The AE86 series of the Toyota Corolla Levin and Toyota Sprinter Trueno are small, front-engine/rear-drive models within the fifth generation Corolla range — marketed by Toyota from 1983 to 1987 in coupe and hatchback configurations. Lending themselves to racing, the cars were light, affordable modifiable and combined a five-speed manual transmission, optional limited slip differential, MacPherson strut front suspension, high revving, twin-cam engine with oil cooler, near 50/50 front/rear weight balance, a front-engine/rear-drive layout — at a time when this configuration was waning industry-wide. Popular for Showroom Stock, Group A, Group N, Rally and Club racing, the cars' inherent qualities earned the AE86 an early and enduring international prominence in the motorsport discipline of drifting; the AE86 was featured centrally in the popular, long-running Japanese manga and anime series titled Initial D — as the main character's drift and tofu delivery car. In 2015, Road & Track called the AE86 "a cult icon, inextricably interwoven with the earliest days of drifting."The AE86 would go on to inspire the Toyota 86, a 2+2 sports car jointly developed by Toyota and Subaru, manufactured by Subaru — and marketed as the Toyota GT86, Toyota FT86, Scion FR-S and Subaru BRZ.
The nameplate Trueno derives from the Spanish word for thunder, Levin derives from the Middle English for lightning. In Japan, the Sprinter Trueno was exclusive to Toyota Japan dealerships called Toyota Auto Store, while the Corolla Levin was exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store; the name AE86 derives from Toyota's internal code during the car's development, designating the 1600 cc RWD model from the fifth generation of the Corolla. In Toyota's code language, the "A" designates the car's engine, "E" designates Corolla, "8" designates fifth generation and "6" designates the variant within this generation; the AE86 is called the "Hachi-Roku", Japanese for "eight-six". The AE85 was called "Hachi-Go", meaning "eight-five". Bracketing a minor external facelift, models marketed between 1983–1985 are called "zenki", those marketed from 1986–1987 are called "kouki". In 1986, Toyota marketed a limited edition model of the AE86 as the "Black Limited" model; the AE86 was available with a fuel injected aspirated 4A-GE Inline-four engine DOHC 4 valves per cylinder 1,587 cc in Japan and Europe, used in the first-generation Toyota MR2 and the facelift Toyota Celica GT-R and GT Carina with a compression ratio of 9.4:1, had a maximum SAE gross power output of 130 PS at 6,600 rpm and 110 lb⋅ft at 5,200 rpm of torque in standard form, though it was down-rated to 120 PS and 105 lb⋅ft in net output.
The AE86 came with a 5-speed manual gearbox, came with the option of an automatic. The 4A-GE engines used in the AE86 and AW11 were equipped with Toyota Variable Intake System; the AE86 had an optional LSD. In North America, a modified 4A-GEC engine was used to comply with California emissions regulations. Power was rated at 136 N ⋅ m of torque; the AE86 used ventilated disc brakes. The car was equipped with a MacPherson strut style independent suspension at the front and a four-link live axle with coil springs for the rear as well as stabilizer bars and rear. Higher- spec AE86 models known as the GTS featured the DOHC 4A-GE, 4 wheel disc brakes, color matched bumpers, front lower bumper surround had a much more sporty and pronounced lip, door panels were moulded, tachometer redline is around 7,500, wrapped steering wheel, seats had leather wrapped tops, optional LSD, aluminium wheels, chassis code in the VIN is AE88. Lower-spec American AE86 SR5 models used the 1,587 cc 4A-C SOHC unit, The SR5 rear end was a non LSD with drum brakes.
