Salford Red Devils
The Salford Red Devils are a professional rugby league club in Salford, Greater Manchester, who play in the Super League. Formed in 1873, they have won one Challenge Cup, their home ground since 2012 has been the AJ Bell Stadium in Barton-upon-Irwell, before which they played at the Willows in Weaste. Before 1995, the club was known as Salford, from 1995–98 Salford Reds and from 1999–2013 Salford City Reds; the club was founded in 1873 by the boys of the Cavendish Street Chapel in Manchester. Using a local field, the boys organised matches amongst themselves before moving to nearby Moss Side. In an attempt to recruit new members, the link with the school was broken in 1875 and the name Cavendish Football Club was adopted, they moved to a new base on the Salford side of the River Irwell at Throstle Nest Weir in Ordsall. Two seasons they moved again to the west side of Trafford Road to a ground known as the Mile Field where they spent the 1877–78 season, their next home was a field north of New Barnes.
Their first season there, 1878–79, was the last to be played under the Cavendish name. Cavendish became Salford Football Club in 1879; the first match as Salford was at Dewsbury on 4 October 1879. The following week heralded the first home match at New Barnes against Widnes, on 11 October 1879; the result was a draw with one try each. Salford struggled to attract support. In 1881, they disbanded but instead merged with the Crescent Football Club; this placed Salford on the rugby map, it was an exciting period and, during the remaining 15 years as members of the Rugby Football Union, seventeen Salford players were selected for Lancashire, three by the North of England and two, Harry Eagles and Tom Kent, for England. Since the 1881 merger, only 62 matches were lost from 263 played in the remaining nine years of the decade. In 1889, Salford moved their headquarters to the nearby London and North Western Hotel on Cross Lane. Salford switched from their traditional amber and scarlet hoops to red jerseys.
The club became the first side to win the Lancashire League in 1892–93. In 1895, the leading Lancashire and Yorkshire clubs formed the breakaway Northern Union, Salford remained loyal to the Rugby Football Union but in April 1896 Salford held a special meeting to discuss joining the new organisation. Only three members opposed the motion. Salford were admitted to the Northern Union on 2 June 1896, their first competitive Northern Union match was on Saturday, 5 September 1896, with a visit to Widnes. The Reds, competing in the Lancashire Senior Competition, lost 10–0, only three matches were won in the League that season, their form improved and they finished third place in 1898–99. In 1900, Salford met old local rivals, Swinton, in the Rugby League Challenge Cup Final at Fallowfield, Manchester. After a keenly fought contest, the result was a 16–8 win for Swinton. In 1900, Salford received notice to vacate New Barnes as the Manchester Ship Canal Company had purchased the land. Salford agreed a 14-year lease on 5 acres of land belonging to the Willows Estate Company, named after the abundance of willow trees in the area.
Salford made their début at the Willows on 21 December 1901, beating Swinton 2–0, the official attendance reaching 16,981. James Lomas became rugby league's first £100 transfer, from Bramley to Salford in 1901; the club continued making progress in the Rugby League Challenge Cup, reaching the semi-final stages in 1902, 1903, 1906, 1907 and 1910. On three occasions, they succeeded in reaching the final, but lost 0–25 to Broughton Rangers in 1902, 0–7 to Halifax in 1903 and 0–5 to Bradford in 1906; the Championship proved elusive, the Reds finishing runners-up for three consecutive seasons from 1901–02. In the last of those and Bradford finished level on points with Salford having the superior scoring record. Despite that, the Reds had to take part in a deciding match at Halifax, which they lost 5–0; the Kiwis known as the All Golds, visited in 1907, Salford played them on 28 December, losing 9–2 in front of a reported 9,000 spectators. Lance Todd, to have such an influence at the Willows 20 years was in the New Zealanders' side.
A year the Australians stopped off at the Willows on 17 October. The result was a 9–9 draw. Salford won the Rugby Football League Championship in 1913–14; the club had financial problems and was in the hands of the official receiver but somehow in the Championship final, beat Huddersfield's "Team of All Talents" 5–3 on 25 April 1914, this was the club's first major honour. In August 1914, the Salford Football Club Company was wound up and a new company, Salford Football Club Limited was formed. During the First World War, Salford continued to function. Thirty-two Salford players volunteered for the war; the 1920s was an era of survival, on and off the field, the team opening the decade with their worst league placing, finishing last in 1920–21. There was a dramatic change of fortune during the summer of 1928 when Lance Todd became team manager. In his first season in charge, "Toddy's Toddlers" went from 26th to fourth place in the table with the same set of players. Gus Risman was talent-spotted by Lance Todd.
