci representation, a positional numeral system sometimes used by mathematicians. The negaFibonacci code for a particular nonzero integer is that of the integer's negaFibonacci representation, except with the order of its digits reversed and an additional "1" appended to the end; the negaFibonacci code for all negative numbers has an odd number of digits, while those of all positive numbers have an number of digits. To encode a nonzero integer X: Calculate the largest encodeable number with N bits by summing the odd negafibonacci numbers from 1 to N; when it is determined that N bits is just enough to contain X, subtract the Nth negaFibonacci number from X, keeping track of the remainder, put a one in the Nth bit of the output.
Working downward from the Nth bit to the first one, compare each of the corresponding negaFibonacci numbers to the remainder. Subtract it from the remainder if the absolute value of the difference is less, AND if the next higher bit does not have a one in it. A one is placed in the appropriate bit if the subtraction is made. Put a one in the N+1th bit to finish. To decode a token in the code, remove the last "1", assign the remaining bits the values 1, −1, 2, −3, 5, −8, 13…, add the "1" bits; the code for the integers from −11 to 11 is given below. Golden ratio base Zeckendorf's theorem Knuth, Negafibonacci Numbers and the Hyperbolic Plane, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mathematical Association of America, San Jose, California. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 4, Fascicle 1: Bitwise Tricks & Techniques. In the pre-publication draft of section 7.1.3 see in particular pp. 36–39. Margenstern, Cellular Automata in Hyperbolic Spaces, Advances in unconventional computing and cellular automata, 2, Archives contemporaines, p. 79, ISBN 9782914610834
The Fortified Sector of the Lower Rhine was the French military organization that in 1940 controlled the section of the French frontier with Germany in the vicinity of Strasbourg. The sector's principal defence was the Rhine itself, which could be crossed only by boat or by seizing a bridge crossing. While it was constructed by CORF, the organization responsible for the construction of the Maginot Line, the SF Lower Rhine was not a part of the core Line fortifications; the sector's fortifications chiefly took the form of individual blockhouses. Additional support was provided by the fortress ring around Strasbourg, whose fortifications were still active in 1940; the SF Lower Rhine was flanked to the north by the Fortified Sector of Haguenau and to the south by the Fortified Sector of Colmar. The Rhinau section of the SF Lower Rhine was attacked by German forces in June 1940 as a diversion from the main German invasion operation in the SF Colmar. Follow-up incursions from the north and at Strasbourg left much of the SF Lower Rhine in German hands by the armistice of 25 June.
The defense of the area surrounding Strasbourg benefited from the width of the Rhine and its numerous oxbows and dead arms that complicate movement on the French side of the river. As with the sectors further south, three lines of fortifications were built: a line of casemates right on the riverbank, a line of infantry shelters a few hundred metres to the rear, a line of heavier casemates between two or three kilometres back from the riverbank. No interconnected ouvrages of the type found in sections of the main Maginot Line just to the west were built in the Lower Rhine sector. Strasbourg, directly on the riverside, could not be defended in depth, so made do with casemates on the riverbank. Strasbourg was considered an open city, as it could otherwise be destroyed by German artillery on the other side of the Rhine. However, some of the German festungen from the late 19th century surrounding the city were reactivated from 1935, with blockhouses at Fort Pétain, Fort Ducrot and Fort Foch. Artillery positions were placed at Fort Ducrot and Fort Ney-Rapp.
65mm naval guns were added at six additional positions. No substantial garrison was stationed at any of the old forts, only crews sufficient to serve the arms; the riverbank fortifications were of a basic nature, with protection only up to 155mm caliber, machine gun armament and no electrical system. The second and third lines were more robust in construction and equipment, with electric generators and anti-tank weapons; the Lower Rhine sector was under the overall command of the French 5th Army, headquartered at Wangenbourg, under the command of General Bourret, in turn part of Army Group 2 under General André-Gaston Prételat. The SF Lower Rhine was commanded by General Pichon General Renondeau from 5 January 1940 General Vallée from 28 May; the command was located at Fort Ducrot in Mundolsheim. Artillery support for the sector was provided by the 155rd Position Artillery Regiment, which controlled both fixed and mobile artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Agabriel. Fortress infantry units included the 34th and 172nd Fortress Infantry Regiments under Lieutenant Colonel s Brocard and Le Mouël, respectively.
