A bishop is a piece in the board game of chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king's knight and the king, the other between the queen's knight and the queen; the starting squares are c1 and f1 for White's bishops, c8 and f8 for Black's bishops. The bishop is limited to diagonal movement. Bishops, like all other pieces except the knight, cannot jump over other pieces. A bishop captures by occupying the square; the bishops may be differentiated according to which wing they begin on, i.e. the king's bishop and queen's bishop. As a consequence of its diagonal movement, each bishop always remains on either the white or black squares, so it is common to refer to them as light-squared or dark-squared bishops. A rook is worth about two pawns more than a bishop; the bishop has access to only half of the squares on the board, whereas all squares of the board are accessible to the rook. On an empty board, a rook always attacks fourteen squares, whereas a bishop attacks no more than thirteen and sometimes as few as seven, depending on how near it is to the center.
A king and rook can force checkmate against a lone king, while a king and bishop cannot. In general bishops are equal in strength to knights, but depending on the game situation either may have a distinct advantage. Less experienced players tend to underrate the bishop compared to the knight because the knight can reach all squares and is more adept at forking. More experienced players understand the power of the bishop. Bishops gain in relative strength towards the endgame as more pieces are captured and more open lines become available on which they can operate. A bishop can influence both wings whereas a knight is less capable of doing so. In an open endgame, a pair of bishops is decidedly superior to either a bishop and a knight, or two knights. A player possessing a pair of bishops has a strategic weapon in the form of a long-term threat to trade down to an advantageous endgame. Two bishops and king can force checkmate against a lone king. A bishop and knight can with far greater difficulty than two bishops.
In certain positions a bishop can by itself lose a move. The bishop is capable of pinning a piece, while the knight can do neither. A bishop can in some situations hinder a knight from moving. In these situations, the bishop is said to be "dominating" the knight. On the other hand, in the opening and middlegame a bishop may be hemmed in by pawns of both players, thus be inferior to a knight which can jump over them. A knight check cannot be blocked but a bishop check can. Furthermore, on a crowded board a knight has many tactical opportunities to fork two enemy pieces. A bishop can fork. One such example occurs in the position illustrated, which arises from the Ruy Lopez: 1.e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 b5 6. Bb3 Be7?! 7.d4 d6 8.c3 Bg4 9.h3!? Bxf3 10. Qxf3 exd4 11. Qg3 g6 12. Bh6! In the middlegame, a player with only one bishop should place friendly pawns on squares of the color that the bishop cannot move to; this allows the player to control squares of both colors, allows the bishop to move among the pawns, helps fix enemy pawns on squares on which they can be attacked by the bishop.
Such a bishop is referred to as a "good" bishop. Conversely, a bishop, impeded by friendly pawns is referred to as a "bad bishop"; the black light-squared bishop in the French Defense is a notorious example of this concept. However, a "bad" bishop need not always be a weakness if it is outside its own pawn chains. In addition, having a "bad" bishop may be advantageous in an opposite-colored bishops endgame. If the bad bishop is passively placed, it may serve a useful defensive function. Although the black pawns obstruct the white bishop on e2, it has many more attacking possibilities, thus is a good bishop vis-à-vis Black's bad bishop. Black resigned after another ten moves. A bishop may be fianchettoed, for example after moving the g2 pawn to g3 and the bishop on f1 to g2; this can form a strong defense for the castled king on g1 and the bishop can exert strong pressure on the long diagonal. A fianchettoed bishop should not be given up since the resulting holes in the pawn formation may prove to be serious weaknesses if the king has castled on that side of the board.