He made his début for Salford on 31 August 1929. Other legendary names included Alan Edwards, Jack Feetham, Barney Hudson, Emlyn Jenkins, Billy Watkins and Billy Williams. Salford were considered the leading club in the game during the 1930s, winning three League Championships, five Lancashire League Championships, four Lancashire Cups and the Rugby League Challenge Cup. Salfo
The Widnes Vikings are an English professional rugby league club based in Widnes, Cheshire that plays in the Betfred Championship. The club plays. Founded as Widnes Football Club, they are one of the original twenty-two rugby clubs that formed the Northern Rugby Football Union in 1895, making them one of the world's first rugby league teams, their historic nickname is "The Chemics" after the main industry in Widnes, but now they use their modern nickname, "The Vikings". The club enjoyed a period of success in the 1970s, 1980s, early 1990s, were described as "Cup Kings" reaching the Challenge Cup Final 7 times in 10 years between 1975 and 1984. In 1989, after winning their third Rugby League Championship, Widnes became the first official World Club Champions by beating the Australian champions Canberra Raiders 30-18 at Old Trafford, they have a strong local rivalry with Warrington Wolves. The Farnworth & Appleton Cricket Club was formed in 1871 and four years the members decided to embrace the burgeoning football code.
At their fourth annual evening party in the Drill Hall, Widnes, in November 1875, club Chairman Henry Lea "gave a short account of the club since it commenced about four years ago, indicated that they had now started a football club in connexion with it, hoped all would join". The first known game for the new Farnworth and Appleton FC was in Widnes in January 1876 played under rugby rules against Northwich Victoria. A few weeks a return match was played at Drill Field, Northwich under soccer rules. Vics won both games; these are the only two known fixtures in that truncated first season. By May 1876 the club had changed its name to Widnes FC and the cricket side of the organisation had disbanded to concentrate on football activities. By the late 1870s the club was being referred to as "The Chemicals"—subsequently shortened to'The Chemics'; the first ground was on Albert Road behind what is now the Premier Wetherspoon's pub and a short spell followed in the Simms Cross area. From around 1878–84 the club were based at the junction of Millfield/Peelhouse Lane, apart from season 1880–81 when they played on the Widnes Cricket Club ground at Lowerhouse Lane.
From 1884–95 they rented a field at Lowerhouse Lane before moving to their third separate site on that road in October 1895. The first game at what became Naughton Park was against Liversedge on Saturday 12 October 1895. In 1895, Widnes were founder members of the Northern Union which broke away from the Rugby Football Union, their first game was an away fixture against Runcorn which they lost 15–4. During the early years, the club had to sell players to balance the books; the strength of junior rugby league in the area meant the club had a steady stream of new players to offset any losses. In 1902, the Lancashire and Yorkshire leagues were combined to form a second division, Widnes was added to the first division. In 1914, Arthur'Chick' Johnson was capped for the Lions in the famous Rorke's Drift test, a match in which they overcame all the odds, injuries to beat Australia with a depleted side of 10 against 13, he scored an extraordinary try to win the game. Widnes closed for the 1915-16 season but recommenced playing in 1916 following the introduction of conscription which meant that would not be accused of keeping men from volunteering for the First World War.
Thirteen Widnes players were killed during the conflict. The club's first success came when they won the Lancashire League trophy in the 1919–20 season. However, the 1920s saw the club go to the wall. Local rivals Warrington donated their share of the traditional Easter and Christmas derby matches to keep Widnes afloat in 1927–28. In 1930, Widnes with 12 local-born players defied the odds to beat St. Helens 10–3 to bring home the Challenge Cup; the Kingsway housing scheme threatened the loss of Widnes' ground. After several years of fundraising during the Great Depression of the 1930s, £3,250 was raised to save the ground; this came with a stipulation that the ground could be sold only to the local council at the original price. The newly named Naughton Park was opened in 1932. A major boost for the club was Widnes' first trip to the Challenge Cup final, staged at Wembley, their opponents were St. Helens, Saints scored after 6 minutes to take a 3–0 lead, but Widnes hit back with a penalty try, a further try and a penalty to take a 10–3 half-time lead.
