A toxin is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger, derived from the word toxic. Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary in their toxicity, ranging from minor to immediately deadly. Toxins are distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production—the word toxin does not specify method of delivery, it means it is a biologically produced poison. According to an International Committee of the Red Cross review of the Biological Weapons Convention, "Toxins are poisonous products of organisms. According to Title 18 of the United States Code, "... the term "toxin" means the toxic material or product of plants, microorganisms, or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, whatever their origin and method of production..."A rather informal terminology of individual toxins relates them to the anatomical location where their effects are most notable: Hemotoxin, causes destruction of red blood cells Phototoxin, causes dangerous photosensitivityOn a broader scale, toxins may be classified as either exotoxins, being excreted by an organism, or endotoxins, that are released when bacteria are lysed.
The term "biotoxin" is sometimes used to explicitly confirm the biological origin. Biotoxins can be further classified, for example, as fungal biotoxins, microbial toxins, plant biotoxins, or animal biotoxins. Toxins produced by microorganisms are important virulence determinants responsible for microbial pathogenicity and/or evasion of the host immune response. Biotoxins vary in purpose and mechanism, can be complex, or small protein. Biotoxins in nature have two primary functions: Predation, such as in the spider, scorpion and wasp Defense as in the bee, termite, honey bee and poison dart frogSome of the more well known types of biotoxins include: Cyanotoxins, produced by cyanobacteria Dinotoxins, produced by dinoflagellates Necrotoxins cause necrosis in the cells they encounter and destroy all types of tissue. Necrotoxins spread through the bloodstream. In humans and muscle tissues are most sensitive to necrotoxins. Organisms that possess necrotoxins include: The brown recluse or "fiddle back" spider Most rattlesnakes and vipers produce phospholipase and various trypsin-like serine proteases Puff adder Necrotizing fasciitis – produces a pore forming toxin Neurotoxins affect the nervous systems of animals.
The group neurotoxins consists of ion channel toxins that disrupt ion channel conductance. Organisms that possess neurotoxins include: The black widow spider. Most scorpions The box jellyfish Elapid snakes The cone snail The Blue-ringed octopus Venomous fish Frogs Palythoa coral Various different types of algae and dinoflagellates Myotoxins are small, basic peptides found in snake and lizard venoms, They cause muscle tissue damage by a non enzymatic receptor based mechanism. Organisms that possess myotoxins include: rattlesnakes eastern bearded dragon Cytotoxins are toxic at the level of individual cells, either in a non-specific fashion or only in certain types of living cells: Ricin, from castor beans Apitoxin, from honey bees T-2 mycotoxin, from certain toxic mushrooms Cardiotoxin III, from Chinese cobra The term "environmental toxin" can sometimes explicitly include synthetic contaminants such as industrial pollutants and other artificially made toxic substances; as this contradicts most formal definitions of the term "toxin", it is important to confirm what the researcher means when encountering the term outside of microbiological contexts.
Environmental toxins from food chains that may be dangerous to human health include: Paralytic shellfish poisoning Amnesic shellfish poisoning Diarrheal shellfish poisoning Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning In general, when scientists determine the amount of a substance that may be hazardous for humans, animals and/or the environment they determine the amount of the substance to trigger effects and if possible establish a safe level. In Europe, the European Food Safety Authority produced risk assessments for more than 4,000 substances in over 1,600 scientific opinions and they provide open access summaries of human health, animal health and ecological hazard assessments in their: OpenFoodTox database; the OpenFoodTox database can be used to screen potential new foods for toxicity. The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program at the United States National Library of Medicine maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to toxins-related resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations.
This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP i
Sekou Baradji is a French professional footballer. A midfielder, he plays for FC Istres, he holds Senegalese citizenship. Baradji signed for West Ham United on the transfer deadline, 31 August 2005, he was loaned to Reading. He had been on trial with Derby, he only made three appearances for the Royals, twice in the Football League Cup and once in the league, a substitute appearance against Sheffield United in which Baradji's free kick allowed Brynjar Gunnarsson to score the winner in a pivotal first-against-second match. Reading did not extend Baradji's loan and West Ham released him. In 2010 Baradji was on trial with Premier League club Wigan Athletic and played in their pre-season friendly draw with Oldham Athletic, he travelled to Austria with the team and played in their 4–1 victory over NK Rudar on 26 July 2010. Sekou Baradji at Soccerway Sekou Baradji – French league stats at LFP
The Bristol Type 133 was a prototype single-seat, single-engine monoplane fighter, armed with four guns, metal-skinned and with a retractable undercarriage, built by The Bristol Aeroplane Co. to an Air Ministry specification in the mid-1930s. The single example crashed. Air Ministry Specification F.7/30 called for a four-gun fighter with better high-altitude performance and endurance than current fighters, outstanding climb rate and all-round vision combined with a low landing speed. A preference was expressed for the use of the experimental evaporatively-cooled Rolls-Royce Goshawk engine. None of Bristol's three design submissions were chosen for official prototype orders, but one, the Goshawk-engined Bristol Type 123 was built as a private venture contender. At the same time Bristol started work on a second design, to be powered by the company's own Bristol Mercury engine. Powered by a Bristol Mercury radial engine, the Type 133 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane and was the first aircraft intended for RAF service with a retractable undercarriage.
