A toy is an item, used in play one designed for such use. Playing with toys can be an enjoyable means of training young children for life in society. Different materials like wood, clay and plastic are used to make toys. Many items are designed to serve as toys, but goods produced for other purposes can be used. For instance, a small child may fold an ordinary piece of paper into an airplane shape and "fly it". Newer forms of toys include interactive digital entertainment; some toys are produced as collectors' items and are intended for display only. The origin of toys is prehistoric; the origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century. Toys are made for children; the oldest known doll toy is thought to be 4,000 years old. Playing with toys is considered to be important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. Younger children use toys to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, practice skills they will need as adults.
Adults on occasion use toys to form and strengthen social bonds, help in therapy, to remember and reinforce lessons from their youth. Most children have been said to play such as sticks and rocks. Toys and games have been unearthed from the sites of ancient civilizations, they have been written about in some of the oldest literature. Toys excavated from the Indus valley civilization include small carts, whistles shaped like birds, toy monkeys which could slide down a string; the earliest toys are made from materials found in nature, such as rocks and clay. Thousands of years ago, Egyptian children played with dolls that had wigs and movable limbs which were made from stone and wood. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, children played with dolls made of wax or terracotta, sticks and arrows, yo-yos; when Greek children girls, came of age it was customary for them to sacrifice the toys of their childhood to the gods. On the eve of their wedding, young girls around fourteen would offer their dolls in a temple as a rite of passage into adulthood.
The oldest known mechanical puzzle comes from Greece and appeared in the 3rd century BCE. The game consisted of a square divided into 14 parts, the aim was to create different shapes from these pieces. In Iran "puzzle-locks" were made as early as the 17th century. Toys became more widespread with the changing attitudes towards children engendered by the Enlightenment. Children began to be seen as people in and of themselves, as opposed to extensions of their household and that they had a right to flourish and enjoy their childhood; the variety and number of toys that were manufactured during the 18th century rose. He created puzzles on eight themes – the World, Asia, America and Wales, Ireland and Scotland; the rocking horse was developed at the same time in England with the wealthy as it was thought to develop children's balance for riding real horses. Blowing bubbles from leftover washing up soap became a popular pastime, as shown in the painting The Soap Bubble by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin.
Other popular toys included hoops, toy wagons, spinning wheels and puppets. Many board games were produced by John Jefferys including A Journey Through Europe; the game was similar to modern board games. In the nineteenth century, the emphasis was put on toys that had an educational purpose to them, such as puzzles, books and board games. Religiously themed toys were popular, including a model Noah's Ark with miniature animals and objects from other Bible scenes. With growing prosperity among the middle class, children had more leisure time on their hands, which led to the application of industrial methods to the manufacture of toys. More complex mechanical and optics-based toys were invented. Carpenter and Westley began to mass-produce the kaleidoscope, invented by Sir David Brewster in 1817, had sold over 200,000 items within three months in London and Paris; the company was able to mass-produce magic lanterns for use in phantasmagoria and galanty shows, by developing a method of mass production using a copper plate printing process.
Popular imagery on the lanterns included royalty and fauna, geographical/man-made structures from around the world. The modern zoetrope was invented in 1833 by British mathematician William George Horner and was popularized in the 1860s. Wood and porcelain dolls in miniature doll houses were popular with middle-class girls, while boys played with marbles and toy trains; the golden age of toy development was at the turn of the 20th century. Real wages were rising in the Western world, allowing working-class families to afford toys for their children, industrial techniques of precision engineering and mass production was able to provide the supply to meet this rising demand. Intellectual emphasis was increasingly being placed on the importance of a wholesome and happy childhood for the future development of children. William Harbutt, an English painter, invented plasticine in 1897, in 1900 commercial production of the material as a children's toy began. Frank Hornby was a visionary in toy development and manufacture and was responsible for the invention and production of three
The minster hypothesis is a debated view that the organisation of the early Anglo-Saxon Christian church was based around minsters staffed by communities of clerics and providing spiritual services within a defined area. John Blair put forward a description of the early Anglo-Saxon Christian church in England in a number of publications, he believed that the organisation of the early church was based around minsters staffed by a community of clerics and providing spiritual services within a defined area. Minsters were established close to royal vills, as part of the process by which pagan communities were converted to Christianity. During 10th and 11th centuries, parochial duties were taken over by estate churches which were the property of local land owners; the diminishing role for minsters and the emergence of estate churches accompanied the fragmentation of the Anglo-Saxon multiple estates, common in the earlier landscape. The new estate churches were dependent to some extent on the original minster church within whose boundary they were located.
