Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London, built between 1886 and 1894. The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and has become an iconic symbol of London; as a result, it is sometimes confused with London Bridge, about half a mile upstream. Tower Bridge is one of five London bridges owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation, it is the only one of the trust's bridges not to connect the City of London directly to the Southwark bank, as its northern landfall is in Tower Hamlets. The bridge consists of two bridge towers tied together at the upper level by two horizontal walkways, designed to withstand the horizontal tension forces imposed by the suspended sections of the bridge on the landward sides of the towers; the vertical components of the forces in the suspended sections and the vertical reactions of the two walkways are carried by the two robust towers. The bascule pivots and operating machinery are housed in the base of each tower.
The bridge deck is accessible to both vehicles and pedestrians, whereas the bridge's twin towers, high-level walkways and Victorian engine rooms form part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition, for which an admission charge is made. The nearest London Underground tube stations are Tower Hill on the Circle and District lines, London Bridge on the Jubilee and Northern lines and Bermondsey on the Jubilee line, the nearest Docklands Light Railway station is Tower Gateway; the nearest National Rail stations are at Fenchurch Street and London Bridge. In the second half of the 19th century, increased commercial development in the East End of London led to demands for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge. A traditional fixed bridge at street level could not be built because it would cut off access by sailing ships to the port facilities in the Pool of London, between London Bridge and the Tower of London. A Special Bridge or Subway Committee was formed in 1877, chaired by Sir Albert Joseph Altman, to find a solution.
More than fifty designs were submitted, including one from civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, rejected because of a lack of sufficient headroom. A design was not approved until 1884, when it was decided to build a bascule bridge. Sir John Wolfe Barry was appointed engineer and Sir Horace Jones the architect. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1885 authorising the bridge's construction, it specified the opening span must give a clear width of 200 feet and a headroom of 135 feet. Construction had to be in a Gothic style. Barry designed a bridge with two bridge towers built on piers; the central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves, which could be raised to allow river traffic to pass. The two side-spans were suspension bridges, with rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained in the bridge's upper walkways. Construction started in 1886 and took eight years with five major contractors – Sir John Jackson, Baron Armstrong, William Webster, Sir H. H. Bartlett, Sir William Arrol & Co. – and employed 432 construction workers.
E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the construction. The first stone was laid by Albert, Prince of Wales. Two massive piers, containing over 70,000 tons of concrete, were sunk into the riverbed to support the construction. More than 11,000 tons of steel were used in the framework for the towers and walkways, which were clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, to protect the underlying steelwork. Jones died in 1887 and George D. Stevenson took over the project. Stevenson replaced Jones's original brick façade with the more ornate Victorian Gothic style, which makes the bridge a distinctive landmark, was intended to harmonise the bridge with the nearby Tower of London; the total cost of construction was £1,184,000. Tower Bridge was opened on 30 June 1894 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. An Act of parliament stipulated that a tug boat should be on station to assist vessels in danger when crossing the bridge, a requirement that remained in place until the 1960s; the bridge connected Iron Gate, on the north bank of the river, with Horselydown Lane, on the south – now known as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road, respectively.
Until the bridge was opened, the Tower Subway – 400 m to the west – was the shortest way to cross the river from Tower Hill to Tooley Street in Southwark. Opened in 1870, Tower Subway was among the world's earliest underground railways, but it closed after just three months and was re-opened as a pedestrian foot tunnel. Once Tower Bridge was open, the majority of foot traffic transferred to using the bridge, there being no toll to pay to use it. Having lost most of its income, the tunnel was closed in 1898; the high-level open air walkways between the towers gained a reputation as a haunt for prostitutes and pickpockets. The walkway reopened in 1982 as part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition. During the Second World War and as a precaution against the existing engines being damaged by enemy action, a third engine was installed in 1942: a 150 hp horizontal cross-compound engine, built by Vickers Armstrong Ltd. at their Elswick works in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was fitted with a flywheel having a 9-foot diameter and weighing 9 tons, was governed to a speed of 30 rpm.
The engine became redundant when the rest of the system was modernised in 1974, was donated to the Forncett Industrial Steam Museum by the Corporation of the City of London. The southern section of the bridge, in the London Borough of Southwark, was Grade I listed on 6 December 1949; the remainder o
The Taste of Asia is a non-profit annual street festival organized by the Federation of Chinese Canadians in Markham located in Markham, Canada. It is the largest Asian Festival in Canada with over 180,000 attendees each year. Major attractions include exotic food vendors, live performances from famous Asian pop culture celebrities, a variety of community events ranging from basketball competitions to hot sauce competitions; the festival takes place between the intersections Kennedy Road and Clayton Drive to Kennedy Road and Steeles Avenue East during the last weekend of June. It is located beside Market Village; the Taste of Asia was named as one of the top festivals in Ontario by Events Ontario. This year, the event will be held on June 28 to 2019 at Kennedy and Steeles. Taste of Asia showcases various performances relating to Asian culture including musical performances and martial arts performances. In 2017, Taste of Asia featured TVB superstar Elanne Kong. Stay tuned for our 2018 performance list.
Taste of Asia was created in 2003 during the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome with the goal of recovering the local economy. Since its establishment, FCCM has organized and been involved in a variety of events that promote the Chinese community and culture, most notably the annual Taste of Asia street festival. Other events include the 2016 Chinese New Year Celebration at the Markham Civic Centre and Vaughn City Hall, Mid-Autumn Festival, Thanksgiving, PRC Flag Raising, YRP International Day of Elimination of Discrimination and many more. FCCM's goal for organizing these events is not only to bring awareness to the Chinese culture but to interact and appreciate other cultural backgrounds participating. FCCM has collaborated with multiple other charitable organizations in the past such as United Way of York Region and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Markham-Stouffville Hospital, the Canadian Red Cross
Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations. Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment, such as corporal or capital punishment, incarceration, or severe fines. Within the civil law context, sanctions are monetary fines, levied against a party to a lawsuit or his/her attorney, for violating rules of procedure, or for abusing the judicial process; the most severe sanction in a civil lawsuit is the involuntary dismissal, with prejudice, of a complaining party's cause of action, or of the responding party's answer. This has the effect of deciding the entire action against the sanctioned party without recourse, except to the degree that an appeal or trial de novo may be allowed because of reversible error; as a noun, the term is used in the plural form if it only refers to a single event: if a judge fines a party, it is not said that they imposed a sanction, but that they imposed sanctions.
A judge may sanction a party during a legal proceeding, by which it is implied that they impose penalties. In the United States federal court system, certain types of conduct are sanctionable under Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Conversely and sometimes confusingly, the word may be used to imply "approve of," in an official sense. "The law sanctions such behavior" would imply that the behavior spoken of enjoys the specific approval of law. To sanction implies make a legal agreement; the word is derived from sanctus. A legal agreement or sanction imposes approvals, rules and penalties on conduct; the Sanction is defined as an element associated with an accountability and which corresponds to the consequence resulting from the justification of the realisation of this accountability.. Herbert L. A. Hart, The Concept of Law, Oxford University Press, London, 1961. Untersuchungen zum Sanktionsmechanismus, Olten-Freiburg, 1967. Normenlogik, Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach bei München, 1974, 89-111.
A Social Science Perspective, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 1975. Nuovi studi di teoria del diritto, Comunità, Milano, 1977. G. D. J. Paris, 1993, 536-540. Sezione civile", UTET, Torino, XVIII, 1998, 153-61