There are nonetheless some modern opening lines where a fianchettoed bishop is given up for a knight in order to double the opponent's pawns, for example 1.d4 g6 2.c4 Bg7 3. Nc3 c5 4.d5 Bxc3+!? 5.bxc3 f5, a sharp line originated by Roman Dzindzichashvili. Giving up a fianchettoed queen bishop for a knight is less problematic. For example, in Karpov–Browne, San Antonio 1972, after 1.c4 c5 2.b3 Nf6 3. Bb2 g6?!, Karpov gave up his fianchettoed bishop with 4. Bxf6! exf6 5. Nc3, doubling Black's pawns and giving him a hole on d5. An endgame in which each player has only one bishop, one controlling the dark squares and the other the light, will result in a draw if one player has a pawn or sometimes two more than the other; the players tend to gain control of squares of opposite colors, a deadlock results. In endgames with same-colored bish
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth rank to be replaced by the player's choice of a queen, rook, or bishop of the same color. The new piece replaces the pawn, as part of the same move; the choice of new piece is not limited to pieces captured, thus promotion can result in a player owning, for example, two or more queens despite starting the game with one. Pawn promotion, or the threat of it decides the result in an endgame. Since the queen is the most powerful piece, the vast majority of promotions are to a queen. Promotion to a queen is called queening. If the promoted piece is not physically available, FIDE rules state that the player should stop the game clock and summon the arbiter for the correct piece. Under US Chess Federation rules and in casual play, an upside-down rook may be used to designate a queen. Promotion to a queen is the most common. Underpromotion occurs more in chess problems than in practical play. In practical play, underpromotions are not extraordinarily so.
As the most powerful piece, the queen is the most desirable, but promotion to a different piece can be advantageous in certain situations. A promotion to knight is useful if the knight can give immediate check. A promotion to a rook is necessary to avoid a draw by immediate stalemate that would occur if the promotion was to a queen. Promotion to a bishop never occurs in practical play; the percentage of games with promotions can be misleading, because a player resigns when they see that they cannot stop their opponent from promoting a pawn. In the 2006 ChessBase database of 3,200,000 games, about 1.5% of the games include a promotion. In these games the proportions of promotions to each piece are approximately: This suggests that about 3% of all promotions are underpromotions; the frequency of significant underpromotions is, less than this. A player may promote to any piece they wish, regardless of whether or not such a piece has been captured. In theory, a player could have nine queens, ten knights, ten bishops or ten rooks, though these are improbable scenarios.
Some chess sets come with an extra queen of each color to use for promoted pawns. If an extra queen is unavailable, it is represented by an upside-down rook instead; the diagram from the game between Bobby Fischer and Tigran Petrosian in the 1959 Candidates Tournament shows a position in which each side has two queens. Four queens existed from move 37 until move 44. Few games were played with six queens. In the first game each side had three queens after move 58 until move 65; the game ended in a draw with a single queen on each side. In the second game both sides had three queens, but Black resigned, with a single queen on both sides; the ability to promote is the critical factor in endgames and thus is an important consideration in opening and middlegame strategy. All promotions occur in the endgame, but promotion in the middlegame does happen. Promotion occurs in the opening after one side makes a blunder, as in the Lasker trap, which features an underpromotion to a knight on move seven: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 d4 4.e3?
Bb4+ 5. Bd2 dxe3! 6. Bxb4?? exf2+! 7. Ke2 fxg1=N+! Schlechter–Perlis, Karlsbad 1911 could have featured a promotion to queen on move 11: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3. Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 Bf5 5. Qb3 Qb6 6.cxd5 Qxb3 7.axb3 Bxb1? 8.dxc6! Be4?? 9. Rxa7! Rxa7 10.c7 threatening both 11.cxb8=Q and 11.c8=Q. Perlis avoided the trap with 8... Nxc6!, losing more slowly. The British grandmaster Joe Gallagher pulled off a similar idea a half-move earlier in Terentiev–Gallagher, Liechtenstein Open 1990: 1.d4 Nf6 2. Bg5 Ne4 3. Bf4 c5 4.c3 Qb6 5. Qb3 cxd4 6. Qxb6 axb6 7. Bxb8? dxc3 8. Be5?? Rxa2! and now White could have resigned, since if 9. Rxa2, c2 promotes the c-pawn. Another example occurs after 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nf6 5. Ng3 h5 6. Bg5?! h4 7. Bxf6?? hxg3 8. Be5 Rxh2! 9. Rxh2 Qa5+! 10.c3 Qxe5+! 11.dxe5 gxh2, with the dual threat of 12...hxg1=Q and 12...h1=Q, as in Schuster–Carls, Bremen 1914 and NN–Torre, Mexico 1928. Note that 10. Qd2 would have been met by 10...exf2+! 11. Kd1 Qxd2+ 12. Kxd2 fxg1=Q rather than 10... Qxe5 11.dxe5 gxh2 12.
