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Township refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a township may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada and parts of the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban. In Australia, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; the term refers purely to the settlement. In Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use. In eastern Canada, a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, this is a canton. Townships are referred to as "lots" in Prince Edward Island. In Canada, a municipality is a city, township, county, or regional municipality, incorporated by statute by the legislatures of the provinces and territories. In western Canada, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the Dominion Land Survey and do not form administrative units.

These townships are nominally six miles by six miles. Townships are designated by their township range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, the numbers increase to the north. In China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties and county level cities. In India, townships are found at the fourth level of the city. In Jersey, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12 parishes of the island. In Malaysia, townships are found at the third level of the administrative hierarchy, is subdivision of a daerah or autonomous sub-district, while above kampung and taman as per Section 11 of the National Land Code 1965. In local government in New Zealand, there are no longer townships. All land is part of either a "city" or a "district"; the term "municipality" has no legal status. The term "township" is, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area.

The expression would equate to that of "village" in England. In the Philippines, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime; the term was replaced with "municipal district". Most municipal districts would be converted into regular municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President. Mambukal, a hill station geographically located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, is the only constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957. In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities both Vertical and Horizontal projects; the modern and largest townships in the Philippines are New Clark City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga.

Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport. In the context of Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, CIS states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial and used to translate the terms поселок городского типа, посад, местечко. In South Africa, under apartheid, the term township, in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites living near or working in white-only communities. Soweto and Mdantsane are well-known examples. However, the term township has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas. In Taiwan, townships are administered by a county, together with county-controlled cities. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of Taiwanese aborigines.

In England, the term township is no longer in official use. In England, "township" referred to a subdivision used to administer a large parish; this use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships, subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer civil parishes in their own right. This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions, started in the 16th century; some councils in the north of England, have revived the term. In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural

Derek Morris (ice hockey)

Derek Terrence Morris is a Canadian former professional ice hockey defenceman who played over 1,100 games in the National Hockey League for the Calgary Flames, Colorado Avalanche, Phoenix Coyotes, Boston Bruins and New York Rangers. He was drafted out of the Western Hockey League 13th overall by the Calgary Flames in the 1996 NHL Entry Draft. Morris played minor hockey in the Alberta Midget Hockey League with the Red Deer Chiefs and was awarded the Brian Benning Trophy as the league's top defenceman in 1995, he went on to play major junior with the Regina Pats of the Western Hockey League. After his rookie WHL season, in which he scored 52 points in 67 games, Morris was drafted 13th overall by the Calgary Flames in the 1996 NHL Entry Draft, a somewhat surprising pick as Morris had been projected to be a third- or fourth-round pick, he returned to play a second season with the Pats, improving to 18 goals and 75 points before turning pro. Following Morris's 1996–97 WHL season with the Pats, he was assigned to the Calgary's American Hockey League affiliate, the Saint John Flames for the final seven games of the regular season, as well as five post-season games.

In 1997–98, he scored 9 goals and 29 points in his NHL rookie season with the Flames, earning NHL All-Rookie Team honours. He continued to improve to 34 38 points in his second and third seasons with the Flames before an injury-shortened season in 2000–01 kept him to 28 points in 51 games. In 2001–02, Morris was again sidelined after sustaining a left wrist injury. During the season, he was accidentally involved in a tragic incident in a game against the Columbus Blue Jackets on March 16, 2002, when an Espen Knutsen slap shot deflected off him and into the stands, striking 13-year-old Brittanie Cecil in the temple, she died from the impact two days prompting the NHL to implement protective netting at the ends of the rinks at the start of the following season. Morris completed the season with 34 points in 61 games. After five seasons with Calgary, reaching the 30-point mark four times, Morris was traded to the Colorado Avalanche, he made an immediate impact with the Avalanche in his first season, tallying a career-high 11 goals, 37 assists and 48 points in 2002–03.

