click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Scott's Tots

"Scott's Tots" is the twelfth episode of the sixth season of the American comedy series The Office and the show's 112th episode overall. It was written by Gene Stupnitsky and Lee Eisenberg, directed by B. J. Novak, marking his directorial debut on the network series, it aired in the United States on NBC on December 3, 2009. Gene Stupnitsky and Lee Eisenberg submitted this episode for the 2010 Emmys; the series—presented as if it were a real documentary—depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. In the episode, it is revealed that ten years ago, Michael Scott heedlessly promised to pay for the college tuition of an entire local third grade class. Now, lacking the personal wealth necessary to fulfill his promise, he and Erin Hannon must go tell the students, who are now high school seniors, that they will not be receiving the money. Meanwhile, in Michael's absence, Dwight Schrute convinces Jim Halpert to start an employee-of-the-month program with the intention of getting Jim into trouble.

The episode received critical acclaim, with many recognizing it as a classic Office episode. Michael Scott realizes he cannot keep a promise he made to a group of underprivileged children ten years ago: that he would pay for their college tuition provided they graduated from high school, he reluctantly visits their high school with Erin Hannon to break the bad news. Michael's promise encouraged the students to excel academically, they greet Michael with standing applause; when Michael addresses them, he congratulates everyone for being able to graduate from high school, before admitting that he does not have the money to pay for college. Everyone is upset, Michael fruitlessly attempts to calm them by offering them laptop batteries. One of the students follows Michael outside to tell him what he did was “messed up,” and Michael offers to at least pay for his books if he attends college. In the car on the way back to the office, Michael continues to lament his promise, but Erin comforts him by pointing out that this group of students have a much higher graduation rate, that, at the least, will help them significantly.

Michael warms up to Erin, telling her she is doing a good job and asking about her future plans. He relates to her that Kevin Malone was going to be hired to work in the warehouse, but Michael saw "something" in him and made him their new accountant instead. Meanwhile, on a suggestion from Andy Bernard, Jim Halpert starts an employee of the month program to increase office morale. Dwight Schrute, schemes to get Jim fired, he gives Jim a performance sheet to determine the employee of the month, using complete anonymity to ensure a fair and unbiased assessment. Dwight collects money from each of the employees as part of a cash prize though Jim did not authorize this. At the conclusion of the day, Jim announces the employee of the month, it is revealed that he picked himself by accident. Everyone starts blaming Jim for using this gimmick as a ploy to take money away from the office. Jim tries to pin part of the failure on Dwight, but since he has taken numerous precautions to protect himself from direct blame, he passively fires back.

Jim decides to forgo the award and give it to the next best employee, but things are only made worse when that person is revealed to be his wife Pam Beesly. Everyone reaches their breaking point. With the primary part of his plan a success, having manipulated the assessment and ordered the cake, Dwight initiates the second part of his plan by calling CFO David Wallace multiple times, each time pretending to be a different employee complaining about Jim's failed program. An angry David chews him out for the mishap. Assured that this will get Jim fired, Dwight listens in to the phone conversation from the pen recorder he had left in Jim's office in a previous episode, but instead of firing Jim, David apologizes to him for losing his temper and praises Jim, adding that David and his wife are "still on" to go out with Jim and Pam. Angry that his plan has not worked, Dwight returns to the drawing board. At the end of the episode, Ryan Howard confronts Dwight with Dwight's "Diabolical Plan" document he found, but expresses his desire to get Jim fired.

The two form an alliance. "Scott's Tots" first aired on NBC on December 3, 2009. In its original American broadcast, the episode was viewed by an estimated 8.055 million viewers and received a 4.1 rating/11 percent share in the 18–49 demographic. This means that it was seen by 4.1 percent of all 18- to 49-year-olds, 11 percent of all 18- to 49-year-olds watching television at the time of the broadcast. In addition, the episode ranked first in its half-hour timeslot and was the highest-rated NBC series of the night. Dan Phillips of IGN gave the episode a 9.4 out of 10 rating. It was the highest score given to any sixth-season episode by the site. Phillips called the episode "an instant classic and another phenomenal installment of this season, which hit some rough patches but seems to have recovered brilliantly" pointing out the scene between Michael and the irate students. Phillips felt that the main scene between Michael and the children was pivotal and that it "might just rank atop The Office's long list and rich history of uncomfortable yet hilarious moments".

