A marina is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats. A marina differs from a port in that a marina does not handle large passenger ships or cargo from freighters; the word marina is used for inland wharves on rivers and canals that are used by non-industrial pleasure craft such as canal narrowboats. Marinas may be inland, they are located on coastal harbors or coastal lagoons, either as stand alone facilities or within a port complex. A marina may have refueling and repair facilities and boat chandlers and restaurants. A marina may include ground facilities such as parking lots for vehicles and boat trailers. Slipways transfer a trailered boat into the water. A marina may have a boat hoist well operated by service personnel. A marina may provide in- or out-of-water boat storage. Fee-based services such as parking, use of picnic areas and clubhouses for showers are included in long-term rental agreements. Visiting yachtsmen have the option of buying each amenity from a fixed schedule of fees.
The right to use the facilities is extended at overnight or period rates to visiting yachtsmen. Since marinas are limited by available space, it may take years on a waiting list to get a permanent berth. Boats are moored on buoys, on fixed or floating walkways tied to an anchoring piling by a roller or ring mechanism. Buoys are less convenient than being able to walk from land to boat. Harbor shuttles, may transfer people between the shore and boats moored on buoys; the alternative is a tender such as an inflatable boat. Facilities offering fuel, boat ramps and stores will have a common-use dock set aside for such short term parking needs. Where the tidal range is large, marinas may use locks to maintain the water level for several hours before and after low water. Marinas may be owned and operated by a private club yacht clubs — but as private enterprises or municipal facilities. Marinas may be standalone private businesses, components of a resort, or owned and operated by public entities. List of marinas "MARINA - Maritime Industry Authority".
SeamanRepublic.com. Retrieved 12 March 2015
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, was referencing light fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries; the yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660. Today's yachts differ from other vessels by their leisure purpose. A yacht is any power vessel used for pleasure, cruising or racing. A yacht does not have to have luxury accommodations to be a yacht, in fact many racing yachts are stripped out vessels with the minimum of accommodations; the term'sailboat' is sometimes used in America to differentiate sail from powerboat. See also'yachting'. There are about 6,500 yacht over 24m on the market. Charter yachts are a subset of yachts used for pleasure, cruising or racing, but run as a business for profit. Ownership can be corporate; the paid crews of these vessels call themselves'yachties'.
Yacht lengths range from 7 metres up to dozens of meters. A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more called a cabin cruiser or a cruiser. A superyacht refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht refers to any yacht over 50 metres. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, which indicates the nationality of the ship. Although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question; the US yacht ensign for example, has a circle of 13 stars and a fouled anchor in the canton instead of the 50 stars, being quite different from the ensign of the United States, the flag of the United States. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration. Carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions; until the 1950s all yachts were made of wood or steel, but a much wider range of materials is used today.
Although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, but include modern products such as plywood, skinned balsa and epoxy resins. Wood is used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in overall length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres, where the distinction between a yacht and a ship becomes blurred. Most owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size.
Many modern racing sail yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig, that allow them to sail close to the wind. This capability is the result of a hull design oriented towards this capability. Day sailing yachts are small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they have a retractable keel, centreboard, or daggerboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys, they may have a'cuddy' cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray. Weekender yachts are larger, at under 9.5 metres in length. They may have twin keels or lifting keels such as in trailer sailers; this allows them to operate in shallow waters, if needed "dry out"—become beached as the tide falls. This is important in UK waters; the hull shape allows the boat to sit upright. Such boats are designed to undertake short journeys lasting more than 2 or 3 days.
In coastal areas, long trips may be undertaken in a series of short hops. Weekenders have only a simple cabin consisting of a single "saloon" with bedspace for two to four people. Clever use of ergonomics allows space in the saloon for a galley and navigation equipment. There is limited space for stores of food. Most are single-masted "Bermuda sloops", with a single foresail of the jib or genoa type and a single mainsail; some are gaff rigged. The smallest of this type called pocket yachts or pocket cruisers, trailer sailers can be transported on special trailers. Cruising yachts are by far the most common yacht in private use, making up most of the 7–14-metre range; these vessels can be quite complex in design, as they need a balance between docile handling qualities, interior space, good light-wind performance and on-board comfort. The huge range of such craft, from dozens of builders worldwide, makes it hard to give a single illustrative description. However, most favor a teardrop-planform hull, with a fine bow, a wide, flat bottom and deep single-fin keel with ample beam to give good stability.