The following season, Morris was traded for the second time in as many campaigns, this time to the Phoenix Coyotes. He completed the 2003–04 season playing in 14 games and recording 2 assists with the Coyotes after being traded, he finished with a combined 32 points. In his first full season with the Coyotes in 2005–06, Morris tallied 28 points in 53 games recorded back-to-back 25-point seasons the following two campaigns. On March 4, 2009, Morris was again dealt at this time to the New York Rangers, he did not re-sign with the Rangers in the off-season, instead signing a one-year contract with the Boston Bruins worth $3.3 million on July 24, 2009. On March 3, 2010, Morris was traded back to the Coyotes for a conditional fourth-round pick in the 2011 NHL Entry Draft. After the season, Morris signed a four-year, $11 million contract extension with the Coyotes. With Phoenix, Morris went deep into the 2012 Stanley Cup playoffs, his highlight of the playoffs was a shot from centre ice in Game 1 of the Conference Finals that beat Los Angeles Kings netminder Jonathan Quick.

However, the Coyotes lost the series in five games. Though he never announced his retirement, Morris has not been active since the 2013–14 season. Morris has represented Canada on three occasions at the World Championships. After appearances in 1999 and 2001, he won his first gold medal with Canada at the 2004 World Championships in the Czech Republic, he contributed five assists in the gold-medal effort. Morris and wife Jodie have three sons: Traiten and Asher, he coached for his son Presley's team, The Jr. Coyotes 02 AA, for eldest son Traiten's team, The Jr. Coyotes 00 AA. Morris settled in north Scottsdale, Arizona. In the summers, he and his family return to Alberta. Morris is an assistant high school coach with Chaparral High. October 1, 2002 – Traded to the Colorado Avalanche by the Calgary Flames for Chris Drury and Stéphane Yelle. March 9, 2004 – Traded to the Phoenix Coyotes by Colorado for Ossi Väänänen, Chris Gratton and Phoenix's second-round pick in 2005 NHL Entry Draft. March 4, 2009 – Traded to the New York Rangers by Phoenix for Nigel Dawes, Dimitri Kalinin and Petr Průcha.

July 4, 2009 – Signed a one-year contract with Boston Bruins as a free agent. March 3, 2010 – Traded to Phoenix from Boston for a fourth-round pick in the 2011 NHL Entry Draft. July 1, 2010 – Signed a four-year contract with Phoenix. List of NHL players with 1,000 games played Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

2004–05 Ekstraklasa

The 2004–05 Ekstraklasa is the 79th season of the Polish Football Championship and the 71st season of the Ekstraklasa, the top Polish professional league for association football clubs, since its establishment in 1927. 14 teams competed in the 2004-05 season. Wisła Kraków won the championship. 13th placed Odra Wodzisław retained their position in the Ekstraklasa by defeating second division Widzew Łódź 4:1 on aggregate in two matches. 25 goals Tomasz Frankowski 24 goals Maciej Żurawski 14 goals Marek Saganowski 12 goals Piotr Bania Ireneusz Jeleń 10 goals Bartosz Ślusarski Source: Poland - List of final tables

Boronia duiganiae

Boronia duiganiae is a plant in the citrus family Rutaceae and is endemic to mountain ranges in south-east Queensland, Australia. It is an erect shrub with many branches, leaves with one, three or five leaflets, pink to white, four-petalled flowers. Boronia duiganiae is an erect, many-branched shrub which grows to a height of 2.0 m with its young branches densely covered with white to yellow hairs. The leaves have a petiole 2 -- 8 mm long; the end leaflet is 6–31 mm long and 3–12 mm wide, the side leaflets smaller, 5–17 mm long and 2.5–8 mm wide. The leaflets are elliptic to lance-shaped, with the narrower end towards the base and their undersides are densely hairy. Up to three pink to white flowers are arranged in leaf axils on a hairy stalk 0.5–1 mm long. The four sepals are egg-shaped to triangular, 3.5–5 mm long, 2–3 mm wide and hairy on their lower surface. The four petals are 6 -- 3 -- 6 mm wide; the eight stamens are hairy. Flowering occurs from February to November and the fruit are 4–5.5 mm long and 2–3 mm wide.