A scoreless second half meant. Widnes became the first club to make two trips to Wembley, with a loss to Hunslet in the 1934 cup final. In 1935–36, the team came close to being rugby league champions. Having finished third in the table, Widnes beat Liverpool 10–9 but lost to Hull FC, in the championship final. A third trip to Wembley came in 1937, with an 18–5 win over Keighley; the final was dubbed "McCue's Match" as the halfback played an important part in the win. Widnes dropped out of the wartime Lancashire league in 1940–41 and did not return to league competition until 1945–46. Tommy McCue led the club to its first Lancashire County Cup win, with a 7–3 victory against Wigan in 1945. Back at Wembley in 1950, the team was beaten 19–0 by Warrington. During this period, the club reverted to selling its players to richer teams. Local man Vince Karalius was appointed club captain. In his first season, Widnes finished third in the Championship, which equalled the club's best league placing. In 1962, the league was split into West of the Pennines.
With two minutes remaining, Lowdon dropped a goal to
Racing Club Albi XIII
Racing Club Albi XIII called Racing Club Albigeois XIII and more also known as Albi Tigers are a semi-professional rugby league team based in Albi in the Occitanie region in southern France. Formed in 1934 the club compete in the Elite One Championship the highest level of competition in France, they have won the French title on the Lord Derby Cup once. Their current home stadium is Stade Mazicou. RC Albi were one of the founder clubs of Rugby League in France indeed they were the second club formed after US Villeneuve in May 1934, they were formed by Jean-Marie Vignal one of Jean Galia's pioneers who would be the clubs first captain/coach and Simon Bompunt who would be the clubs first chairman. The club recruited from nearby Toulouse as the local rugby club SC Albi refused players to move to the new club, only two would move in the early years; the club finished 7th in their debut season their first match finishing in a 6-26 defeat at Bordeaux XIIIIn season 1937-38 despite finishing 7th the club won through the play-offs to reach the final and caused a major upset, beating US Villeneuve 8-3 to lift their first trophy.
They reached the semi-final in 1939-40 in. During the war the Vichy Government banned Rugby League in France. RC Albi were forced to join with the rugby club in the town SC Albi under a new name Albi Olympique. After the war the club went back to Rugby League, they enjoyed a good spell at the end of the 1950s as they won the French rugby league championship three times in six years, they hosted the touring Australia national rugby league team, losing in 1952 22-31 and 20-25 in 1956 but in 1959 they earned a fantastic 19-10 win against them in front of 5,845 spectators Since the club have not fared too well they have won the championship and cup once each, in 1977 and 1974 respectively. The club withdrew from the Elite One Championship at the end of season 2007-08 due to financial reasons but in 2014-15 they won the Elite Two Championship and returned to the top flight finishing a creditable 5th in 2015-16 The club runs youth sides and a ladies team The club have always played in amber and black.
The Badge has been changed it was a French cockerel stood on a rugby ball with the number 13 on the ball. This was changed to a tiger next to a tower logo; the reference to'Tigers' comes from the 90s when they followed many other clubs in adopting a moniker along the lines of Castleford Tigers who happen to play in the same colours Stadium Municipal d'Albi has been the clubs home ground since it opened for rugby in 1964. The main stand is a cantilever grandstand while opposite is newer stand both these stands are all seated, at either end there is terracing. In 1977 the French rugby league championship was held here despite RC Albi being in the final against AS Carcassonne. A record rugby crowd of 20,000 witnessed. In 1979 France national rugby league team beat the touring Papua New Guinea national rugby league team 16-9; the stadium underwent a major revamp in 2007 resulting in the now 13,058 capacity including 8,000 seated. They are based at Stade Mazicou. Squad for 2018-19 Season Alex Grant - fullback Nittim Pedrero - Wing Clement Tailhades - Centre Clement Bienes - Fullback Florian Deburghgraeve - Wing Morgan Carensac - Five-eighth Theo Guinguet - Halfback TJ Uele - Prop William Ousty - Hooker Gaetan Estruga - Second-row Jye Ballinger - Prop Cedric Mazars - Second-row Maxime Garcia - Prop Christopher Denis - Hooker Lasarusa Tabu - Centre Axel Rodrigues - Prop Paul Molinier - Lock Pierre Carivenc - Halfback Yohan Spina - Centre Hugo Lescouzeres - Centre Baptiste Fabre - Five-eighth Lucas Gagnon - Centre Aubin Mailhe - Centre Tristan Dupuy - Second-row Jean-Marie Vignal Eric Anselme Jack Oster French championship: 1937-38, 1955–56, 1957–58, 1961–62, 1976–77 Lord Derby Cup: 1973-74 Elite Two: 1990-91, 2014–15
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Catalans Dragons are a professional rugby league club in Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France. They play in the Super League, are the only team in the competition from outside England; the Dragons play home games at Stade Gilbert Brutus. They are the current Challenge Cup holders, the first non British team to win it since the competition started in 1896, after beating Warrington Wolves 20–14 at Wembley Stadium on 25 August 2018; the club was formed in 2000 by a merger of XIII Catalan and AS Saint-Estève into Union Treiziste Catalane. They won the 2005 French Rugby League Championship and the Lord Derby Cup in 2004 and 2005. In 2006, they were granted taking the name Catalans Dragons. UTC continues to compete in the French Championship's Elite One Championship as a feeder club for the Dragons, now under the name Saint-Estève XIII Catalan; the club was founded in 2000 after the merger of two teams in Perpignan, XIII Catalan and AS Saint Estève. The merged team took the name Union Treiziste Catalane abbreviated to UTC.