Sonning is an example of an original minster which by the 12th century had eight dependent churches, four of which had become independent parishes by the 15th century. Although minsters were in decline by 1086, it is still possible to identify them in Domesday wherever the description goes beyond the purely formulaic. Clues to identification of minsters include references to groups of priests. Blair did not himself coin the phrase "minster hypothesis", instead using the phrase "minster model"; the term "minster hypothesis" was first used in a critical review by Cambridge and Rollason The term has subsequently been adopted by both proponents and opponents of the underlying ideas. The term "minster system" has sometimes been used as an alternative. Disputed points include the extent to which there was a deliberate and planned programme of establishing minsters to provide parochial services the extent to which private churches were numerous in the early Christian period whether or not all minsters had parochial duties the applicability of evidence from a date to infer an earlier practice
The British Overseas Territories or alternatively, United Kingdom Overseas Territories, are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are the parts of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories; these territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations; the rest have a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. The territories of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are British military bases on the island of Cyprus; the large presence of British troops on the island led to laws on prostitution while Cyprus was under British administration. Prostitution is legal in Anguilla, but related activities such as brothel keeping, are illegal under sections 171 - 181 of the Criminal Code. Brothels are common on the island, most villages have a'sports bar' where prostitutes work.
These bars have bedrooms at the back. Many of the prostitutes are from Venezuela. Law enforcement turns a blind eye to these activities. In 2016, photojournalist Belinda Soncini produced a photo-blog of about the prostitutes on the island entitled'Desperate Women: Venezuela’s Latest Export'. Prostitution is legal in Bermuda but related activities such as running a brothel are illegal under the Criminal Code. Women coming to the island to work as prostitutes, or is a known prostitute, may be refused entry under the immigration laws. Many of the prostitutes in the country are from Dominican Republic and Panama. In 2010 the visa requirements for people from these countries was changed to attempt to curb prostitution. Street prostitution occurs in Hamilton, on Front Street. Bermuda has a long history of prostitution fuelled by the British garrison and sailors visiting the island. One of the best known former brothels, The Queen Of The East, was demolished in 2016, it was built in the 1740s. In 1968, when homosexuality was still outlawed in the Royal Navy, the'Bermuda case' caused concern to naval authorities.
The owner of a gay brothel on the island had recorded the names and ships of more than 400 sailors who had visited the brothel making them the targets for blackmail. The British Antarctic Territory is uninhabited except for research personnel; the islands of the British Indian Ocean Territory are uninhabited except for military personnel and contractors. Prostitution is legal in the British Virgin Islands, but related activities such as soliciting and procuring are illegal. Known prostitutes or those known to be living off the proceeds of prostitution can be refused entry visas to the country. Prostitution occurs in brothels and strip clubs in the capital, Road Town; the National AIDS Programme distributes condoms and advice to the sex workers. Prostitution in the Cayman Islands is legal but related activities such as brothel keeping are prohibited by the Penal Code. Prostitution in the Falkland Islands is legal but related activities such as solicitation and keeping a brothel are prohibited by the Crimes Ordinance 2014.
A man compelling his wife to become a prostitute is a grounds for divorce under the Matrimonial Proceedings Ordinance 1967. Soldiers returning from tours on the islands report little or no prostitution in the Falkland Islands. Prostitution is illegal in Gibraltar. In 1725 there were about 1,000 Catholics and Jews living in Gibraltar, about 100 British; some of the British women were prostitutes. The British military buildup on Gibraltar started during the Spanish siege of 1727. One diarist noted that in that year there was much excitement as a ship was due in from Ireland with prostitutes on board. In the 19th century, the military authorities in charge took the view prostitution was inevitable where soldiers and sailors were stationed. A rescindable permit was required by non-British people to reside in Gibraltar; the permits were only issued to prostitutes. Failure to comply once in Gibraltar would result in the permit being withdrawn. British prostitutes in Gibraltar were brought into the scheme by withdrawing permits to any alien prostitutes who they resided with if the British prostitute didn't accompany them to the examination.
The police kept a close scrutiny on the prostitutes. By the end of the 19th century, prostitution had centred around a street called Seruya’s Ramp, known locally as Calle Peligro. By this time most of the prostitutes were Spanish nationals. In 1892 it was noted by an official in the Colonial Office that 47'native' prostitutes was too few to service the needs of the 4,926 men in the garrison plus sailors from ships docked in the harbour; when the brothels were shut down and prostitution banned by Governor Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien in January 1922, the prostitutes moved across the Spanish border to the Calle Gibraltar area in La Línea. Prostitution in Montserrat is common; however related activities such as controlling prostitution or living off the earnings of prostitution are prohibited by the Penal Code. Following the eruption of the Soufrière Hills Volcano in 1997 that buried the capital, many migrant workers came to the island from Guyana, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. With them came prostitutes from the Dominican Republic, prostitution on the island increased.
The Pitcairn, Henderson and Oeno Islands are uninhabited. Apart from involvement in child prostitution, there are no prostitution laws on the Pitcair
The Appel au peuple was a Bonapartiste parliamentary group during the early years of the French Third Republic. They advocated a plebiscite by which the people would choose the form of government, which they assumed would be a revival of the Second French Empire, they were a significant force in the 1870s and 1880s They were associated with Boulangism and the right-wing Ligue des Patriotes. There was a brief revival of the Appel au peuple in the 1900s. Although the members supported universal suffrage, believed in advancement based on merit rather than birth, had diverse views on other subjects, they were conservative. Many of them believed in the virtues of family, free trade and private property. "Appel au Peuple" was the slogan of the Bonapartist party. The Nantes shipowner Alphonse-Alfred Haentjens founded the Appel au Peuple parliamentary group late in 1871 to restore the Second Empire's ideals of democratic imperialism and free trade, he looked for support among the rich winemakers of the southwest of France.
Until this time the Bonapartists had concealed their views, but now they challenged both the Left and the Right. They claimed that they were more democratic than the Republicans, they mocked the Monarchists and they opposed Adolphe Thiers in his wish to tear up the low-tariff treaties of the empire; the Bonapartists did not have consistent views on democracy. Their program was deliberately vague; the leaders assumed that a plebiscite, as in 1852, would produce a landslide in favour of return to an imperial system, but promised to respect the results of the plebiscite whatever they might be. Eugène Rouher, the emperor's former chief minister, joined the group in February 1872; the Bonapartists claimed to be a democratic party but failed to win over voters. Between January 1872 and January 1874 they won only five seats in the Assembly: one in Charente-inférieure, two in Pas-de-Calais and two in Corsica. On 16 March 1874 Napoléon, Prince Imperial, son of Napoleon III, spoke at his 18th birthday celebration in favour of an appel au peuple, or plebiscite.
He said, "if the name of Napoleon emerges an eighth time from the popular vote, I am prepared to accept the responsibility imposed on me by the national will." Bonapartist candidates now won a series of by-elections starting with that of Philippe La Beaume de Bourgoing in Nièvre on 24 May 1974. Running as a member of the Appel au People, Bourgoing won an absolute majority over the combined votes for the Republican and Legitimist candidates; as soon as the results were announced he went to Chislehurst to pay his respects to the Empress. After Bourgoing's victory a splinter group of Appel au Peuple deputies plotted with retired Bonapartist officers to overthrow the republic. On 9 June 1874 a republican deputy read a circular from the Appel du Peuple central committee to the Chamber; the circular promised to treat retired officers in the territorial army generously to ensure their support. The revelation caused an uproar, only subdued when the Minister of War, Ernest Courtot de Cissey, said no serving officers had been involved in the alleged plot.
Between 1881 and 1889 the group participated in the Union des Droites. In May 1882 Jean-Edmond Laroche-Joubert of the Appel du Peuple proposed voluntary voter registration, with a fixed fine for failure to register of 10% of the tax on liquid assets paid the previous year, or a minimum of 2 francs; the proposal was rejected by the Gauche Republicaine Cirier commission. When the right-wing Ligue des Patriotes was created, members of the Appel au Peuple committee were present at the constitutive general assembly, as were Blanquists, members of the Jeunesse Antisémite and members of Jules Guérin's Antisemitic League of France. Louis Le Provost de Launay and Jules de Cuverville, both prominent Bonapartists, were members of the steering committee. There was some common ground between Bonapartism and radical Boulangism, Bonapartist leaders such as Prince Jérôme, Prince Victor Napoléon, Paul Cassagnac thought they could profit from Boulangism. Cassagnac encouraged General Boulanger to launch a coup in July 1887, was disappointed when he failed to act..
In 1888 many Bonapartists joined Paul Déroulède's Ligue des patriotes. The Bonapartists and Déroulède were the most extreme Boulangists. However, Cassagnac did not trust Boulanger. Early in 1889 he welcomed Boulanger's victory in Paris as a defeat of parliamentary democracy, but at other times he stated in his Gers newspaper Appel au peuple that with Boulanger there was a danger of a catastrophic war. After the general elections of 1889 the Appel au peuple parliamentary group was merged into the Réunion Générale des Députés de la Droite; the Bonapartists adopted a "plebiscitary" stance in 1891 in an attempt to reaffirm the party's basis in revolutionary principles. However, in the general elections of 1893 the party was reduced to only 13 seats in the chamber. Many of the provincial newspapers closed, the Appel au Peuple was suspended; the Bonapartists reorganized in 1903 and formed an Appel au Peuple central committee headed by the Marquis Jules-Albert de Dion. Other leaders of the revived movement were Paul Cassagnac the younger, Le Provost de Launay and Pierre Taittinger, who would become the leader of the Jeunesses Patriotes and of the Juenesses plébiscitaires.
The new Appel au Peuple continued to support the Bonapartist pretender, but combined Bonapartist concepts with authoritarianism and plebiscitism. After 1903 the revived Appel au Peuple opposed the pro-dynastic L'Autorité and the Comité politique plebiscitaire; the Appel au Peuple was less hostile to elections than the Action Française, with whom its member
The Cornwall Minerals Railway owned and operated a network of 45 miles of standard gauge railway lines in central Cornwall, United Kingdom. It started by taking over an obsolescent horse-operated tramway in 1862, it improved and extended it, connecting Newquay and Par Harbours, Fowey. Having expended considerable capital, it was hurt by a collapse in mineral extraction due to a slump in prices. Despite its title, it operated a passenger service between Fowey. After a period in bankruptcy it returned to normal financial arrangements and acquired the moribund Lostwithiel and Fowey line. In 1896 it sold its line to the Great Western Railway, its main passenger line from Par to Newquay is still in use as the Atlantic Coast Line, carries some mineral traffic, but the Par to Fowey line has been converted to a private road. Joseph Austen of Fowey inherited considerable lands and mineral resources in central Cornwall. By 1838 he changed his name to Joseph Treffry, he is better known by that name; the expense of transport of minerals to market was heavy, Treffry set about improving the means of transport.
He built the harbour at Par, a canal connecting it to Pontsmill, together with tramways on inclined planes that brought the important copper mine Fowey Consols and Par Consols into the network. Kaolinite known in the United Kingdom as china clay, was extracted in the Hensbarrow area north-west of Luxulyan and the mineral was brought to Pontsmill. Treffry soon expanded his interests by building a horse-operated tramway up the Luxulyan Valley to Molinnis, near the present-day Bugle, he built another tramway from Newquay to Hendra, from Newquay to East Wheal Rose mine. Both were on the standard gauge. Treffry had made it clear that he wanted to connect these lines, forming a through route between Par and Newquay; however Treffry suffered from ill health in the late 1840s and he never saw his dream brought into effect: he died in 1850. Nonetheless his initiative vastly enhanced transport and reduced costs, but he chose horse operation on the basis of lower costs of operation, this led to its soon becoming obsolescent.