Joel Keller of The Huffington Post wrote that "as the kids from that third-grade class praised Michael and told hi

Paulette Van Roekens

The American artist Paulette Van Roekens was born in Château-Thierry, France late New Year's Eve 1895. At a young age, she emigrated to the United States with her parents and Jeanne van Roekens, to reside in Glenside, Pennsylvania. In 1915, Van Roekens enrolled in the Philadelphia School of Design for Women, where she was awarded the John Sartain Fellowship, she attended classes at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, studied sculpture at the Graphic Sketch Club of Philadelphia. She studied under Henry B. Snell, Leopold Seyffert, Joseph Pearson, Charles Grafly, she became a professor at the Moore College of Art in drawing and painting in 1923, a position she held for 40 years. At the time of her retirement in 1961, the College presented her with an honorary doctorate. In 1927 she married a colleague at a respected artist in his own right, they had Davis Paul and Joanne. She and Melzer lived in the Philadelphia area for the rest of their lives, they each had a studio in the family home, but painted subjects from New York as well as outdoor scenes from excursions to Europe.

She is well known for her oils and pastels. Still lifes are prominent in her early work, but as her career developed she turned more and more to landscapes, she called herself a “sometimes impressionist” because while she was influenced by impressionism she found it difficult to break with academic drawing. She exhibited throughout her career, with 14 solo exhibitions and two retrospective exhibitions with her husband, her final exhibition was only a few months before her death on January 11, 1988. Her work is represented at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the National Academy of Design, the Carnegie Institute, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Mint Museum, the Albright Gallery, the Detroit Institute of Art, she held memberships in the Art Alliance of America and the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors. Victory Loan on Chestnut Street, 1918 Girard Bank, 1919 Towers in the Mist, 1925 City Hall Towers, 1928 The Horse with the Lavender Eye, 1939 Midsummer Dreams, n.d. Sawdust and Spangles, n.d.

Under the Spotlight, n.d. 15th St. from Broad St. Station The New Boulevard Treat'Em Rough Gray Towers Gold medal, Plastic Club, 1920 Gold medal, Philadelphia Sketch Club, 1923 Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts fellowship prize, 1928 Exhibition prizes, Woodmere Art Gallery, 1946, 1956 Honorable Mention, National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors Michener Museum Peirce Galleries

Maryellen Fullerton

Maryellen Fullerton is an American lawyer and academic. She is former interim dean at Brooklyn Law School, she was the Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Law at the University of Trento for 2012-13. Fullerton earned a B. A. in 1968 at Duke University and a J. D. in 1978 at Antioch School of Law. She was a law clerk to both Judge Frank Minis Johnson, as well as to Judge Francis Van Dusen, she was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Louvain in 1986-87. She was appointed to the Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Law at the University of Trento for the 2012-13 academic year. Fullerton is Professor of Law at Brooklyn Law School, at which she was formerly Interim Dean, she co-authored Forced Migration: Law and Policy and Immigration and Citizenship Law: Process and Policy, casebooks that are used by over 100 US law schools and universities. Maryellen Fullerton. Refugees and Migrants: Hungary at a Crossroads Maryellen Fullerton. Germany for Germans: Xenophobia and Racist Violence in Germany Thomas Alexander Aleinikoff, David A. Martin, Maryellen Fullerton, Hiroshi Motomura.