XIII Catalan thus were founding members of the French Championship. During their run, they won 11 Lord Derby Cups. AS Saint-Estève were founded in 1965, they won four Lord Derby Cups. There were two other clubs in the twelve-team competition in Pyrénées-Orientales: Pia XIII and Saint-Cyprien. In 2002 Saint-Cyprien joined the merged UTC side. UTC won the 2004 and 2005 Lord Derby Cups. In 2005, UTC applied to join the Super League, the highest tier of professional rugby league in Europe, they were selected ahead of Toulouse Olympique and Villeneuve Leopards to enter the league for the 2006 season. The franchise was named Catalans Dragons; the club set. The Catalans are not the first French side to play in the Super League, but the first, Paris Saint-Germain, lasted only two seasons. Both rugby codes have their stronghold in the southwest of France, the north of France is more football-friendly. Players on loan from French league clubs had to play for their own clubs as well, train in the south and take the long journey to Paris or England for matches.
To ensure that the Catalans had the best French players available to them, the French rugby league decided to let them sign players from other French clubs without paying a transfer fee. The league would not relegate them from the Super League for three years if they finished last. Many believe that the Catalans will be joined by other French clubs in the Super League, but the whole idea of expanding into France had critics; the Catalans won their first Super League match 38–30 against Wigan on 11 February 2006, at Stade Aimé Giral. The club encountered a steep learning curve in their first season in the Super League. Many of less experienced French players suffered from tiredness towards the end of a gruelling, injury-marred campaign. A particular loss was that of key playmaker and captain Stacey Jones, who missed much of the season with a broken arm; the team finished bottom of the table, but the three-year exemption from relegation kept them in the Super League. The year 2007 saw a strong recruitment by new coach Mick Potter with a string of high-profile signings from Australia, including Clint Greenshields, Casey McGuire, Jason Croker and Aaron Gorrell, all seasoned NRL campaigners.
Gorrell, a goalkicking'hooker', impressed in the first month but sustained a bad knee injury in February's win over Leeds and missed the rest of the season. On 10 March 2007, it was announced that Newcastle Knights hooker Luke Quigley would cover Gorrell's absence for the remainder of the campaign, but a number of players sustained injuries throughout the campaign. On 29 July 2007, the Catalans became the first French side and first non-British side to reach the final of the Challenge Cup after beating Wigan 37–24 in the semifinal; the Catalans lost the 2007 Challenge Cup Final with St. Helens at Wembley Stadium on 25 August 2007, they managed to finish the 2007 season off the bottom of the table, ending the season in a respectable tenth place. In 2008, the Catalans secured their first playoff berth by finishing third on the league ladder on the back of a ferocious forward pack, they smashed Warrington 46–8 in their first-ever playoff match on 13 September in Perpignan, but 20 September saw Wigan blow open what had been a close game in the second half of their elimination semifinal, with Wigan winning 50–26.
Coach Mick Potter left the Dragons at the end of the 2008 season to replace Daniel Anderson at St Helens. In 2009, they were involved in two historic milestones for the sport of rugby league in Europe. During their match away to the Welsh club Crusaders on 23 May, the two clubs played the first Super League match to not feature an English team. History was created on 20 June, when the club played in the first Super League game to be played in Spain, at Barcelona's Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys, the venue for the 1992 Summer Olympics, against Warrington; the Dragons led 10–6 at halftime, but Warrington finished as the winners 12–24. The purpose of the latter fixture was to promote the sport in Catalonia, with around 1000 tickets being sold in the local area, the game was televised on the Catalan channel El 33. After the game, Walters commented that the event in Spain could become an annual one complementing comments made by the club's general manager about using a new high-speed link between Perpignan and Spain, supposed to start running within two years.