Nf3 h1=Q 13.0-0-0 with a strong attack. There are a few opening lines where each side gets a desperado pawn that goes on a capturing spree, resulting in each side queening a pawn in the opening. An example is seen in the position diagrammed, where play continued 10... bxc3 11. Exf6 cxb2 12. Fxg7 bxa1=Q 13. Gxh8=Q. Both players promoted by White's seventh move in Casper–Heckert: 1.e4 Nf6 2. Nc3 d5 3.e5 d4 4.exf6 dxc3 5.d4 cxb2 6.fxg7 bxa1=Q 7.gxh8=Q. The original idea was that a foot soldier that advanced all the way through the enemy lines was promoted to the lowest rank of officer. In the Middle Ages, the queen was much weaker than now, its only allowed move was one square diagonally.. When the queen and bishop got their new moves, chess was radically altered; when the fers became the queen
Outline of chess
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chess: Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard. In a chess game, each player begins with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns; the object of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack and there is no way to remove or defend it from attack, or force the opposing player to forfeit. Chess can be described as all of the following: Form of entertainment – form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight. Form of recreation – activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. Form of play – voluntary, intrinsically motivated activity associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment. Game – structured playing undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, carried out for remuneration, from art, more an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements.
However, the distinction is not clear-cut, many games are considered to be work or art. Board game – game in which counters or pieces are placed, removed, or moved on a premarked surface or "board" according to a set of rules. Games may be based on pure strategy, chance or a mixture of the two and have a goal which a player aims to achieve. Strategy game – game in which the players' uncoerced, autonomous decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome. All strategy games require internal decision tree style thinking, very high situation awareness. Two-player game – game played by just two players against each other. Sport – form of play, but sport is a category of entertainment in its own right Sport – organized, competitive and skillful activity requiring commitment and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means, it is governed by a set of customs. Chess is recognized as a sport by the International Olympic Committee. Mind sport – game where the outcome is determined by mental skill, rather than by pure chance.
Chess board – checkerboard with 64 squares arranged in two alternating colors. The colors are called "black" and "white", although the actual colors vary: they are dark green and buff for boards used in competition, natural shades of light and dark woods for home boards. Chess boards can be built into chess tables, or dispensed with if playing mental chess, computer chess, Internet chess and sometimes correspondence chess. Rank – horizontal row of squares on the chessboard. File – vertical column of squares on the chessboard. Chess set – all the pieces required to play a game of chess. Chess sets come in various materials and styles, some are considered collectors' items and works of art; the most popular style for competitive play is the Staunton chess set, named after Howard Staunton. The relative values given are depend on the game situation. Chess pieces – two armies of 16 chess pieces, one army white, the other black; each player controls one of the armies for the entire game. The pieces in each army include: 1 king – most important piece, one of the weakest.
The object of the game is checkmate, by placing the enemy king in check in a way that it cannot escape capture in the next move. On the top of the piece is a cross. 1 queen – most powerful piece in the game, with a relative value of 9 points. The top of the piece is crown-like. Official tournament chess sets have 2 queens of each color, to deal with pawns being promoted 2 rooks – look like castle towers and have a relative value of 5 points each. 2 bishops – stylized after mitres, have a relative value of 3 points each. 2 knights – look like horse heads and have a relative value of 3 points each. 8 pawns – smallest pieces in the game, each topped by a ball. Pawns have a relative value of 1 point each. Game clock – dual timer used to monitor each player's thinking time. Only the timer of the player, to move is active. Used for speed chess, to regulate time in tournament games. Score sheet and writing implement – Tournament games require scores to be kept, many players like to record other games for analysis.
