Cadnam is a village situated in Hampshire, within the boundaries of the New Forest National Park. The village has existed since the period, when it was an important crossroads between Southampton and the towns of southeast Dorset. Cadnam is part of the parish of Copythorne, a smaller village lying a mile to the north. It is in the parish of Bramshaw. The village is an important crossroads between Southampton and the towns of Bournemouth and Poole, the start of the M27 motorway is at Cadnam. Surrounding villages are Copythorne to the northeast, and Bartley to the southeast, there are a number of pubs in Cadnam, including the White Hart, and The Sir John Barleycorn. There is a hotel, The Bartley Lodge Hotel, the village has a BP Petrol Station, which houses the local Post Office. Cadnam is home to Cadnam Cricket Club who play on the Lambs Corner ground, Cadnam is first recorded in the 1270s as Cadenham. The name apparently means the farmstead of a man named Cadda, in the 13th century there was an estate at Cadnam and at nearby Winsor which belonged to the nuns of Amesbury, who in 1286 obtained a grant of free warren in both estates.
It seems to have formed part of the manor of Wigley, land at Cadnam and Winsor was granted with the manor of Wigley to Edmund Vaughan in 1545. All of these subsequently became part of the Paultons estate. A Congregational chapel at Cadnam was founded in 1790, the Cadnam Oak, at the south-east corner of a crossroads in Cadnam, is thought to be a boundary tree of the New Forest. Legend has it that the Cadnam Oak puts forth green leaves on Christmas Day, being immediately before. The current tree is actually a descendent of the first Cadnam Oak, popular tradition even has it that the tree only buds on Old Christmas Day on 6 January, refusing to acknowledge the Gregorian calendar change of 1752
Hounsdown School is a secondary school in Totton, near Southampton, England. The school has 1,215 pupils, spanning ages 11 to 16, classes are held in recently renovated 1960s buildings and new specialist blocks built since 2000. It had been operating a system since September 2008. It has work on its leadership courses. The executive headteacher is Mrs J. Turvey, and the Associate Headteacher is Mr D. Veal, Hounsdown gained Science College status in 2005, and the school changed its official title to Hounsdown School – A Science College. With the new title came a new logo, new uniform, rather than spending all the money on science equipment, part was spent to buy a new sports hall. On 1 August 2011, Hounsdown School officially gained academy status, in 2005 and 2008 Hounsdown received a judgment of outstanding from Ofsted, the latter inspection receiving outstanding in all categories. In May 2013, Hounsdown School was successful in achieving approximately £1.3 million for essential Capital refurbishments/decorating works, the school put in 3 bids, and achieved all three.
The school will be re-roofed and the swimming pool changing rooms will be refurbished, the East Block will be re-cladded and double glazed. However, the majority of work will not begin until September 2013 due to funding conditions. The swimming pool refurbishment work was completed in April 2014, the East Block exterior re-cladding was completed in May 2014. Re-cladding of the block will begin in September 2014. Pupils begin at the school in seven, most having attended one of the three feeder primary schools, Abbotswood Junior School, Bartley Junior School or Foxhills Junior School. Until KS3 SATs were abandoned nationally, pupils studied the Key Stage 3 syllabus until the SATs, in 2005, instead of taking SATs in year nine, the decision was taken that students would take them in year 8 to give students an extra year of GCSE help. They pick a cycle of three subjects at the end of year 8 and a language to carry on into year nine. Students try out these subjects and pick their final GCSE options at the end of year nine, many schools in Scotland and Wales use a more traditional system, which, in year nine, has pupils consolidating their learning from primary school and KS3. GCSE courses start for all subjects in year 10, with the examinations held during the term of year 11.
Pupils can enter employment, or continue their education at 6th Form College, colleges which most students go onto from Hounsdown are Totton, and Brockenhurst
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km², and is the most populous with a population of over eight. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to south east England becoming an economic hub and it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UKs second-busiest airport, and its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe. The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs, the River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley. The region has many universities, the University of Oxford is ranked among the best in the world. South east England is host to sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and the Epsom Derby.
Some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney, the largest city in the region is Brighton & Hove. The dominant influence on the economy is neighbouring London. The highest point is Walbury Hill in Berkshire at 297 metres, until 1999, there was a south east Standard Statistical Region, which included the counties of Bedfordshire, Greater London and Hertfordshire. The former south east Civil Defence Region covered the area as the current government office region. The South East is used as a synonym for the home counties. The population of the region at the 2011 census was 8,634,750 making it the most populous English region, the major conurbations of the region include Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton, Portsmouth and Reading. Settlements closer to London are part of the known as the Greater London Urban Area. The South East has the highest percentage of people born outside of Britain other than London. Estimates in 2007 state 87. 2% of people as White British,4.