The SR5 model had a softer suspension, small styling and interior changes such as seats, gauge cluster, door panels, un-painted front and rear bumpers, the lower part of the front bumper surround is shorter and flat, its chassis code in the vin differs as well being AE86 for the SR5 model. Models equipped with the 4A-GE engine received a 6.7 in rear differential, while 4A-U, 4A-C models received a smaller, weaker, 6.38 in rear differential. The AE86 SR5 had an optional automatic transmission, though the GT-S model only came with a standard 5-speed manual gearbox. One of the staff, behind the car's engineering work was Nobuaki Katayama, who would head the company's motorsport department and who would become chief engineer of the Altezza project a decade later, he has a photo of an AE86 hung in his office. The Levin and Trueno featured fixed-headlights and retractable headlights with both available as hatchback or coupé; the export model name Corolla applies to both variations. The AE86 was rear wheel drive, unlike the front wheel drive CE80, EE80 and AE82 models in the same range.
Minor bodywork changes were made in 1986 which resulted in different tail lights and rear bumpers and headlight trim lights, grilles, are the main differences for both Levin and Trueno models, along with the coupe and hatchback styles. In Japan, the DOHC 4A-GEU AE86 was offered in GT, GT-APEX and GTV trims as the Corolla Levin or Sprinter Trueno. In North America, the top-spec DOHC 4A-GEC
El Jadida or al-Jadida --with former names Cap Soleis, Portus Rutilis, Mazighen, al-Breyja, Mazagão, al-Mahdouma, Mazagan -- is a port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, located 100 km south of the city of Casablanca, in the province of El Jadida and the region of Casablanca-Settat. It has a population of 194,934. From the sea, El Jadida's old city has a "un-Moorish" appearance because of its massive Portuguese-built walls of hewn stone, one of the Seven Wonders of Portuguese Origin in the World; the Portuguese Fortified City of Mazagan was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004, on the basis of its status as an "outstanding example of the interchange of influences between European and Moroccan cultures" and as an "early example of the realisation of the Renaissance ideals integrated with Portuguese construction technology". According to UNESCO, the most important buildings from the Portuguese period are the cistern, the Manueline Church of the Assumption; the city, its neighboring town of Sidi Bouzid, becomes busy in the summer season with an influx of Moroccan holiday-makers.
Nearby is the five-star resort complex of Mazagan, which attracts some middle class Moroccans as well as many international visitors from the Arabian Peninsula as well as from Europe and beyond. Mazagan complex has a golf course designed by Gary Player, casino and restaurants. Between Mazagan complex and El Jadida is the Pullman Hotel, attached to, Royal Golf El Jadida, another 18-hole course; the presence of nearby ports and factories is responsible for the pollution of El Jadida's beaches. The city is expanding as of 2014 as a result of increased activity at the nearby Jorf Lasfar port and its industrial zone; the Portuguese cistern The Cannons and the Fortress The Old Port The city's beach The Municipal Theater The Municipality building The Post building The Great Mosque The Old City The Red Chateau The Lighthouse of Sidi Abou Wafi The equestrian complex Expanded since 1514, this former warehouse was converted into a cistern in the sixteenth century. The underground chamber, measuring 34 meters by 34 meters, was constructed with five rows of five stone pillars.
The cistern is famous for the thin layer of water that covers the floor, which creates fine and ever-changing reflections from the little light there is and the spartan shapes of the columns and the roof. Its visual qualities are such that several movies have been filmed within the cavernous space, of which Orson Welles' Othello is the best known internationally; the design of the Fortress of Mazagan is a response to the development of modern artillery in the Renaissance. The star form of the fortress measures c 250m by 300m; the inclined, massive walls are c 8m high on average, with a thickness of 10m, enclosing a patrolling peripheral walkway 2m wide. At the present time the fortification has four bastions: the Angel Bastion in the east, St Sebastian in the north, St Antoine in the west, the Holy Ghost Bastion in the south; the fifth, the Governor’s Bastion at the main entrance, is in ruins, having been destroyed by the Portuguese in 1769. Numerous colonial-era Portuguese cannons are still positioned on top of the bastions.
The fort had three gates: the Seagate, forming a small port with the north-east rampart, the Bull Gate in the north-west rampart, the main entrance with a double arch in the centre of the south rampart connected to land via a drawbridge. A ditch, c 20m wide and 3m deep filled with seawater, surrounded the fort. During the time of the French Protectorate the ditch was filled in with earth and a new entrance gate was opened leading to the main street, the Rua da Carreira, to the Seagate. Along this street are situated the best preserved historic buildings, including the Catholic Church of the Assumption and the cistern. El Jadida, was first known as al-Breyja when it was seized by the Portuguese in 1502, it became known as Mazagão. The Portuguese built a citadel in 1514, a larger fortification in 1541; the Portuguese would continue to control the city until 1769, when they abandoned Mazagão, their last territory in Morocco. Upon their forced departure, the Portuguese destroyed the Governor's Bastion and evacuated to the Portuguese colony of Brazil, where they founded a new settlement called Nova Mazagão.
The city was taken over by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah in 1769 and remained uninhabited, having been dubbed al-Mahdouma. Sultan Abd al-Rahman of Morocco ordered that a mosque be built and the destroyed portions of the city rebuilt; the reinvigorated city was renamed The New. El Jadida has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. In winter there is more rainfall than in summer; the average annual temperature in El Jadida is 17.4 °C. About 372 mm of precipitation falls annually; the city houses many post-secondary academic institutions: Chouaib Doukkali University, including the following institutions: Faculty of Science Faculty of Letters and Humanities Faculty of Juridical and Social Sciences National School of Applied Sciences National School of Business and Management Superior School of Technology - Sidi Bennour Office of Vocational Training and Promotion of Labor, including the following institutions: Professional Qualification Center Specialized Institute of Applied Technology - Al-Massira Specialized Institute of Ap
Army Men: Air Attack 2 is a third-person shooter video game developed and published by The 3DO Company for PlayStation, PlayStation 2 and GameCube. Following the events in Army Men: Air Attack and previous Army Men games, players control a helicopter in the Green Army against the Tan Army, working with character William Blade to defeat their enemies. Players can unlock weapons by collecting plastic, it features competitive multiplayer modes. Players are accompanied by co-pilots; the game was met with positive to average reception. GameRankings and Metacritic gave it a score of 73% and 74 out of 100 for the PlayStation version, 68% and 75 out of 100 for the PlayStation 2 version. Army Men: Air Attack 2 at MobyGames Army Men: Air Combat - The Elite Missions at MobyGames
The Contest is a comic book story arc that occurred in 1994 written by William Messner-Loebs and drawn by Mike Deodato. It compiled a segment of the second volume of the DC Comics Wonder Woman comic book from issues 90 through 93 and issue 0 into a collected book edition. After discovering that the witch Circe caused her island home to disappear, Wonder Woman forced her to return the island and her fellow Amazons to their original location; when she goes to the island she discovers the buildings demolished and is shot at with an arrow by an unknown assailant. Wonder Woman known as Diana finds her Amazon sisters and is told what had happened to the island during its disappearance, she is told that during one past night the island was invaded by an outside Amazon tribe called the Amazons of Bana-Mighdall. A huge tribal war was held lasting several days for command of the island. During the battle the witch Circe appeared in the skies above the island revealing that she was responsible for the Amazons appearing on the island and that she meant to destroy both tribes by sending the island to a dimension of demons.
Once this was done a legion of demons began to attack and devour the Amazons. Seeing the situation for what it was, the warring Amazons temporarily put their rivalries aside so that they could properly defend themselves against the demons; this way of life lasted. To Diana, although the island was gone for a few short months, the length of time the island remained in the demon dimension lasted 10 years. While Diana was happy to see her mother Queen Hippolyta alive and whole, Hippolyta's demeanor was cold and withdrawn in the presence of her daughter; when Hippolyta asked how much progress Diana has made in the outside world as Wonder Woman, she became angry and hostile to her daughter when Diana told her that the process was a lot slower than expected. Because of this Hippolyta announced that a new Contest would be held for a new Wonder Woman to be sent in Diana's place. Angered and confused, Diana went to her friend Mala for some solice. While talking to her Diana found herself the target for another arrow.
She followed the arrow's origin point and found a group of Bana-Mighdallian Amazons having an archery contest. She asks, the owner of the arrow shot at her earlier and finds that it belonged to the Bana Amazon named Artemis. Artemis tells Diana that the arrow was misdirected but tells her that she has no love for the Themyscirian tribe. Through a yelling match Diana discovers that the reason why the Bana Amazons were teleported to the island by Circe is because they agreed to work for her during the War of the Gods period in exchange for immortality and a new homeland. Not wishing to start another war, one of the Bana Amazons ends the argument and invites Diana to participate in their archery contest, they find that Artemis are evenly matched on the archery field. Artemis confronts Diana yet again when she finds a posting by Queen Hippolyta stating that the Amazons of Bana-Mighdall are not allowed to participate in the Contest to find the new Wonder Woman. Diana tells Artemis that she was unaware of the post and accompanies Artemis into the Bana camp, located in the harshest corner of the island.
There she finds the new tribe living in base conditions. When she tries to interact with the Amazons she finds an unspoken awe at her presence; the Bana's "Keeper" or historian invites Diana and Artemis to see their tribe's most sacred relic: a bust of the tribe's founding queen Antiope, Diana's long dead aunt. Upon seeing the bust Diana is surprised to discover that Queen Antiope looks like Diana; when the new Contest to find a new Wonder Woman goes underway a group of Bana Amazons appear. Among them is Diana's newest friend and rival, Artemis. Queen Hippolyta asks why they are there and Diana tells her that she invited them. Diana turns to her fellow tribe of Amazons and asks for a vote of the whole to see if the Bana Amazons should be allowed in the Contest or not; the majority of Diana's tribe agree, thus out voting Queen Hippolyta's rule. Hippolyta grudgingly submits. Unknown to Diana, Hippolyta has her Army General Philippus create magical traps on the obstacle courses to better cause Diana trouble in winning.
She has the Amazon sorceress Magala transfer half of Diana's powers to the unaware Amazon Artemis so that she has a better chance of winning the title. During one of the Contest trials another arrow is fired at this time by an unknown assailant. Seeing the arrow, Artemis uses her newfound speed to leap into the air and catch the arrow before it could strike Diana; as the assassin had left the area after firing the arrow, the Amazons present were unable to discover who the archer was. That night Artemis confronts a Bana Amazon named Patrice in private. Artemis tells her that she recognized Patrice's arrow fletching. Patrice admits that she was the one who shot the arrow at Diana but says that she did it so that Artemis could win the Contest, thereby causing their tribe to regain their honor among the Amazon nation. Artemis reprimands Patrice telling her that no Bana Amazon will win the Contest as she believes Hippolyta only initiated the Contest to somehow punish Diana, she tells her that Diana will win the Contest but that if the Bana tribe makes a good showing during the trials that they could prove their honorable favor in the eyes of the other tribe.
She further states. As Patrice apologizes to Artemis, Diana can be seen listening in to their conversation from a hidden locat
Alexandru Davila was a Romanian dramatist, public administrator, memoirist. The son of Carol Davila, a distinguished military physician of French origin, Ana Racoviţă, he studied in his native Goleşti and at V. A. Urechia's college in Bucharest, earning his bachelor's degree in Paris. In the early 1880s, Davila was an attaché for the Romanian legations in Italy and, in 1884, Belgium. In the same year, upon his father's death, he returned to his country to serve as police inspector and as head of the administration in a province of Northern Dobruja, he took up theater management in the closing years of the 19th century. In 1902, he completed his major work, a drama entitled Vlaicu Vodă, one of the first important pieces of its kind in Romanian literature. Between 1905 and 1908, he was the head of the National Theatre Bucharest. In 1915, a mysterious attempt to have him killed resulted in paralysis — Davila was bedridden for the rest of his life, as a sanatorium patient. An intimate friend of the royal family under Carol I, he left behind his Din torsul zilelor, a memoir of life at the turn of the century.
Ioan Lăcustă's foreword to Alexandru Davila, "Din torsul zilelor", fragment published in Magazin Istoric, July 1996
The KARTA Center or The KARTA Center Foundation is a Polish non-governmental public benefit organization, whose aim is documenting and popularizing the recent history of Poland and history of Eastern Europe and strengthening tolerance and democracy. The KARTA community founded in 1982 in Warsaw during the time of martial law in Poland as an illegal underground paper, named Karta, focusing on political commentaries, transformed after a few months into an independent almanac presenting human attitudes towards dictatorship. In 1987 the Karta editorial team initiated the foundation of the independent Eastern Archive - a social movement documenting the concealed and distorted "Eastern" past. Since 1990 Incorporation of the Eastern Archive Foundation and the KARTA Foundation had been cooperated with each other. In 1991 the KARTA Center founded combining all branches of both Foundations. In 1992 started the KARTA Center its international activities by "The Conscience Week in Poland", a meeting in Warsaw with 54 members of the Memorial Association.
In 1996 merged the both Foundations. The objective of new KARTA Center Foundation was to "promote and strengthen tolerance and democracy". In 1996 there was the final of the first competition for high school students, the so-called "History at Hand"; the KARTA Center Foundation is a book and magazine publisher, organizes many exhibitions and educational events, acts as an archive for documents. The KARTA Center co-founded in 2001 the EUSTORY, the European network of organizers of history competition in Europe, take part in summer schools, autumn academies and General Assemblies. In 2005 KARTA initiated the History Meeting House in Warsaw with a permanent multimedia exhibition "The Faces of Totalitarianism", the launch of the "www.uczyc-sie-z-historii.pl" site. It is the center promoting the 20th century history, a place of educational and opinion-forming activities in Warsaw and internationally. Since March 2006 the History Meeting House is a local government cultural institution; the KARTA Center Foundation is collecting the oral and written statements and documents: The oral-history-team records interviews and collects written statements about people experiences.
The aim of the program is to record and make available biographic accounts of the 20th century history witnesses. The team of the documents emergency service helps to rescue the documents or to exhibit the documents to the publicity; the KARTA Center Foundation curates its archives and collections: the Eastern Archive 1901-56, the Index of the Repressed 1939-56 - part of the Eastern Archive, the Opposition Archive 1956-89, the Archive of Victims of the Polish-Ukrainian Conflicts in the 40th of the 20th century, the photographic archive and the oral history archive. Most of the databases and archives of “Karta” are available online; the KARTA Center Foundation organizes exhibitions and educational events in the „History Meeting House“ The KARTA Center Foundation publishes books and magazines, e.g. quarterly journal „Karta“ and selling them in the Internet. The KARTA Center organizes competition for pupils „History at Hand“ – projects of pupils based on history of everyday live and experiences of people in the 20th century.
The competition is a part of the EUSTORY network. The KARTA Center Foundation develops and manages Websites on historic topic: „Learning from the history“ and „The 20th century“; the KARTA Center Foundation co-founded in 2001 the EUSTORY, the European network of history competition organizers from 20 European countries, established by the Körber Foundation of Hamburg, takes part in summer schools, autumn academies and General Assemblies. 1990 - Award of the Association of Polish Journalists - for new way of writing about the contemporary history 2001 - Certificate of the Polish Foreign Minister for promotion of Poland abroad 2001 - Saint-George-Award of "Tygodnik Powszechny" for the campaign against the misremember 2002 - Jerzy-Giedroyc-Award of the newspaper "Rzeczpospolita" 2002 - Grand Prix in "Pro Publico Bono" for the best civil initiative in Poland 2005 - Award of the Office for War Veterans and Victims of Oppression 2008 - Award of Memoria Iustorum for the supporting of Polish-Ukrainian dialogue 2008 - Award in "Pro Publico Bono" for the supporting of the civil society in Poland 2009 - Grand Prix in "Pro Publico Bono" for the best civil initiative of the last 20 years of the independent Poland History Meeting House Homepage EUSTORY