Rules of chess – rules governing the play of the game of chess. White and Black in chess – one set of pieces is designated "white" and the other is designated "black". White moves first; some older sets had red. Cheating in chess – methods that have been used to gain an unfair advantage by breaking the rules. Initial set up – initial placement of the pieces on the chessboard before any moves are made. Capture – move of a piece to a square occupied by an opposing piece, removed from the board and from play. Check – situation in which the king would be subject to capture. Checkmate – a winning move which makes capture of the opposing king inevitable. Moving a pawn – pawns move straight forward one space at a time, but capture diagonally. On its first move, a pawn may move two squares forward instead. Pawns are subject to the en passant and promotion movement rules. En passant – o
The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king; because the queen is the strongest piece, a pawn is promoted to a queen in the vast majority of cases. In the game shatranj, the ancestor of chess that included only male figures, the closest thing to the queen was the ferz, a weak piece only able to move or capture one step diagonally and not at all in any other direction; the modern chess queen gained power in the 15th century. In most languages the piece is known as "queen" or "lady". Asian and Eastern European languages tend to refer to it as minister or advisor. In Polish it is known as the hetman – the name of a major historical military-political office, while in Estonian it is called lipp; the white queen starts on d1, while the black queen starts on d8. With the chessboard oriented the white queen starts on a white square and the black queen starts on a black square—thus the mnemonics "queen gets her color", "queen on color", or "the dress matches the shoes ".
The queen can be moved any number of unoccupied squares in a straight line vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, thus combining the moves of the rook and bishop. The queen captures by occupying the square. Although both players start with one queen each, a pawn can be promoted to any of several types of pieces, including a queen, when the pawn is moved to the player's furthest rank; such a queen created by promotion can be an additional queen, or if the player's queen has been captured, a replacement queen. Pawn promotion to a queen is colloquially called queening, by far the most common type of piece a pawn is promoted to due to the relative power of a queen. Ordinarily, the queen is stronger than a rook and a bishop together, while less strong than two rooks, it is always disadvantageous to exchange the queen for a single piece other than the enemy's queen. The reason that the queen is stronger than a combination of a rook and bishop though they control the same number of squares, is twofold.
First, the queen is more mobile than the rook and the bishop, as the entire power of the queen can be transferred to another location in one move, while transferring the entire firepower of a rook and bishop requires two moves, the bishop always being restricted to squares of one color. Second, the queen is not hampered by the bishop's inability to control squares of the opposite color to the square on which it stands. A factor in favor of the rook and bishop is that they can attack a square twice, while a queen can only do so once. However, experience has shown that this factor is less significant than the points favoring the queen; the queen is strongest when the board is open, when the enemy king is poorly defended, or when there are loose pieces in the enemy camp. Because of her long range and ability to move in multiple directions, the queen is well equipped to execute forks. Compared to other long range pieces, the queen is stronger in closed positions. Beginners develop the queen early in the game, hoping to plunder the enemy position and deliver an early checkmate such as Scholar's mate.
This can expose the harassed queen to attacks by weaker pieces causing the player to lose time. Experienced players prefer to delay developing the queen, instead develop minor pieces in the opening. Early queen attacks are rare in high level chess, but there are some openings with early queen development that are used by high level players. For example, the Scandinavian Defense, which features queen moves by Black on the second and third moves is considered sound, has been played at the world championship level; some less common examples have been observed in high-level games. The Danvers Opening, characterized as a beginner's opening, has been played by the strong American grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. A queen exchange marks the beginning of the endgame, but there are queen endgames, sometimes queens are exchanged in the opening, long before the endgame. A common goal in the endgame is to promote a pawn to a queen; as the queen has the largest range and mobility and king vs. lone king is an easy win when compared to some other basic mates.
A queen sacrifice is the deliberate sacrifice of a queen in order to gain a more favorable tactical position. The queen was the counsellor or prime minister or vizier, its only move was one square diagonally. Around 1300 CE its move was enhanced to allow it to move two squares with jump onto a same-colored square for its first move, to help the sides to come into contact sooner; the fers changed into the queen over time. The first surviving mention of this piece as a queen or similar was "regina" in the Einsiedeln Poem, written in Latin around 997 and preserved in a monastery at Einsiedeln in Switzerland; some surviving early medieval pieces depict the piece as a queen, the word fers became grammatically feminized in several languages, for example alferza in Spanish and fierce or fierge in French, before it was replaced with names such as reine or dame. The Carmina Burana refer to the queen as femina and coniunx, the name Amazon has sometimes been seen. In Russian it keeps its Persian name of ferz.
