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Town

A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The original Proto-Germanic word, *tunan, is thought to be an early borrowing from Proto-Celtic *dunon; the original sense of the word in both Germanic and Celtic was that of an enclosure. Cognates of "town" in many modern Germanic languages designate a hedge. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed, through which a track must run. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used with a similar meaning in modern Norwegian.

Old English tun became a common place-name suffix in England and southeastern Scotland during the Anglo-Saxon settlement period. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities. Other common Anglo-Saxon suffixes included ham and burh. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town.

In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities. The modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities; some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them.

The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that. Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use, he identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār. As the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities.

In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city. Though the village is bigger than a hamlet. In Australia, most rural and regional centres of population can be called towns; the smallest may be described as townships. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, also in Victoria; the Austrian l

2016 in weightlifting

This article lists the main weightlifting events and their results for 2016. March 18 – 20: 2016 IWF Grand Prix #1 and Olympic Qualification Event in KazanMen's 94 kg winner: Adam Maligov Men's 105 kg winner: Jaroslaw Pawel Samoraj Men's +105 kg winner: Ruben Aleksanyan Women's 75 kg winner: Johanie Filiatreault Women's +75 kg winner: Hripsime Khurshudyan April 7 – 10: Aquece Rio Weightlifting 2016 in Rio de Janeiro Colombia won the gold medal tally. Colombia and Brazil won 10 overall medals each. May 30 – June 3: 2016 IWF Grand Prix #2 and Olympic Qualification Event in Tehran Men's 85 kg winner: Kianoush Rostami Men's 94 kg winner: Sohrab Moradi Men's 105 kg winner: Mohammad Reza Barari Men's +105 kg winner: Behdad Salimikordasiabi August 6 – 16: 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro at the Riocentro Men Men's 56 kg: Long Qingquan. Men's 77 kg: Nijat Rahimov. October 20 – 25: 2016 IWF Youth World Weightlifting Championships in Penang China won both the gold and overall medal tallies. November 13 – 17: 2016 FISU World University Weightlifting Championships in Mérida, Yucatán China won the gold medal tally.

Mexico and Chinese Taipei won 8 overall medals each. April 8 – 16: 2016 European Weightlifting Championships in Førde Armenia and Turkey won 3 gold medals each. Romania won the overall medal tally. April 22 – 30: 2016 Asian Weightlifting Championships in Tashkent China won both the gold and overall medal tallies. April 23 – 30: 2016 Pan American Junior Weightlifting Championships in San Salvador Colombia won both the gold and overall medal tallies. May 7 – 13: 2016 African Weightlifting Championships in Yaoundé Nigeria and Tunisia won 4 gold medals each. Tunisia won the overall medal tally. May 23 – 28: 2016 Oceania Weightlifting Championships in Suva Australia and Fiji won 3 gold medals each. Australia won the overall medal tally. June 4 – 11: 2016 Pan American Weightlifting Championships in Cartagena, Colombia Colombia won both the gold and overall medal tallies. September 10 – 17: 2016 European Youth Weightlifting Championships in Nowy Tomyśl Armenia, Bulgaria and Ukraine won 2 gold medals each.

Russia won the overall medal tally. October 25 – 29: 2016 Commonwealth Weightlifting Championships in Penang India won the gold medal tally. Malaysia won the overall medal tally. November 8 – 16: 2016 Asian Youth & Junior Weightlifting Championships in TokyoJunior: Thailand won both the gold and overall medal tallies. Youth: Iran won the gold medal tally. Iran and Chinese Taipei won 7 overall medals each. December 2 – 10: 2016 European Junior Weightlifting Championships in Eilat Ukraine won both the gold and overall medal tallies. December 8 – 15: 2016 African Junior and Youth Weightlifting Championships in CairoJunior: Egypt won both the gold and overall medal tallies. Youth: Egypt won both the gold and overall medal tallies. January 21 -- 23: PWC. February 15 -- 19: PWC. February 24 -- 28: PWC click here. For Day 2 results, click here. For Day 3 results, click here. For Day 4 results, click here. China won both the gold and overall medal tallies. International Weightlifting Federation Website

Roy A. Tucker

Roy A. Tucker is an American astronomer best known for the co-discovery of near-Earth asteroid 99942 Apophis along with David J. Tholen and Fabrizio Bernardi of the University of Hawaii, he is a prolific discoverer of minor planets, credited by the Minor Planet Center with the discovery of 702 numbered minor planets between 1996 and 2010. He has discovered two comets: 328P/LONEOS–Tucker and C/2004 Q1, a Jupiter-family and near-parabolic comet, respectively. Tucker was raised in Tennessee. In 1966, he became a member of Memphis Astronomical Society and received a master's degree in Scientific Instrumentation from the University of California, Santa Barbara, he works as a senior engineer in the Imaging Technology Laboratory of the University of Arizona and as an instrumentalist at Kitt Peak National Observatory. He observes and discovers minor planets at his private Goodricke-Pigott Observatory in southern Arizona. In 2002, he was one of five researchers awarded a "Gene Shoemaker Near Earth Object Grant", by the Planetary Society.

The main-belt asteroid. Goodricke-Pigott Observatory Discovering My First Asteroid "Don't count your asteroids till they are numbered" - Roy A. Tucker First person narrative