Immigration and Citizenship: Process and Policy Hélène Lambert, Jane Mcadam, Maryellen Fullerton. The Global Reach of European Refugee Law

Diophantine geometry

In mathematics, Diophantine geometry is the study of points of algebraic varieties with coordinates in the integers, rational numbers, their generalizations. These generalizations are fields that are not algebraically closed, such as number fields, finite fields, function fields, p-adic fields, it is a sub-branch of arithmetic geometry and is one approach to the theory of Diophantine equations, formulating questions about such equations in terms of algebraic geometry. A single equation defines a hypersurface, simultaneous Diophantine equations give rise to a general algebraic variety V over K. Given the geometric approach, the consideration of homogeneous equations and homogeneous co-ordinates is fundamental, for the same reasons that projective geometry is the dominant approach in algebraic geometry. Rational number solutions therefore are the primary consideration; the general approach of Diophantine geometry is illustrated by Faltings's theorem stating that an algebraic curve C of genus g > 1 over the rational numbers has only finitely many rational points.

The first result of this kind may have been the theorem of Hilbert and Hurwitz dealing with the case g = 0. The theory consists many conjectures and open questions. Serge Lang published a book Diophantine Geometry in the area, in 1962; the traditional arrangement of material on Diophantine equations was by degree and number of variables, as in Mordell's Diophantine Equations. Mordell's book starts with a remark on homogeneous equations f = 0 over the rational field, attributed to C. F. Gauss, that non-zero solutions in integers exist if non-zero rational solutions do, notes a caveat of L. E. Dickson, about parametric solutions; the Hilbert–Hurwitz result from 1890 reducing the Diophantine geometry of curves of genus 0 to degrees 1 and 2 occurs in Chapter 17, as does Mordell's conjecture. Siegel's theorem on integral points occurs in Chapter 28. Mordell's theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points on an elliptic curve is in Chapter 16, integer points on the Mordell curve in Chapter 26.

In a hostile review of Lang's book, Mordell wrote In recent times, powerful new geometric ideas and methods have been developed by means of which important new arithmetical theorems and related results have been found and proved and some of these are not proved otherwise. Further, there has been a tendency to clothe the old results, their extensions, proofs in the new geometrical language. Sometimes, the full implications of results are best described in a geometrical setting. Lang has these aspects much in mind in this book, seems to miss no opportunity for geometric presentation; this accounts for his title "Diophantine Geometry." He notes that the content of the book is versions of the Mordell–Weil theorem, Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem, Siegel's theorem, with a treatment of Hilbert's irreducibility theorem and applications. Leaving aside issues of generality, a different style, the major mathematical difference between the two books is that Lang used abelian varieties and offered a proof of Siegel's theorem, while Mordell noted that the proof "is of a advanced character".

Despite a bad press Lang's conception has been sufficiently accepted for a 2006 tribute to call the book "visionary". A larger field sometimes called arithmetic of abelian varieties now includes Diophantine geometry along with class field theory, complex multiplication, local zeta-functions and L-functions. Paul Vojta wrote: While others at the time shared this viewpoint, it is easy to forget that others did not, as Mordell's review of Diophantine Geometry attests. Glossary of arithmetic and Diophantine geometry Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. "Diophantine geometry", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business Media B. V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 Baker, Alan. Logarithmic Forms and Diophantine Geometry. New Mathematical Monographs. 9. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88268-2. Zbl 1145.11004. Bombieri, Enrico. Heights in Diophantine Geometry. New Mathematical Monographs. 4. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-71229-3. Zbl 1115.11034. Hindry, Marc. Diophantine Geometry: An Introduction.

Graduate Texts in Mathematics. 201. ISBN 0-387-98981-1. Zbl 0948.11023. Lang, Serge. Survey of Diophantine Geometry. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-61223-8. Zbl 0869.11051. Lang's review of Mordell's Diophantine Equations Mordell's review of Lang's Diophantine Geometry

Muzzle flash

Muzzle flash is the visible light of a muzzle blast, which expels high-temperature, high-pressure gases from the muzzle of a firearm. The blast and flash are caused by the combustion products of the gunpowder, any remaining unburned powder, mixing with the ambient air; the size and shape of the muzzle flash is dependent on the type of ammunition being used and the individual characteristics of firearm and any devices attached to the muzzle. The muzzle blast is the explosive expansion of propellant gases when the barrel seal maintained by the projectile is removed as the said projectile leaves the muzzle; the blast is broken down into two components, an auditory component and a non-auditory component. The auditory component, the sound of the gunshot, is important because it can cause hearing loss or give away the gun's position, while the non-auditory component, the overpressure wave, can cause damage to nearby items; the sound of a gunshot known as the muzzle report, may have two sources: the muzzle blast itself, any shockwave produced by a transonic or supersonic projectile.