Boronia duiganiae was first formally described in 1999 by Marco F. Duretto and the description was published in the journal Austrobaileya from a specimen collected near Rolleston; the specific epithet honours the Australian palaeobotanist Suzanne Duigan. This boronia grows in woodland and forest on sandstone on the ranges south and south west of Rolleston and Springsure. Boronia duiganiae is classed as "least concern" under the Queensland Government Nature Conservation Act 1992

MONEE Project

UNICEF launched the MONEE Project in 1992 to secure evidence-based feedback on the social impact of market reforms, to advise countries undergoing rapid political and social change on financial policy. Eight Regional Monitoring Reports were produced by the Innocenti Research Centre between 1993 and 2001, targeting decision-makers, their advisers, academics and the general audience; each Report provides a summary review of the social impact of the economic and demographic changes since 1989 and an in-depth analysis of some key thematic issues: family support policies. RMR 4 offers a framework for assessing and supporting children at risk and those left without parental care, RMR 5 focuses on education, RMR 6 on women, RMR 7 on youth. RMR 8 looks at the turbulent first ten years of the transition; the tradition, facilities and expectations created by the project have been used since 2002 to produce Innocenti’s new annual ‘Social Monitor’ series, which follows up how the benefits of economic recovery are being shared in the region.

The Project had an annual budget of US$0.7 million covering 27 CEE/CIS countries. The Reports were written by a core staff of 3-5 people at Innocenti, using input and data from a network of focal points in each central statistical office in the region and from other policy consultants; the Project had many results and a variety of outputs The key results were: Use by and involvement of top level decision-makers Exceptional media coverage, citations by academic papers, long shelf-life, demand for reprint Impact on the World Bank and UN sister agencies Use by UNICEF as advocacy tool in and outside the region: for raising awareness on the social impact of economic policies and on emerging threats for children, such as HIV, or for assessing policies and strategies that reduce risks associated with economic shocks, social upheavals and poor family and child support structures and prevent child neglect and institutionalisation. Unfailing support from, involvement of, UNICEF senior management Long project life helping to accumulate capacities, knowledge and fame Sufficient funding and stability in core positions Professionals with substantive research capacity and ability to create intellectual interest directing the project Collaboration with a well-established and well-maintained network including a great number of local and a smaller number of international professionals Stakeholders and a focal point for distribution within the World Bank Focus on statistical evidence and on producing original, new analysis.

While many offices were using project outcomes and networks for advocacy and for programme planning in optimal ways, some others were showing less interest, which hindered project outreach. In several countries no UNICEF offices existed in the field. In some countries UNICEF offices were established only after 1997, when the Regional Office for CEE/CIS/Baltics was created; the MONEE project has demonstrated that by creating a regional monitoring and advocacy facility, UNICEF can and increase awareness on how economic and social policies impact children and families and influence how others, including national governments, civil society organizations or the World Bank use their resources and develop their programmes and interventions in a great number of countries. MONEE project at


The Uni-Vibe known as Jax Vibra-Chorus, is a footpedal-operated phaser or phase shifter for creating chorus and vibrato simulations for electric organ or guitar. Designed by audio engineer Fumio Mieda, it was introduced in the 1960s by Japanese company Shin-ei, released in North America by Univox in 1968, it was intended to emulate the "Doppler sound" of a Leslie speaker. Though not successful as a Leslie simulator, the Uni-Vibe became an effect in its own right, putting its stamp on tracks like Robin Trower's "Bridge of Sighs", Jimi Hendrix's "Machine Gun" and Pink Floyd's "Breathe"; the effect, though associated with chorus, is in fact created through a staggered series of phasing filters, unlike the aligned filters of a normal phasing effect. Unlike most other phaser pedals, this is achieved without the use of op-amps; the Uni-Vibe phase shifter was known for its throbbing, hypnotic lo-fi sweep. These unique effects set it apart from other modulation-type effects at the time; the Shin-ei Uni-Vibe was sold as a Univox product.

"Uni-Vibe" is now a registered trademark of Dunlop Manufacturing, Inc.. Notable users of the Uni-Vibe are Jimi Hendrix, Robin Trower, Trey Anastasio and David Gilmour of Pink Floyd. Technology of the Univibe