Semyon Zinovyevich Alapin was a chess master, openings analyst, puzzle composer. He was railway engineer and a grain commodities merchant. Born in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire on 19 November 1856, he was one of the strongest chess players in the Russian Empire in the late 19th century, he died in Heidelberg, Germany, on 15 July 1923. Today he is best known for his creation of opening systems in all major openings. Most of these are of little significance today, but Alapin's Variation of the Sicilian Defence is an important opening line, played by leading grandmasters. Alapin's Variation of the Sicilian Defence: 1. E4 c5 2. C3 Alapin's Opening in the Open Game: 1. E4 e5 2. Ne2!? Alapin's Gambit of the French Defence: 1. E4 e6 2. D4 d5 3. Be3!? Alapin's Defence of the Ruy Lopez: 1. E4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Bb4 Alapin's Variation of the Caro-Kann Defence: 1. E4 c6 2. C3 Alapin's Variation of the Dutch Defence: 1. D4 f5 2. Qd3 Alapin's Variation of the Queen's Gambit: 1. D4 d5 2. C4 e6 3. Nc3 b6 Alapin Steinitz Variation of the Evans Gambit: 1.
E4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. B4 Bxb4 5. C3 Ba5 6. 0-0 d6 7. D4 Bg4 Sanders Alapin Variation of the Evans Gambit: 1. E4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. B4 Bxb4 5. C3 Ba5 6. 0-0 d6 7. D4 Bd7 Hooper and Kenneth Whyld; the Oxford Companion To Chess. Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-280049-3. Semyon Alapin player profile and games at Chessgames.com
The Piatigorsky Cup was a triennial series of double round-robin grandmaster chess tournaments held in the United States in the 1960s. Sponsored by the Piatigorsky Foundation, only two events were held, in 1963 and 1966; the Piatigorsky Cups were the strongest U. S. chess tournaments since New York 1927. Jacqueline Piatigorsky was married to cellist Gregor Piatigorsky. One of the strongest woman chess players in the U. S. and a regular competitor in the U. S. Women's Chess Championship, she was the primary organizer of the tournament; the prize funds were among the largest of any chess tournament up to that time. Every player was guaranteed a prize and all traveling and living expenses were paid; the First Piatigorsky Cup was held in The Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles in July 1963. The tournament field of eight included players from five countries; the Soviet representatives Paul Keres and World Champion Tigran Petrosian finished equal first to share the cup with a score of 8½/14, receiving more than half of the $10,000 prize fund.
Since dollars brought back to the USSR were exchanged by the Soviet government for rubles at an unfavorable rate and Petrosian were reported to have bought automobiles with their winnings. Keres lost twice to Samuel Reshevsky; the Cup was Petrosian's first tournament since winning the 1963 World Championship match with Mikhail Botvinnik and was one of two first prizes he shared in his six-year reign as champion. He was the first reigning champion to play in an American tournament since Alexander Alekhine at Pasadena 1932. After losing in the second round to Svetozar Gligorić, Petrosian was never in danger the rest of the tournament; the remainder of the tournament field included two Americans and Pal Benko, two Argentinians, Oscar Panno and Miguel Najdorf, two Europeans, Gligorić and Friðrik Ólafsson. U. S. Champion Bobby Fischer declined an invitation after his demand for a $2000 appearance fee was refused by the tournament organizers. Gligorić led halfway through the tournament with 4½/7, but he scored only three draws in the last seven games and finished fifth behind Najdorf and Ólafsson.