In 2016 Catalans Dragons celebrated ten year
Huddersfield is a large market and university town in West Yorkshire, England. It is the 11th largest town in the United Kingdom, with a population of 162,949 at the 2011 census, it lies 14 miles southwest of Leeds and 24 miles northeast of Manchester. Huddersfield is near the confluence of the River Holme. Within the historic county boundaries of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is the largest urban area in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees and the administrative centre of the borough; the town is known for its role in the Industrial Revolution, for being the birthplaces of rugby league, Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, the film star James Mason. Huddersfield is home to rugby league team Huddersfield Giants, founded in 1895, who play in the Super League, Premier League football team Huddersfield Town A. F. C. Founded in 1908; the town is home to the University of Huddersfield and the sixth form colleges Greenhead College, Kirklees College and Huddersfield New College. Huddersfield is a town of Victorian architecture.
Huddersfield railway station is a Grade I listed building described by John Betjeman as "the most splendid station façade in England", second only to St Pancras, London. The station in St George's Square was renovated at a cost of £4 million and subsequently won the Europa Nostra award for European architecture. There has been a settlement in the area for over 4,000 years; the remains of a Roman fort were unearthed in the mid 18th century at Slack near Outlane, west of the town. Castle Hill, a major landmark, was the site of an Iron Age hill fort. Huddersfield was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Odresfeld. Indeed, the modern name Huddersfield is pronounced without a word-initial /h/ in the local dialect, suggesting that the standard English pronunciation has influenced the accepted spelling. Huddersfield has been a market town since Anglo-Saxon times; the market cross is on Market Place. The manor of Huddersfield was owned by the de Lacy family until 1322, at which it reverted to royal ownership.
In 1599, William Ramsden bought the manor, the Ramsden family continued to own the manor, which came to be known as the'Ramsden Estate', until 1920. During their ownership they supported the development of the town, building the Huddersfield Cloth Hall in 1766 and the Sir John Ramsden's Canal in 1780, supporting the arrival of the railway in the 1840s. Huddersfield was a centre of civil unrest during the Industrial Revolution. In a period where Europe was experiencing frequent wars, where trade had slumped and the crops had failed, many local weavers faced losing their livelihood due to the introduction of machinery in factories. Luddites began destroying mills and machinery in response. In his book Rebels Against the Future, Kirkpatrick Sale describes how an army platoon was stationed at Huddersfield to deal with Luddites. In response, Luddites began to focus attacks on nearby towns and villages, which were less well-protected; the government campaign that crushed the movement was provoked by a murder that took place in Huddersfield.
William Horsfall, a mill-owner and a passionate prosecutor of Luddites, was killed in 1812. Although the movement faded out, Parliament began to increase welfare provision for those out of work, introduce regulations to improve conditions in the mills. Two Prime Ministers spent part of their childhood in Huddersfield: Harold Wilson and Herbert Asquith. Wilson is commemorated by a statue in front of the railway station; the Huddersfield constituency has been represented by Labour MP Barry Sheerman since its creation in 1983 and is considered a safe seat for Labour. Kirklees Council was the first in the UK to have a Green Party councillor, Nicholas Harvey, instrumental in protesting against the intended closure of the Settle and Carlisle Railway line; the town has Liberal Democrats and UKIP presences. Huddersfield was incorporated as a municipal borough in the ancient West Riding of Yorkshire in 1868; the borough comprised the parishes of Almondbury, Huddersfield, Lindley-cum-Quarmby and Lockwood.
When the West Riding County Council was formed in 1889, Huddersfield became a county borough, exempt from county council control. In 1920, the Corporation bought the Ramsden Estate from the Ramsden family, that had owned much of the town since 1599, for the sum of £1.3 million. As a result, the town became known for a time as'the town that bought itself'. To this day, much of the freehold of the town belongs to the local authority. Huddersfield expanded in 1937, assimilating parts of the Golcar and South Crosland urban districts; the county borough was abolished in 1974 and its former area was combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in West Yorkshire. Attempts by the council to gain support for city status were rejected by the population in an unofficial referendum held by the Huddersfield Daily Examiner; the council did not apply for that status in either 2002 competitions. Huddersfield had a strong liberal tradition up to the 1950s reflected in the number of liberal social clubs in the town.
The current Member of Parliament for the Huddersfield constituency is Barry Sheerman, a Labour Co-operative member. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001 the population of the Huddersfield urban sub-area of the West Yorkshire Urban Area was 146,234, the populatio
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar