Andrew Cowan is a Scottish former rally driver, and the founder and senior director of Mitsubishi Ralliart until his retirement on 30 November 2005. According to Cowan their lifestyles were a help in their subsequent careers. We were able to drive in fields, off road, and that definitely refined our driving skills. We had advantages that other drivers didnt and he returned the following year to successfully defend his title, and as a result the Rootes Group invited him to become their works driver. Once established as a driver, Cowan had many notable successes with both Rootes and subsequently Mitsubishi, for whom he signed in 1972. He was competitive in the Safari Rally where he recorded a top four finish four times in five years and he retired as a driver in 1990. In 1983, Mitsubishi Motors asked him to establish a European base for their motorsport activities, in 2003, Mitsubishi Motors officially took over the business and renamed it Mitsubishi Motorsport, although Cowan remained as Sporting Advisor for the next two years until his retirement aged 69.
In September 2008, Cowan took part in the Colin McRae Forest Stages Rally and he was one of a number of former rally drivers to take part in the event in memory of McRae, who died in 2007. WRC Archive stats page Rallybase stats page
Lancia Rally 037
The Lancia Rally was a mid-engine sports car and rally car built by Lancia in the early 1980s to compete in the FIA Group B World Rally Championship. Driven by Markku Alén, Attilio Bettega, and Walter Röhrl and it was the last rear-wheel drive car to win the WRC. In 1980 Lancia began designing the 037 to comply with the new FIA Group B regulations that allowed cars to race with relatively few homologation models being built, as the project was number 037, this eventually became the name by which the car was known. Abarth, now a part of the Lancia-Fiat family, did most of the design work, the car was born from the collaboration between Pininfarina, Abarth and the project manager, engineer Sergio Limone. Prior to its first participation in the 1982 World Rally Championship season,200 road-going models were built to comply with Group B regulations. The car made its debut at the 1982 Rally Costa Smeralda in Italy. The 1982 season was plagued with retirements for the 037, both drivers, missed the final round of the series, despite Röhrl maintaining a mathematical chance of the drivers title, such honours instead went to Audis veteran Finn, Hannu Mikkola.
Driver Attilio Bettega died in a 037 crash in 1985, antónio Rodrigues won the 1984 Falperra International Hill Climb. For approval in Group B it was necessary to build at least 200 road versions of the model in question, Pininfarina production records show 220 cars built under the Montecarlo Corsa name. Steel subframes were used fore and aft of the production car center section, the mid-engined layout of the Montecarlo was retained, but the engine was turned 90 degrees from a transverse position to a longitudinal position. This allowed greater freedom in the design of the suspension and while moving engine weight forward. An independent double wishbone suspension was used on both the front and rear axles, with shock absorbers in the rear in order to cope with the stresses of high speed off road driving. Unlike its predecessor, the V6-powered Lancia Stratos HF, the first 037s had a 2.0 liter 4-cylinder supercharged engine, Lancia chose a supercharger over a turbocharger to eliminate turbo lag and improve throttle response.
Initially power was quoted at 265 hp but with the introduction of the Evolution 1 model power jumped to 300 with the help of water injection. The final Evolution 2 model produced 325 hp thanks to a displacement increase to 2,111 cc.60 and 0.60 and 0, the Worlds Most Exotic Sports Cars, Super Cars
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
The Ford Mustang is an American automobile manufactured by Ford. It was originally based on the platform of the second generation North American Ford Falcon, the 1963 Mustang II concept car was designed with a variation of the production models front and rear ends with a roof that was 2.7 inches shorter. Introduced early on April 17,1964, and thus dubbed as a 1964½ by Mustang fans, the Mustang has undergone several transformations to its current sixth generation. The Mustang is credited for inspiring the designs of such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri. The Ford Mustang was brought out five months before the start of the 1965 production year. With production beginning in Dearborn, Michigan on March 9,1964, executive stylist John Najjar, who was a fan of the World War II P-51 Mustang fighter plane, is credited by Ford to have suggested the name. Najjar co-designed the first prototype of the Ford Mustang known as Ford Mustang I in 1961 and his lap times were only slightly off the pace of the F1 race cars.
An alternative view was that Robert J. Eggert, Ford Division market research manager, Eggert, a breeder of quarterhorses, received a birthday present from his wife of the book, The Mustangs by J. Frank Dobie in 1960. Later, the title gave him the idea of adding the Mustang name for Fords new concept car. The designer preferred Cougar or Torino, while Henry Ford II wanted T-bird II, the name could not be used in Germany, because it was owned by Krupp, which had manufactured trucks between 1951 and 1964 with the name Mustang. Ford refused to buy the name for about US$10,000 from Krupp at the time, kreidler, a manufacturer of mopeds, used the name, so Mustang was sold in Germany as the T-5 until December 1978. Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each year until, in response to the 1971–1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size. It has since seen several generations and designs. Although some other cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original model to remain in uninterrupted production over five decades of development.
The T-5 prototype was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine roadster and this vehicle employed the German Ford Taunus V4 engine. It was claimed that the decision to abandon the design was in part due to the increase in sales the Thunderbird had seen when enlarged from a two-seater to a 2+2 in 1958. Thus, a car with full space for the front bucket seats, as originally planned. Favorable publicity articles appeared in 2,600 newspapers the next morning, a Mustang convertible appeared in the James Bond film Goldfinger in September 1964
Alfonso de Portago
Alfonso Antonio Vicente Eduardo Angel Blas Francisco de Borja Cabeza de Vaca y Leighton, Marquis of Portago, best known as Alfonso de Portago was a racing driver from Spain. Born in London, he was educated at Biarritz, in France and he became articulate in four languages. Portago was heir to one of the most respected titles in Spain, among his ancestors were an explorer, a Governor of Madrid, and a war hero. His Spanish father was Antonio Cabeza de Vaca and he died during half time at a polo match at a young age. His mother was named Olga Leighton and was Irish and she had a daughter named Sol. Olgas first husband, Francis John Mackey, was more than 40 years older than she was and he shot himself while terminally ill and left Olga an enormous fortune made as founder of Household Financial. Portago was 1.83 m tall and weighed 77 kg, de Portago won a $500 bet at the age of 17 when he flew his plane beneath London Bridge. He participated twice in the Grand National Steeplechase at Aintree as a gentleman jockey, de Portago began racing sports cars in 1953 after his meeting with the Ferrari importer in the USA, Luigi Chinetti, who asked him to be his co-driver in the Carrera Panamericana.
In Nassau, during the winter of 1956, Portago trailed the car ahead of him by centimeters while travelling at 240 km/h. Portago used his skill to avert careening into a crowd after the driver ahead of him touched his brakes and both cars went into a 180 m skid. Among sports car enthusiasts, de Portago was known as a man, because of the many burned-out brakes, transmissions. He often needed several cars to finish a race and he participated in 5 World Championship Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 1 July 1956. His best result was a place at the 1956 British Grand Prix. In 1953 he raced with Luigi Chinetti in the Carrera Panamericana, during the 1955 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Portago was thrown from his Ferrari while racing at 140 km/h after losing control on a patch of oil. He was hospitalized with a broken leg and he was a bobsleigh runner, recruiting several cousins in order to form Spains first bobsleigh team for the 1956 Winter Olympic Games in Cortina dAmpezzo. He had had two or three practice runs in Switzerland before buying a pair of sleds.
With de Portago steering, the two-man bob finished fourth to the surprise of the traditional teams and he was introduced to bobsledding by an American from Beloit, Edmund Nelson, whom he teamed up with in order to win the Tour de France automobile race. Portago won a medal in the two-man event at the 1957 FIBT World Championships in St. Moritz
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
DB was a French automobile maker between 1938 and 1961, based in Champigny-sur-Marne near Paris. The firm was founded by Charles Deutsch and René Bonnet, an offshoot of the Deutsch familys existing coachbuilding shop which had taken over by Bonnet in 1932. The company was defunct by 1961, as Deutsch and Bonnets differing design philosophies hamstrung further cooperation, the number of DBs built is not certain, estimates of up to 2,000 cars are mentioned but more conservative numbers are closer to one thousand. The fibreglass bodies covered a central beam chassis made from steel, with front wheel drive. Until 1952 all DBs had been intended for competition purposes only, Bonnet had been promised a works drive in an Amilcar Pégase in the 1936 French Grand Prix for sports cars, but when this failed to materialise they set about building their own racer. The 1938 alloy-bodied DB1 roadster was a special, built using the remains of a Citroën Traction Avant 11CV, a series of numbered successors followed.
The close-roofed 1. 5-litre DB2s career was hindered by the war and was sold later, the DB3 was a monocoque project developed during the war, but was never built, as the improved pontoon-bodied DB4 took preference. With a central beam chassis with a cradle for the 1.5 litre Traction 7A-based engine it was finished in July 1945. The very similar 2-litre DB5 was finished soon thereafter and their two specials both placed in the first postwar race in France, in Paris in 1945, being the only post-war cars entered. An open-wheeled DB7 appeared in 1947, after which the Automobiles Deutsch & Bonnet was officially formed, neither single-seater DB was at all successful, but they did show Deutsch - who had hitherto preferred dependable standard units - that a tuned engine would become necessary. The DB8 appeared in 1948, and won two concours délegances before partaking in any competitions and their early cars were all built using Citroën parts, but supply was troublesome and DB soon moved on to using Panhard technology.
This relationship came about as Deutsch was an officer of independent racers club AGACI, when this organization decided to begin a Mouvement Racer 500, modelled on the British Formula 3, Deutsch offered club members the design of a racing car using a Panhard 500 engine. One member asked to have DB build such a car, the formula expired in 1951, with the DB Panhard 500 never competitive abroad. DB was very active in competition, especially in Le Mans 24 Hours, nearly all DBs, even the road cars, were designed with competition foremost in mind. In 1952, a DB Speedster was entered in the 12 Hours of Sebring and won its class handsomely, steve Lansing and Ward Morehouse were the drivers. At the 1954 Le Mans DB entered five cars and were involved with Panhards Monopole racers. René Bonnet himself, together with racing legend Élie Bayol, finished tenth overall, the other Panhard-engined finished, while three Renault-engined central-seater DB designs all failed to complete the race. In either case, DB proceeded to focus on Panhard designs exclusively, the 1949 DB8 was bodied by Antem of Belgium and shown at the 1949 Paris Salon
Willy Mairesse was a Formula One and sports-car driver from Belgium. He participated in 13 World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 19 June 1960 and he achieved one podium and scored a total of seven championship points. He committed suicide in a room in Ostend after injury at the 196824 Hours of Le Mans forced an end to his career. Peter Revson once described the intensity of Mairesse before a race at Spa, Revson looked into his car and saw Mairesses furrowed face, beetled brows, and eyes which were almost tilted and their colour changed. It was almost like looking at the devil, Mairesse secured third place in the Grand Prix of Monza in June 1959. Driving a Ferrari, he placed behind Alfonso Thiele and Carlo Mario Abate and Mike Parkes of England finished second to Phil Hill and Olivier Gendebien at the 196124 Hours of Le Mans. Driving a Ferrari and Parkes eclipsed the previous Le Mans record, in the 196312 Hours of Sebring Mairesse and Nino Vacarella placed second after Ludovico Scarfiotti and John Surtees.
Surtees and Mairesse won the 1000 km of the Nurburgring driving a Ferrari 250P, thereafter and Mairesse led for the 15 hours of the first 18 hours of the 196324 Hours of Le Mans before the car caught fire while Mairesse was driving. Scarfiotti and Lorenzo Bandini won on the French circuit where Christian Heins had a fatal accident and Surtees retired after a motor fire. A young German Red Cross worker was killed in August 1963 when the wheel of a Ferrari driven by Mairesse came off as his car overturned, guenther Schneider,19, was hit by a flying wheel during the running of the German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring. Mairesse was triumphant in the 1964 Grand Prix of Angola, run at Luanda and his average speed was 80.78 miles per hour. Mairesse piloted a Ferrari 250 LM to first place in the Grand Prix of Spa in May 1965 and he completed the race in 2 hours,29 minutes, and 45.7 seconds. Mairesse and Jean Beurlys of France finished third at the 196524 Hours of Le Mans, masten Gregory and Jochen Rindt captured the 196524 Hours of Le Mans.
Mairesse and Beurlys finished third in a Ferrari 275 GTB winning the GT category in its debut at Le Mans, in April 1966 Surtees and Parkes won the 1,000 kilometer Monza Auto Race. Mairesse and Herbert Mueller of Switzerland came in third in a Ford sports car, in May Mairesse and Mueller drove to victory in the Targa Florio, driving a Porsche Carrera 6. Rain caused considerable attrition as only thirteen of seventy starters finished the race and Beurlys again drove a Ferrari to third place in the 196724 Hours of Le Mans. This event was won by the American team of Dan Gurney, Mairesse was third in the Grand Prix of Europe,1960 Italian Grand Prix. This was the race of the 1960 Formula One World Championship
The BMW700 is a small rear-engined car which was produced by BMW in various models from August 1959 to November 1965. It was the first BMW automobile with a monocoque structure, the 700 was a sales success at a time when BMW was close to financial ruin. The 700 was successful in its class in motorsport, both in its form and as the basis of a racing special called the 700RS. More than 188,000 were sold before production ended in November 1965, upon discontinuing the 700, BMW left the economy car market and did not return until 2002 with the Mini. Wolfgang Denzel, the distributor of BMW cars in Austria, commissioned Giovanni Michelotti to prepare concept sketches based on a lengthened BMW600 chassis, in January 1958, Denzel was awarded a development contract for the 700. Denzel presented a prototype to BMWs management in July 1958, the concept, a 2-door coupe with a slanted roof, was generally well received, but objections were raised about the limited passenger space. BMW decided to produce two versions, the coupe, and a 2-door sedan with a taller, longer roof, the engineer responsible for the chassis and suspension was Willy Black, who had designed and engineered the 600.
The 700 used a monocoque structure, and was the first BMW automobile to do so. The engine was a version of that used in the R67 motorcycle. With a bore of 78 millimetres and 73 millimetres of stroke, the engine originally used a single Solex 34PCI carburetor and had a compression ratio of 7.5,1, resulting in a power output of 30 horsepower. The coupe and saloon versions of the 700 were shown at the 1959 Frankfurt Motor Show, after the show, BMW received 25,000 orders for 700s. Production of the BMW700 Coupe began in August 1959, with the saloon version following in December, the large number of orders was welcome news for BMW, which was in a financial crisis. In December 1959, shareholders blocked a proposal by BMWs supervisory board to merge BMW into Daimler-Benz, the subsequent heavy investment in BMW by Harald Quandt has been attributed in part to the success of the 700. By April 1960, production of the 700 was at 155 cars per day,188,211 BMW 700s were built in five years of production. The first variant of the 700 to appear after the original coupe, available only as a coupe, the Sport used an uprated engine with a pair of Solex carburetors and a 9.0,1 compression ratio.
This brought the output to 40 horsepower. The Sport had a rear anti-roll bar, a ribbed oil pan was used to reduce the oil temperature of the more powerful engine. The 700 Sport was renamed the 700 CS in 1963, the 700 Cabriolet was introduced shortly after the 700 Sport, and was available only with the Sports 40 horsepower engine
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie