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Townhouse

A townhouse, town house, or town home as used in North America, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing. A modern town house is one with a small footprint on multiple floors. In British usage, the term referred to the city residence of someone whose main or largest residence was a country house. A townhouse was the city residence of a noble or wealthy family, who would own one or more country houses in which they lived for much of the year. From the 18th century and their servants would move to a townhouse during the social season. In the United Kingdom, most townhouses are terraced. Only a small minority of them the largest, were detached, but aristocrats whose country houses had grounds of hundreds or thousands of acres lived in terraced houses in town. For example, the Duke of Norfolk owned Arundel Castle in the country, while his London house, Norfolk House, was a terraced house in St James's Square over 100 feet wide. In the United States and Canada, a townhouse has two connotations.

The older predates the automobile and denotes a house on a small footprint in a city, but because of its multiple floors, it has a large living space with servants' quarters. The small footprint of the townhouse allows it to be within walking or mass-transit distance of business and industrial areas of the city, yet luxurious enough for wealthy residents of the city. Townhouses are expensive where detached single-family houses are uncommon, such as in New York City, Boston, Toronto, Washington, DC, San Francisco. Rowhouses are similar and consist of several adjacent, uniform units found in older, pre-automobile urban areas such as Baltimore, Charleston and New Orleans, but now found in lower-cost housing developments in suburbs as well. A townhouse is where there is a continuous roof and foundation, a single wall divides adjacent townhouses, but some have a double wall with inches-wide air space in between on a common foundation. A rowhouse will be smaller and less luxurious than a dwelling called a townhouse.

The name townhouse or townhome was used to describe non-uniform units in suburban areas that are designed to mimic detached or semi-detached homes. Today, the term townhouse is used to describe units mimicking a detached home that are attached in a multi-unit complex; the distinction between living units called apartments and those called townhouses is that townhouses consist of multiple floors and have their own outside door as opposed to having only one level and/or having access via an interior corridor \hallway or via an exterior balcony-style walkway. Another distinction is that in most areas of the US outside of the largest cities, apartment refers to rental housing, townhouse refers to an individually owned dwelling, with no other unit beneath or above although the term townhouse-style apartment is heard for bi-level apartments. Townhouses can be "stacked"; such homes have multiple units vertically each with its own private entrance from the street or at least from the outside. They can be side by side in a row of three or more, in which case they are sometimes referred to as rowhouses.

A townhouse in a group of two could be referred to as a townhouse, but in Canada and the US, it is called a semi-detached home and in some areas of western Canada, a half-duplex. In Canada, single-family dwellings, be they any type, such as single-family detached homes, mobile homes, or townhouses, for example, are split into two categories of ownership: Condominium, where one owns the interior of the unit and a specified share of the undivided interest of the remainder of the building and land known as common elements. Freehold, where one owns the land and the dwelling without any condominium aspects; these may share the foundation as well but have narrow air spaces between and still referred to as a townhouse. Condominium townhouses, just like condominium apartments, are referred to as condos, thus referring to the type of ownership rather than to the type of dwelling. Since apartment style condos are the most common, when someone refers to a condo, many erroneously assume that it must be an apartment-style dwelling and conversely that only apartment-style dwellings can be condos.

All types of dwellings can be condos, this is therefore true of townhouses. A brownstone townhouse is a particular variety found in New York. In Asia and South Africa, the usage of the term follows the North American sense. Townhouses are found in complexes. Large complexes have high security, resort facilities such as swimming pools, gyms and playground equipment. A townhouse has a Strata Title. In population-dense Asian cities dominated by high-rise residential apartment blocks, such as Hong Kong, townhouses in private housing developments remain exclusively populated by the wealthy due to the rarity and large sizes of the units. Prominent examples in Hong Kong include Severn 8, in which a 5,067-square-foot townhouse sold for HK$285 million in 2008, or HK$57,000 per square foot, a record in Asia, The Beverly Hills, which consists of multiple rows of townhouses with some units as large as 11,000 square feet. Commonly

Catherine D. Kimball

Catherine D. Kimball, known as Kitty Kimball, is the retired Chief Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court, she began her judicial career in her native Alexandria, Louisiana, as a law clerk to Judge Nauman Scott of the United States District Court for the Western District of Louisiana. A Democrat, Kimball was listed in 2015 as a registered Independent voter by the office of Louisiana Secretary of State Tom Schedler. In 1992, Kimball carried all twelve parishes in the Louisiana Supreme Court Fifth District, including St. Landry and East Baton Rouge, to become her state's first female Supreme Court justice, she was an associate justice from 1993 to 2009, when she was elevated to Chief Justice, a position she held until her retirement in 2013. In 1983, she succeeded her husband's uncle, Dan Kimball, to become the first woman elected to the 18th Judicial District Court for Iberville, Pointe Coupee, West Baton Rouge parishes. Kimball was the only daughter of five children born to an Alexandria couple.

She graduated in 1963 from Bolton High School in Alexandria. In 1966, Kimball graduated from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. In 1970, she received her Juris Doctor from the Louisiana State University Law Center in Baton Rouge, her husband, Clyde Kimball an LSU graduate, is a former member of the Louisiana House of Representatives and a former deputy secretary of the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. The couple first lived in New Roads, where in the 1970s she practiced law and was an assistant prosecutor; the couple now reside in Ventress in Pointe Coupee Parish. They have three grown children, they are Roman Catholic. On January 10, 2010, Justice Kimball had a stroke and underwent post-stroke rehabilitation therapy at the Neuromedical Rehabilitation Hospital in Baton Rouge until her release five weeks later. Kimball retired from the court on February 1, 2013, her successor is an African-American Democrat from New Orleans. Under the Louisiana Constitution, the longest-serving associate justice succeeds to the position of chief justice if a vacancy occurs in the higher position prior to the next election.

Johnson's service dates to 1994 when she was elected to a circuit judgeship but appointed to the Supreme Court under a federal consent decree which temporarily increased the number of justices from seven to eight. The number two in seniority, Jeffrey P. Victory of Shreveport, a white Democrat-turned-Republican, had maintained that he was the rightful successor to Kimball because he was elected to the Supreme Court in 1994 while he was a circuit court judge. Victory did not begin his current all-elected service on the state Supreme Court in January 1995. After a legal challenge, the federal courts ruled Johnson the successor to Kimball. Victory retired from the court on December 31, 2014. In 2011, Justice Kimball was inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. List of female state supreme court justices "Catherine Kimball named Chief Justice of Louisiana Supreme Court" - Models For Change

Bluestone, Pembrokeshire

Bluestone National Park Resort is a holiday park in Pembrokeshire, southwest Wales. The resort falls within the boundaries of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park; the park is owned by several private backers and Pembrokeshire County Council and employs over 700 people. The resort's accommodation consists of 344 timber lodges, as well as cottages and studio apartments set in 500 acres; this area includes the Blue Lagoon, Steep Ravine, an indoor playground and a medieval themed activity area. The resort itself is centred on the "village" which has shops, restaurants, a pub, wine store and a spa. Within the boundaries of the resort are a ruined manor house and the external structure of Newton North parish church; the park is car-free. Electric golf buggies can be rented by day or for a full stay and are seen around the park. A Dome is expected to open at Bluestone in 2018; the park is close to Oakwood Theme Park. In 2016 Bluestone announced plans to spend £2.5 million restoring Blackpool Mill site with the addition of a miniature railway as a tourist attraction, but following objections from the National Park, the plans were deferred by Bluestone, subsequently rejected, with Bluestone invited to re-apply.

Bluestone VisitWales information