8% Other White,3. 5% South Asians,1. 5% Mixed Race,1. 6% Black British,0. 7% Chinese,0. 7% Other. The area has some seats where there is support for other parties, for example and Oxford for Labour. Buckingham, the seat of Speaker John Bercow, is in this region, out of 83 parliamentary seats, the Conservatives hold 78
The Test Way is a 49 miles long-distance footpath in England from Walbury Hill in West Berkshire to Eling in Hampshire. The northern end of the starts in the car park on Walbury Hill. The southern end of the footpath is at Eling Quay, the trail passes alongside Horsebridge railway station. Much of the route between Kimbridge and Chilbolton follows the route of the former Andover and Redbridge Railway, the entire route is waymarked by metal and plastic disks found attached to wooden and metal posts and street furniture. There are several wooden finger signs along the route that countdown the number of miles along the footpath in both directions, maps are not on the same scale. Long-distance footpaths in the UK North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Test Way Tales Hampshire County Council Walking on the Web Ramblers Association
Inkpen has boundaries with Wiltshire and Hampshire, including part of Walbury Hill, the highest point in Englands South East. The earliest record of Inkpen is in the Cotton Charter viii and this includes the will of a Saxon thegn named Wulfgar, whose name means wolf-spear. Wulfgar owned land at inche penne which he had from Wulfric, Wulfgar left this to be divided amongst named heirs, three quarters to his wife, the other quarter to the servants of God at the holy place in Kintbury. Following Aeffes death, her share was to go to the place at Kintbury for the souls of Wulfgar, Wulfric. The Church of England parish church of Saint Michael is 13th century, the east window of the chancel and west window of the nave were added in the 15th century. Near the centre of the village just off Post Office Road is Inkpen Crocus Fields a large field of Mediterranean crocuses, according to the information plaque, the plants are believed to have been brought here by the Knights Templar in the Middle Ages for the production of saffron.
It is currently owned by the Berkshire and Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust, the Old Rectory was built in 1695. Behind is a remarkable miniature Versailles garden inspired by the great French landscape architect, kirby House was built in 1733 and West Court House in two stages in the 18th century. The Primary School was designed by G. E, Inkpen Post Office closed in the 1980s. Below is a selection of subsequent spellings of a dictated Inkpen over a period of three hundred years by various scribes, Ingepenne 935. Ingepenna 1167, Ingepenn 1167, Ingepenne 1167, Yngepenn 1167, ynkepenee 1230, Yngelpenne 1235, Ynkepenne 1241, Ingelpenne 1241, Hingepenna 1242, Ingepepenn 1242, Ingelpenn 1252, Enkepenne 1282, Inckepene 1292. The area was part of Savernake Forest, one of the first landscapes to reappear in all, the ice left the deposits of heavy clay soil found in Inkpen that give rise to the occasionally saturated lowland areas. From the Downs, pockets of ancient woodland scattered in and around Inkpen persist, the earliest sign of habitation in Inkpen dates to the Mesolithic period between 10,000 and 5500 BC.
They may have attempted to manipulate resources through forest clearance and they show skill and artistic design and now reside in the West Berkshire Museum. Early Beaker People flint tools have been close to the old saw mills at the end of Folly Road. The pottery finds at Craven Road were found in a layer of close to where an ancient brook known as the Ingeflod would have run. At the bottom of the hill on the Hungerford Road leaving Inkpen, flooding in wet weather and it seems likely that this fresh water attracted the beaker people to settle and live in their round houses there, using the fertile soil for crops and livestock grazing. Evidence of an ancient field system is still visible not far from the Inkpen Long Barrow
Postcodes in the United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities.
Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district.
Every post office in the district was to display this information
The Anglo-Saxons are a people who have inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including government of shires. During this period, Christianity was re-established and there was a flowering of literature and law were established. The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England, in scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English. The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity and it developed from divergent groups in association with the peoples adoption of Christianity, and was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established, the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods.
Behind the symbolic nature of these emblems, there are strong elements of tribal. The elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, and identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms, above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed and extended kin groups remained. the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as Anglo-Saxon is fraught with difficulties and this term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish the Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The Old English ethnonym Angul-Seaxan comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum, Anglo-Saxon is a term that was rarely used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is not an autonym. It is likely they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more probably, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age or the conquest of 1016, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders, Saxones who attacked the shores of Britain, procopius states that Britain was settled by three races, the Angiloi and Britons. The term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean English Saxons, the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli, for example in the story of Pope Gregory I and his remark, Non Angli sed angeli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people, at other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which presumably meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex, the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status. The NHS commissions most emergency services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other services, the public normally access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which gradually merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary contract for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England. The service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service was established in 1995 by parliamentary order, and serves the whole of Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust was established on 1 April 1998, there is a large market for private and voluntary ambulance services, with the sector being worth £800m to the UK economy in 2012. This places the voluntary providers in direct competition with private services, expenditure on private ambulances in England increased from £37m in 2011−12 to £67. 5m in 2013/4, rising in London from £796,000 to more than £8. 8m. In 2014−15, these 10 ambulance services spent £57.6 million on 333,329 callouts of private or voluntary services - an increase of 156% since 2010−11, in 2013, the CQC found 97% of private ambulance services to be providing good care. These private, registered services are represented by the Independent Ambulance Association, there are a number of unregistered services operating, who do not provide ambulance transport, but only provide response on an event site. These firms are not regulated, and are not subject to the checks as the registered providers, although they may operate similar vehicles.