Petrosian finished the strongest, with 5/7 in the second half. Before the last round, Petrosian led with 8 points, followed by Keres with 7½ and Najdorf and Ólafsson with 7. Both Petrosian and Keres had Black in the final round. Petrosian drew his game against Reshevsky, but Keres beat Gligorić to result in a tie for first place with 8½ points each. Isaac Kashdan served as tournament director and edited a tournament book published in 1965, with the annotations by Reshevsky; the second and final tournament in the series was held in July and August 1966 at the Miramar Hotel, Santa Monica. The field was increased from eight players to ten and the prize fund was doubled to $20,000; this time all invited. With the increased tournament field, eight countries were represented. Although Soviet-U. S. Tension over the Vietnam War seemed to threaten Soviet participation in the event, the Soviet Chess Federation sent World Champion Tigran Petrosian and challenger Boris Spassky. Petrosian and Spassky had finished a World Championship match in the spring in which Petrosian retained his title.
The remainder of the field included Bobby Fischer and Samuel Reshevsky, Bent Larsen, Lajos Portisch, Wolfgang Unzicker, Miguel Najdorf, Borislav Ivkov, Jan Hein Donner. Interest in the tournament was unusually high for a chess event in the United States, with over 500 spectators attending most sessions; the 17th-round game between tournament leaders Spassky and Fischer drew over 900 spectators, with many turned away. Positions of the games in progress were displayed to the crowds using a novel projection system devised by Jacqueline Piatigorsky rather than the usual wall boards. Spassky jumped out to an early lead with wins over Unzicker and Fischer. At the halfway point he was tied with Larsen for first with 6/9. Petrosian fell out of contention early, after a loss in the third round to Portisch and another loss in the seventh round after Larsen made a queen sacrifice. Fischer lost three games in a row in the second week of play and was next to last with 3½/9 at the halfway point. Fischer won four straight games, drew one won two more to catch up to Spassky with two rounds remaining.
Spassky had defeated Fischer in the eighth round, but they met for the second time in the penultimate round. Although Fischer had the advantage of the white pieces, Spassky used the Marshall Attack in the Ruy Lopez to draw in 37 moves. In the final round tied with 10½ points each, Spassky defeated Donner while Fischer drew with Petrosian, making Spassky the tournament winner by half a point, as he was the only player to be undefeated. Fischer and Larsen won the most games. Larsen was tied for the lead as late as round 11, but although he defeated Petrosian in both their games his four losses dropped him to third place. Sharing the fourth and fifth prizes and Unzicker were the only other players with a plus score. World Champion Petrosian's sixth-place finish was a disappointment, but he may have still been feeling the strain of his recent World Championship match with Spassky, eight years his junior; the tournament book Second Piatigorsky Cup edited by the tournament director Isaac
In chess, a swindle is a ruse by which a player in a losing position tricks his opponent, thereby achieves a win or draw instead of the expected loss. It may refer more to obtaining a win or draw from a losing position. I. A. Horowitz and Fred Reinfeld distinguish among "traps", "pitfalls", "swindles". In their terminology, a "trap" refers to a situation where a player goes wrong through his own efforts. In a "pitfall", the beneficiary of the pitfall plays an active role, creating a situation where a plausible move by the opponent will turn out badly. A "swindle" is a pitfall adopted by a player who has a lost game. Horowitz and Reinfeld observe that swindles, "though ignored in all chess books", "play an enormously important role in over-the-board chess, decide the fate of countless games". Although "swindling" in general usage is synonymous with cheating or fraud, in chess the term does not imply that the swindler has done anything unethical or unsportsmanlike. There is nonetheless a faint stigma attached to swindles, since players feel that one who has outplayed one's opponent for the entire game "is'morally' entitled to victory" and a swindle is thus regarded as "rob the opponent of a well-earned victory".
However, the best swindles can be quite artistic, some are known. There are ways that a player can maximize the chances of pulling off a swindle, including being objective and exploiting time pressure. Although swindles can be effected in many different ways, themes such as stalemate, perpetual check, surprise mating attacks are seen; the ability to swindle one's way out of a lost position is a useful skill for any chess player and according to Graham Burgess is "a major facet of practical chess". Frank Marshall may be the only player. Marshall was proud of his reputation for swindles, in 1914 wrote a book entitled Marshall's Chess "Swindles". Frank Marshall, a gifted tactician, one of the world's strongest players in the early 20th century, has been called "the most renowned of swindlers". To Marshall, the term swindle "meant a imaginative method of rescuing a difficult, if not lost, position." The phrase "Marshall swindle" was coined because Marshall "was famed for extricating himself from hopeless positions by such means".