A variety of other units were attached to the sector, including three battalions of the 237th Infantry Regiment of the Fortified Sector under Lieutenant Colonel Vigneron. The Strasbourg area was garrisoned by the 226th Infantry Regiment of the Fortified Sector under Lieutenant Colonel Marteau, the 205th Regional Regiment; the interval troops, the army formations that were to provide the mobile defence for the sector, to support and be supported by the fixed defences, were under the command of the 17th Corps, General Noël, commander. The 6th Corps in turn comprised the 62nd Infantry Division under General Sarrebourse de la Guillonère; the 62nd ID was a Class B reserve formation, not suitable for sustained combat. The sector became the 103rd Fortress Infantry Division from 5 March 1940 known as the Strasbourg Division. At this time the Herrlisheim sub-sector passed to the control of the neighboring Fortified Sector of Haguenau. At the midpoint of the Battle of France on 1 June 1940, the fortress troops of the 103rd DIF amounted to two fortress infantry regiments in four battalions plus one regular infantry regiment with three battalions, comprising 485 officers and 15,500 men.
The sector includes the following major fortified positions. The casemates were about 800 metres apart, with gaps in areas of marshy ground or old sections of the Rhine. Positions listed in the Fortified Sector of Haguenau. 172nd Fortress Infantry Regiment, Lt. Colonel Le Mouel, command post at Fort Pétain Schiltigheim. 34th Fortress Infantry Regiment, Lt. Colonel Brocart; the French Rhine defences did not see significant action until the middle of June 1940. By this time the main French army was in full retreat; the casemate lines along the Rhine were not supported by significant mobile forces or field artillery, diverted to more urgent tasks. The casemates were designed to be mutually supporting, with fields of fire along the Rhine rather than across it; the first line was exposed to enemy fire from across a distance of a few hundred metres. German forces, under General Dollmann, amounted to seven divisions of the Seventh Army, supported by about three hundred artillery pieces, chiefly concentrated opposite the SF Colmar, just to the south.
The codename Kleiner Bär was given to the planned German cross-Rh
The Boston Shamrocks were a professional American football team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The team played in the second American Football League from 1936 to 1937, followed by at least one year as an independent in 1938; the team split its games between Braves Field and Fenway Park. The Shamrocks were a successful franchise in the AFL, outdrawing the NFL's Boston Redskins and prompting George Preston Marshall to move the Redskins to Washington, D. C. where the team remains to this day. During the 1936 American Football League season, the Shamrocks won the league's championship; the Shamrocks did not fare so well in 1937. During that year, the team managed to sign former Heisman Trophy winner Larry Kelley to a one-game contract. After the failure of the second AFL, the Shamrocks continued as an independent, picking up players, released from the Pittsburgh Pirates; the Steelers, led by Byron White, defeated the Shamrocks 16-6 that year
The 1982 Hammersmith and Fulham Council election took place on 6 May 1982 to elect members of Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough Council in London, England. The whole council was up for the council stayed in no overall control. Both Labour and the Conservatives fielded a full slate of 50 candidates; the SDP Liberal Alliance ran a full 50 candidates - an increase from the 20 candidates they fielded in 1978. On the ballot paper the candidates were listed alternatively as'SDP-Liberal Alliance' and'Liberal Alliance-SDP'; the Ecology Party ran a single candidate in four wards - Brook Green, Coningham and Walham. A single candidate in seven wards declared themselves to be representing the Residents' Association - Addison, Coningham, Eel Brook, Gibbs Green and Sands End. Three candidates in Addison ward, two in Brook Green ward and one each in Grove and Margravine wards listed themselves as Independents. Two candidates in Broadway ward and one in Sherbrooke ward used the'Save London Action Group' banner.
This compared to 18 candidates in the 1978 election who listed themselves as part of the'Save London Alliance'. Across London at this election a further 46 candidates used the SLAG banner; the Workers Revolutionary Party fielded two candidate - one each in Margravine and White City & Shepherds Bush wards. This was up from the single candidate at the previous election. Across London the party fielded a further 13 candidates at this election; the National Front fielded 2 candidates in the Wormholt ward - down from the 14 candidates they ran at the 1978 election in Hammersmith. Across London the National Front fielded a further 55 candidates at this election. A total of 175 candidates put themselves forward for the 50 available seats - an increase from the 159 candidates who contested the previous election; the Labour Party won 25 seats, the Conservative Party 23 seats, the SDP Liberal Alliance two seats. No party had overall control; the Conservatives maintained control of the Council with the support of the two Liberal Alliance councillors - Kim Howe was elected Council Leader