It was the first Bristol aircraft to use stressed-skin construction for the wings, using invented Alclad sheets. The wings were of constant chord out to rounded tips and of cranked, or inverted gull wing, with negative dihedral in the centre section and positive dihedral beyond; the fabric-covered ailerons extended over the whole of the outer wing and could be lowered symmetrically in lieu of traditional flaps. The horizontal tail was of quite high aspect ratio and aluminium-covered, carrying horn-balanced, fabric-covered elevators; the rudder was horn-balanced and fabric-covered. The rear fuselage was an aluminium monocoque and the forward fuselage was alclad-skinned over a tubular steel structure; the pilot's open cockpit was situated over the wing at mid-chord. The Mercury engine was enclosed in a long-chord cowling. One advantage of the cranked wing was that it reduced the length of the undercarriage, making retraction easier; the main wheels of the Type 133 retracted into bath-type fairings under the wings.
Two of the four machine guns were fitted in the wing just outboard of the undercarriage fairing, the other two being on either side of the nose. The Type 133 first flew carrying the experimental marking R-10 on 8 June 1934 piloted by Cyril Uwins, impressed. Testing over the next eight months produced some modifications including the addition of a sliding canopy and a crash pylon, better brakes, an enlarged rudder and the replacement of the tailskid with a castoring tailwheel. Engine exhaust and cooling were improved; the long-span ailerons were combined with centre section split flaps. The aircraft was ready to attend the competitive tests at RAF Martlesham Heath when W. T. Campbell entered a spin with the undercarriage unintentionally down. An irrecoverable flat spin developed and Campbell had to abandon the aircraft; this ended Bristol's interest in the specification F.7/30 competition, won by the Gloster Gladiator. Data from Barnes 1970, p. 248General characteristics Length: 28 ft 0 in Wingspan: 39 ft 0 in Height: 9 ft 9 in Wing area: 247 ft2 Empty weight: 3,332 lb Gross weight: 4,738 lb Powerplant: 1 × Bristol Mercury VIS.2 9-cylinder single-row radial, 640 hp Performance Maximum speed: 260 mph Armament 4 × 0.303 in Vickers machine guns, 2 in wings and 2 in fuselage Photograph in Flight
Two Sergeants of General Custer is a western comedy film directed by Giorgio Simonelli. Franco Franchi as Franco La Pera Ciccio Ingrassia as Ciccio La Pera Margaret Lee as Beth Smith - The Lynx Moira Orfei as Baby O'Connor Fernando Sancho as Serg. Fidhouse Ernesto Calindri as Northern States Colonel Franco Giacobini as Cochise Nino Terzo as Schultz Aroldo Tieri as Specialista Riccardo Garrone as Specialista Michele Malaspina as General Lee Dina Loy as Mary Juan Luis Galiardo as Fidanzato di Mary Armando Curcio as Major Carter Alfio Caltabiano as Nervous Buffalo Ignazio Spalla as Northern Adjutant Enzo Andronico as Lee's Colonel Two Sergeants of General Custer was released in 1965. I due sergenti del generale Custer on IMDb
Proto-Bopper is an album by pianist Joe Albany recorded in 1972 and released on the Revelation label in the US and on Spotlite in the UK. Allmusic's Scott Yanow said: "Despite an out-of-tune piano on a few of the songs, this is a worthy and historical set". "When Lights Are Low" – 5:00 "Our Love Affair Is Over" – 5:00 "You Don't Know What Love Is" – 3:30 "For Heaven's Sake" – 2:30 "Gettin' Sentimental Over You" – 5:10 "Yardbird Suite" – 3:56 "Imagination" – 3:30 "Like Someone in Love" – 2:50 "C. C. Rider" – 4:33 "You're Blasé" – 3:15 "Suddenly, It's Spring" – 3:00 Joe Albany – piano Bob Whitlock – bass Nick Martinis, Jerry McKenzie – drums
Angel Love was a comic book series created by Barbara Slate, published by DC Comics in the 1980s, as well as the lead character of this series. The first issue was dated August 1986. Despite its cartoony style, some superficial stylistic resemblance to "girl humor" comic books of an earlier era such as Millie the Model, Patsy Walker, Katy Keene, it was not intended as a children's comic; the 1987 Angel Love Special which wrapped up the series bore a "For Mature Readers" advisory on its cover. Its letter column sometimes featured letters from children. Angel Love is a young woman who has moved from her native Scranton, Pennsylvania to New York City in hopes of finding a career as an artist. So far, the only career she has found is as a roller-skating waitress at a restaurant, her adventures are portrayed sometimes with realism, but sometimes with fantasy elements such as talking cockroaches and a "guardian angel" she has drawn which comes to life to attempt to grant her wishes. This comic book's unusual combination of style and subject matter made it difficult to market successfully.
The "special" issue published soon afterward wrapped up the storyline, featuring Angel's attempt to convince her long-lost sister to supply her bone marrow to save their mother from cancer. Angel Love only made one appearance in the normal continuity of the DC Universe, she appeared in Animal Man #24, alongside every other character that did not exist in the proper continuity anymore, was seen reading a copy of her own comic book. Angel Love on Barbara Slate's site Angel Love at the DC Database