The most celebrated of his many "Marshall swindles" occurred in Marshall–Marco, Monte Carlo 1904. Marshall wrote of the position in the left-most diagram, "White's position has become desperate, as the hostile b-pawn must queen." White could play 45. Rxc7+, but Black would respond 45... Kb8, winning. Many players would resign here, but Marshall saw an opportunity for "a last'swindle'", he continued 45.c6! Now Black could have played 45...bxc6!, but disdained it because White could play 46. Rxc7+ Kb8 47. Rb7+! Kxb7 48. Nc5 +, stopping Black's pawn from advancing. Black should have played this line, because he still wins after 48... Ka7 49. Nxa4 Bd4! 50. Kf3 Ka6 51. Ke4 Ka5 52. Kxd4 Kxa4 53. Kc3 Ka3 and Black's pawn queens after all. Instead, Marco played 45... Be5?, mistakenly thinking that this would put an end to Marshall's tricks. The game continued 46.cxb7+ Kb8 47. Nc5! Ra2+ 48. Kh3 b2 49. Re7! Ka7 Not 49...b1=Q?? 50. Re8+ Ka7 51. Ra8+ Kb6 52.b8=Q+, winning Black's newly created queen. 50. Re8! c6! 51. Ra8+ Kb6 52. Rxa2! b1=Q.
White's resources seem to be at an end, but now Marshall revealed his hidden point: 53.b8=Q+! Bxb8 54. Rb2+! Qxb2 55. Na4+ Kb5 56. Nxb2. Marshall has caught Black's pawn after all, is now a pawn up in a position where it is Black, fighting for a draw. Fred Reinfeld and Irving Chernev commented, "Marshall's manner of extricating himself from his difficulties is reminiscent of an end-game by Rinck or Troitsky!" Marshall won the game after a further mistake by Black. The well-known swindle seen in Evans–Reshevsky, U. S. Championship 1963–64, has been dubbed the "Swindle of the Century". Evans can win as he pleases. Instead of resigning, White offered a little prayer" with 47.h4! The game continued 47... Re2+ 48. Kh1 Qxg3?? Black wins with 48... Qg6! 49. Rf8 Qe6! 50. Rh8+ Kg6, now Black remains a piece ahead after 51. Qxe6 Nxe6, or forces mate after 51.gxf4 Re1+ and 52... Qa2+. Evans concluded the game with 49. Qg8+! Kxg8 50. Rxg7+! ½–½ The players agreed to a draw, since capturing the rook produces stalemate, but otherwise the rook stays on the seventh rank and checks Black's king ad infinitum.
This swindle enabled Evans to finish outright second in the tournament at 7½/11, while Reshevsky was relegated to a tie for fourth–fifth place with 6½/11. The British grandmaster Tony Miles was an accomplished swindler, he provided a stunning example of using active play to save a lost position in Miles–Short, London 1980. In the left-most position, Miles has no way of saving his pinned knight. Many players would resign here, but Miles played on and succeeded in perpetrating "a monstrous swindle." Miles played 49.b6!, a "last desperate fling."Hartston and Reuben write that now "49... Rxe3 or 49... Qxb6 add to Black's gains with no problems." 49...axb6?! 50. Qa4! A surprising resource. Bxe3? 51. Qa1+! Bd4 52. Rxd4 Qb4+ 53. Kc2 "leaves Black in sudden difficulties." 50... Rf8 51. Nc2 Bg7 52. Qb3 Bc6 53. Rd1 Qe5 54.a7 Ba4? 54...e3! Followed by... Be4 would still win quickly. 55. Qa3 Rc8 56. Ne3 Qa5 57. Rc1! h5 Giving his king a flight square, avoiding 57... Qxa7 58. Bb5! Rxc1+ 59. Qxc1 threatening both 60. Qc8+ and 60. Qa3.
58. Bd5! Rxc1+? Miles writes that after 58