A railway connecting Cornwall with London and the industrial Midlands and North of England had long been desired, but the difficult topography made raising the necessary finance difficult. After a long struggle, the Cornwall Railway opened in 1859, connecting Truro and Plymouth, by association with the Great Western Railway and its allies, it formed a broad gauge route from Truro to London and Gloucester. In 1864 another line was promoted, to join the St Dennis terminal of Treffry's lines to Burngullow on the newly opened Cornwall Railway; the new company was the Newquay and Cornwall Junction Railway, it built its line on the broad gauge. The N&CJR had ambitious plans to extend and take over and convert the Treffry lines, but in fact it ran out of money before completing its own line: it was built only from Burngullow to Nanpean, opening in 1869. Another short line opened in 1869: the Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway opened from a junction with the Cornwall railway at Lostwithiel to jetties some distance north of Fowey.
Fowey was an important harbour and the railway's purpose was forming a connection for minerals and goods to the Cornwall Railway system. William Richardson Roebuck became interested in the development of mineral extraction, railway transport, in central Cornwall, as well as acquiring an interest in iron mines, he negotiated with Treffry's trustees to lease the tramways. A 60-year lease was concluded on 21 February 1872; as part of the agreement Roebuck undertook that if he was successful in acquiring the N&CJR line he would lay broad gauge rails on the former Treffry line from the point where the two lines met as far as Newquay, improve the route for locomotive operated passenger trains from Burngullow to Newquay. The lease of the tramways was only a first step, Roebuck's proposed improvements were ambitious, involving new lines, locomotive operation; the ailing N&CJR came into his plans, he formed a limited company, the Cornwall Minerals Railway and Harbour Company Limited for the purpose of incorporating all his proposed works and obtaining Board of Trade authorisation under the Railways Construction Facilities Act, 1864.
However this was unsuccessful, Roebuck and his company were obliged to obtain Parliamentary authorisation in the ordinary way. The Cornwall Minerals Railway obtained authorisation by Act of Parliament on 21 July 1873 to acquire and improve the Treffry Tramways, to build new railways to connect St Dennis and Molinnis. Moreover, a new line connecting St Blazey and Fowey Harbour was to be built, with jetties and wharves there, improvements to the quays at Newquay. There were to be three short extensions elsewhere, to Carbis, to Melangoose Mill and to Tream
Alex Fraser was a major innovator in the development of the computer modeling of population genetics and his work has stimulated many advances in genetic research over the past decades. His efforts in the 1950s and 1960s had a profound impact on the development of computational models of evolutionary systems, his seminal work, "Simulation of genetic systems by automatic digital computers", is quoted in the literature to this day. Fraser was born in London and lived in Hong Kong for most of his youth, he studied at the University of New Zealand, went to the University of Edinburgh, subsequently to the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Sydney, Australia. It was at the CSIRO, his earliest work was done on the SILIAC computer, installed for the University of Sydney in 1956. The SILIAC was the Australian cousin to the ILLIAC machine, developed at the University of Illinois; the machine was said to be running well when one could hear a'rhythmic clicking of the relays inside it.'
The clicking indicated. Fraser began using it to simulate genetic selection processes. Fraser starred in multiple TV shows during the early days of Australian television, his time with "Science in Close-Up" ended in a dramatic departure when censors refused to permit airing of a childbirth. Such footage is commonplace today but was forbidden at the time and, why he walked out of the show. A popular show was his "Doorway to Knowledge" as it was sophisticated science, broadcast at eleven o'clock in the morning, he achieved a certain measure of celebrity through the shows and he turned up quite in the Sydney Morning Herald, the city's primary newspaper. In the 1960s, Fraser moved to the United States to act as visiting professor at the University of California at Davis. In 1967, he took over the Headship of Biological Sciences at the University of Cincinnati. In 1983, Fraser suffered a stroke; the timing of this event was most tragic because Fraser was left unable to engage his colleagues, just at the time when interest in evolutionary models and simulations was beginning to rise within computer science.
In 1999, Fraser received the 1999 IEEE Neural Networks Council Pioneer Award in Evolutionary Computation. He died 14 July 2002 as a result of complications from a heart attack. Fraser, AS. "Simulation of Genetic Systems by Automatic Digital Computers I. Introduction". Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. 10: 484. Doi:10.1071/BI9570484. Fogel, D. B.. "In memoriam Alex S. Fraser ". IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. 6: 429–430. Doi:10.1109/TEVC.2002.805212. Billman, Rebecca. "Dr. Alex Fraser was research pioneer"; the Cincinnati Enquirer. P. 9. Retrieved 19 April 2019 – via Newspapers.com