Most are single-masted Bermuda rigged sloops, with a single fo
Ocean Village Marina, Gibraltar
The Ocean Village Marina is one of three marinas in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. Sheppard's Marina, it is located in the Bay of Gibraltar, between the North Mole of Gibraltar Harbour and the runway of Gibraltar International Airport. Both Ocean Village Marina and the adjacent Marina Bay have been incorporated into the Ocean Village Project, a luxury resort. Ocean Village Marina and the adjacent Marina Bay together have 330 berths, with a draft of 4.5 metres. The marina can accommodate vessels up to 90 metres to 100 metres in length. There are three residential towers with blue glass balconies overlooking the marina: Grand Ocean Plaza, Imperial Plaza, Majestic Plaza. On 4 June 2012, Ocean Village Marina hosted 161 vessels which formed the Gibraltar Diamond Jubilee Flotilla, celebrating sixty years of the Queen's reign. Gibraltar has three marinas: Marina Bay, Ocean Village Marina, Queensway Quay Marina. Ocean Village Marina is located on Gibraltar's Westside, outside the northern end of Gibraltar Harbour, in the Bay of Gibraltar, next to the airport runway.
It is adjacent to Marina Bay, just to its north. The marina forms part of the Ocean Village Project or Ocean Village Marina Complex referred to as just Ocean Village. Ocean Village Marina is Sheppard's Yard. Both Marina Bay and Ocean Village Marina have been incorporated into Ocean Village, between the North Mole and the airport runway; the strategic location of the marina offers protection from moisture-laden Levanter winds. Ocean Village Marina was Sheppard's Marina, owned by H. Sheppard & Co. By 2004, the marina had been sold to Ocean Village Investments Ltd and demolition had commenced; the marina retained its original name, at least informally, for several years after the sale. The sale of Sheppard's Marina was not without controversy, as some residents of the marina were evicted from their berths by the new owners. After Ocean Village Investments acquired the adjacent Marina Bay in 2006, both marinas were incorporated into Ocean Village, a resort with residential and leisure facilities. On 4 June 2012, the Ocean Village Marina hosted 161 vessels which formed the Gibraltar Diamond Jubilee Flotilla, celebrating sixty years of the Queen's reign.
The flotilla took place one day after a similar event in London up the Thames. The festivities started with greetings from Gregory Butcher, founder of Ocean Village, Ros Astengo, event organiser of Ocean Village; the Gibraltar Port Authority addressed those assembled on the topic of safety, made recommendations regarding precautions which ranged from sunscreen to the distance between vessels. The flotilla departed from the marina at midday, sailing from the western side of the runway, passing Europa Point, returning after reaching the eastern side of the runway. Boats up to 70 metres participated in the flotilla. Small boats led the flotilla, followed by power boats over 9 metres, sailing vessels; the General Elliot, a Gibraltar Port Authority vessel, was at the head of the flotilla, was supported by other official vessels. Ocean Village Marina and the adjacent Marina Bay together have 330 berths, with a draft of 4.5 metres. The marina can accommodate vessels up to 90 metres to 100 metres in length.
The marina now offers premier berths, the majority of which are between 18 metres and 25 metres, although the largest can accommodate vessels up to 80 metres in length. The Yacht Reporting Berth for Gibraltar closed in 2005 and customs clearance of vessels is now performed by the individual marinas; each berth at Ocean Village Marina offers utilities which include metered water and electricity, as well as access to satellite television, fax, Wi-Fi. Other amenities include concierge services. Gasoline and diesel are available at the quayside. In addition to the marina, the Ocean Village resort features three residential towers, with blue glass balconies, that have commercial space: Grand Ocean Plaza, Imperial Plaza, Majestic Plaza. Construction of a new World Trade Center in Ocean Village was scheduled to begin in 2012; the development has a variety of restaurants and retail outlets, as well as executive office space. Leisure Island, on reclaimed land, has a casino, among other facilities. Sheppard's of Gibraltar, the former owner of the marina, established in 1961, still has a presence there.
The business provides support services for yacht owners from both their chandlery and shipyard departments. Their chandlery shop on the ground floor of Marina Court at Ocean Village has a variety of products for yacht equipment and maintenance, their shipyard on Coaling Island near Queensway Quay Marina performs repair services such as engine rebuilds, rigging and painting. Sheppard's attends to yachts at all three of Gibraltar's marinas, has a 40-ton lift when haul-outs are needed, their haul-out work includes hull cleaning, replacement of anodes or transducers, slurry blasting, among other services. Haul-outs are performed at the North Mole. Ocean Village, Gibraltar Marina Bay, Gibraltar Queensway Quay Marina, Gibraltar Brochure with plan of Ocean Village Marina and Marina Bay Satellite image of Ocean Village Marina and Marina Bay
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t
Barbary macaques in Gibraltar
From the Atlas Mountains and the Rif Mountains of Morocco, the Barbary macaque population in Gibraltar is the only wild monkey population on the European continent. Although most populations in Africa are experiencing declining populations due to hunting and deforestation, the population of Barbary monkeys in Gibraltar is increasing; some 300 animals in five troops occupy the Upper Rock area of the Gibraltar Nature Reserve, though they make occasional forays into the town. As they are a tailless species, they are known locally as Barbary apes or rock apes, despite being monkeys; the local people refer to them as monos when conversing in Spanish or Llanito. The name Barbary refers to the Berber People of Morocco who since the beginning of history had ties with the animals surrounding their region, as the Barbary macaques; the macaque population had been present on the Rock of Gibraltar long before Gibraltar was captured by the British in 1704 and according to records, since prior to reconquest of Gibraltar from the Muslims.
It was during the Islamic period. In his work Historia de la Muy Noble y Más Leal Ciudad de Gibraltar, written between 1605 and 1610, Alonso Hernández del Portillo, the first chronicler of Gibraltar, wrote: "But now let us speak of other and living producers which in spite of the asperity of the rock still maintain themselves in the mountain, there are monkeys, who may be called the true owners, with possession from time immemorial, always tenacious of the dominion, living for the most part on the eastern side in high and inaccessible chasms." In his History of Gibraltar, Ignacio López de Ayala, a Spanish historian like Portillo, wrote of the monkeys: "Neither the incursions of Moor, the Spaniards nor the English, nor cannon nor bomb of either have been able to dislodge them." Repeated introduction of animals and the lack of reliable data concerning founders of the Gibraltar macaque population has obscured their origin. The fact that all extant Gibraltarian mtDNA haplotypes were found in North Africa, combined with the lack of fossil evidence of M. sylvanus in Gibraltar at the end of the last glaciation diminishes the possibility that the Gibraltar macaques represent or include any remnant of the original European population, a possibility which can not be excluded.
Indeed, it had been earlier suggested that the original Gibraltar macaques were a remnant of populations that had spread throughout Southern Europe during the Pliocene, up to 5.5 million years ago. The Macaca sylvanus species is declining. About 75% of the total population is found in the Middle Atlas Mountains. During the Pleistocene, this species inhabited the Mediterranean coasts and Europe, reaching as far north as Germany and the British Isles; the species decreased with the arrival of the Ice Age, to extinction in the Iberian Peninsula 30,000 years ago. The Gibraltar Barbary macaques are considered by many to be the top tourist attraction in Gibraltar; the most popular troop is that of Queen's Gate at the Ape's Den, where people can get close to the monkeys. They will approach and sometimes climb onto people, as they are used to human interaction, they are still wild animals and will bite if frightened or annoyed. The macaques' contact with large numbers of tourists was causing the integrity of their social groups to break down, as they began to become dependent on humans.
This induced the monkeys to forage in the town, resulting in damage to buildings and vehicles. Close contact with humans has led to the macaques learning how to open pockets and unzip handbags and rucksacks in order to steal food from humans. For these reasons, deliberately feeding the macaques in Gibraltar is now an offence punishable by law. Anyone caught feeding the monkeys is liable to be fined up to £4,000. Gibraltar's Barbary macaque population was under the care of the British Army and the Gibraltar Regiment from 1915 to 1991, who controlled a population that consisted of a single troop. The'Keeper of the Apes' would keep the official records, maintaining an up-to-date register for each ape, listing their births and names and supervising their diet, which they drew every week; the food allowance of fruit and nuts was included in the budget, set by the War Office at £4 a month in 1944. They would humorously announce births in the'Gibraltar Chronicle':— "Rock Apes. Births: To Phyllis, wife of Tony, at the Upper Rock, on 30th June 1942— a child.
Both doing well." Much to the delight of readers. They were named after governors and high-ranking officers. Any ill or injured monkey needing surgery or any other form of medical attention was taken to Royal Naval Hospital Gibraltar and received the same treatment as would an enlisted service man; when UK-based infantry units were withdrawn and garrison duty was left to the Gibraltar Regiment, the Government of Gibraltar took over responsibility for the monkeys. Lt Bill Parker of the Royal Artillery Major W O Skelton of the Royal Artillery Gunner Wilfred Portlock of the Royal Artillery Regiment Sgt Alfred Holmes of the Gibraltar Regiment Cpl. Ernest Asquez of the Gibraltar Regiment On 11th May 1954, Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh visited the ape packs while on a visit to Gibraltar. A photograph captured the Queen feeding a Barbary ape while the Duke of Edinburgh stood next to battle-dressed ape-keeper Gunner Wilfred Portlock; the monkeys are managed by the Gibraltar Orni