There are a number of ambulance providers, sometimes known as Voluntary Aid Services or Voluntary Aid Societies, with the main ones being the British Red Cross. The history of the ambulance services pre-dates any government organised service. As they are in competition for work with the private ambulance providers. Voluntary organisations have provided cover for the public when unionised NHS ambulance trust staff have taken industrial action, there are a number of smaller voluntary ambulance organisations, fulfilling specific purposes, such as Hatzola who provide emergency medical services to the orthodox Jewish community in some cities. These have however run into difficulties due to use of vehicles not legally recognised as ambulances, all emergency medical services in the UK are subject to a range of legal and regulatory requirements, and in many cases are monitored for performance. This framework is largely statutory in nature, being mandated by government through a range of primary and secondary legislation and this requires all providers to register, to meet certain standards of quality, and to submit to inspection of those standards
South Central Ambulance Service
It is one of 10 NHS Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency medical services, and is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, as an ambulance service, SCAS primarily responds to emergency 999 calls, in addition to calls from the NHS non-emergency number. The service provides a transport service for patients in life-threatening condition. The NEPTS transports patients unable to use public transport due to their conditions, patients using outpatient clinics. The Trust has a division, which provides first aid training to members of the public. It has a resilience and specialist operations department which plans for major or hazardous incidents and this includes a Hazardous Area Response Team, which responds to emergencies involving chemical, radiological or nuclear materials, as well as major incidents. The Trust trains and supports volunteer community first responders and it is the only NHS ambulance organisation in the UK to be supported by its own League of Friends, a registered charity.
This group had founded in 1982 to raise funds for the former Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust. The Trust achieved Foundation status on 1 March 2012, becoming known as South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust. In June 2011 it was named Englands top performing ambulance service, managing to respond to 77. 5% of Cat A calls within the 8 minute target time, compared to the national average of 74. 9%. In October 2011 the BBC discovered that SCAS spent more on private ambulance services to cover 999 calls than any other service in the country, on 1 March 2012, the Trust became an NHS Foundation Trust. In October 2013 the Trust accidentally published on its website a document listing the age, sexuality and it took over patient transport services in Hampshire in October 2014. In 2014 the trust held a recruitment drive in Poland to help fill vacancies, on November 1st 2016, it was announced that the trust would take over the running of NEPTS in the south-east of England from April 2017. Performance of SCAS is provided by national NHS England Ambulance Quality Indicators,1.
^ A Red 1 call is assigned to patients in cardiac arrest. 2. ^ A Red 2 call is assigned to other potentially life-threatening incidents, such as stroke,3. ^ A Red 19 call is assigned to other incidents in which patient transport is needed
Netley Marsh is a village and civil parish in Hampshire, UK, close to the town of Totton. It lies within the New Forest District, and the New Forest National Park and it is the alleged site of the battle between an invading Anglo Saxon army, under Cerdic and a British army under Natanleod in the year 508. Netley Marsh lies to the west of Southampton, the village is on the A336 road from Cadnam to Totton. The parish is bounded by Bartley Water in the south, the village of Woodlands is in the south of the parish, and the hamlets of Hillstreet and Ower are to the north. The M27 motorway runs through this parish, taking roughly the route of the Roman road from Nursling to Cadnam, Netley Marsh is the base for the international development charity Tools for Self Reliance, which refurbishes and ships old tools and sewing machines to Africa. Whatever the truth concerning the battle, it is unlikely there was a king called Natanleod – he was probably invented to explain the place-name Natanleaga. In fact the place-name is probably derived from the Old English elements naet and leah, Netley is next recorded as Nateleg in 1248.
The name Netley Marsh appears as such on maps from 1759, the church, dedicated to Saint Matthew, was built around 1855, and consists of a nave and chancel with a bell turret on west side of the chancel. To the west of the village the Hampshire Reformatory School opened in 1855 and it was built for the purpose of reclaiming juvenile offenders, and had accommodation for 60 boys. The civil parish of Netley Marsh was one of the formed from the ancient parish of Eling in 1894. The village suffered damage during World War II, when one day in 1942 an enemy plane dropped bombs on the church and along Woodlands Road. One mile north of Netley Marsh is the ancient site of Tatchbury, there is an Iron Age Hill fort here called Tatchbury Mount. It has been built over by hospital buildings but the outline of the fort can still be seen. Next to the fort is the ancient manor of Tatchbury. Its history dates from the 10th century when a hide and a half of land in Tatchbury, the Domesday Book refers to another half hide being given to the Abbey sometime after 1066 by Edsi the Sheriff.
The Oviatt family held the manor for much of the 17th and 18th century, Tatchbury Manor House today is mostly a brick Victorian building, but which incorporates part of the old 13th century manor house. Netley Marsh Parish Council Netley Marsh Weather Netley Marsh Steam and Craft Show