Suppressors help to reduce the muzzle report of firearms by providing a larger area for the propellant gas to expand and cool before release. The overpressure wave from the muzzle blast of a firearm can contain a significant amount of energy because it travels at an high velocity. Residual pressures at the muzzle can be a significant fraction of the peak chamber pressure when slow burning powders or short barrels are used; this energy can be harnessed by a muzzle brake to reduce the recoil of the firearm, or by a muzzle booster to provide energy to operate the action. Muzzle blasts can exceed sound pressure levels of 140 decibels, which can cause permanent hearing loss with brief and infrequent exposure. With big guns such as artillery, that danger can extend outwards a significant distance from the muzzle; the force of the muzzle blast can cause damage to items near the muzzle, with artillery, the energy is sufficiently large to cause severe damage to surrounding structures and vehicles. It furthermore can violently raise dust and debris when firing rifles from prone position and so give away the position.

Preventive actions may consist in wetting dry ground or covering the area around the muzzle with a tarpaulin. The muzzle flash refers to the light emitted by both visible light and infrared. Both heat and pressure can result in light being emitted. Muzzle flash can be broken down into five distinct components. Muzzle glow is a reddish glow, visible before the bullet leaves the barrel. Muzzle glow is created by superheated gases that have leaked past the projectile and have exited the barrel; the primary flash is caused by propellant gases exiting the firearm behind the bullet. Although amongst the brightest of the flashes, the heat of the primary flash dissipates and thus is no longer visible; the intermediate flash is caused by shock waves created by the high speeds of the escaping gases and projectile, appears as a reddish disc shape in front of the muzzle. The secondary flash appears farthest from the muzzle as a large yellow flame. Secondary flash is caused by the reaction of incompletely combusted ejecta mixing with abundant oxygen in the atmosphere surrounding the muzzle.

Following the dissipation of the muzzle flash unburnt powder or other heated materials can be ejected from the muzzle and appear as residual sparks. Muzzle flash the long duration secondary flash, is an inherent problem in most firearms. Due to its brightness, muzzle flash can temporarily blind the shooter, or give away the shooter's location at night. Ingestion of the muzzle flash from aircraft mounted guns has been implicated in compressor stall and flameout, causing loss of aircraft. Flash suppressors attempt to suppress the flash mechanically, by interfering with the shock wave using either a cone or a series of slots at the muzzle of the firearm. However, since the primary cause of the secondary flash is combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, chemical approaches are used. In World War I, bags of sodium chloride were placed in front of the propellant charges of artillery to suppress the flash. Addition of a few percent of alkali salts to the powder for flash suppression is common salts of potassium such as potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate.

In both cases, the salts act as catalysts, interfere with the hydrogen-oxygen combustion to reduce the muzzle flash. The side effects of the alkali salts is a reduction in power, an increase in smoke, fouling and corrosion of the firearm and nearby equipment. Ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate salts have been tried with success. Gunfire locators detect muzzle blast with microphones and triangulate the location where the shots were fired, they are commercially available, have been installed in many high-crime areas of large cities. They provide a precise location of the source of a shot fired outdoors—99% to within 33 feet or better—and can provide it to police within seconds of a firing. Muzzle flashes create distinct signatures. Technology is being developed to detect enemy muzzle flashes before the projectile reaches its target. Suppressor Muzzle booster High-speed photographs of shotgun muzzle blasts Tutorial on how to add muzzle flares to a gun