Los Angeles Lakers
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Lakers compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Western Conference in the Pacific Division; the Lakers play their home games at Staples Center, an arena shared with the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The Lakers are one of the most successful teams in the history of the NBA, have won 16 NBA championships, the second-most behind the Boston Celtics; the franchise began with the 1947 purchase of a disbanded team, the Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League. The new team began calling themselves the Minneapolis Lakers. A member of the NBL, the Lakers won the 1948 NBL championship before joining the rival Basketball Association of America, where they would win five of the next six championships, led by star George Mikan. After struggling financially in the late 1950s following Mikan's retirement, they relocated to Los Angeles before the 1960–61 season.
Led by Hall of Famers Elgin Baylor and Jerry West, Los Angeles made the NBA Finals six times in the 1960s, but lost each series to the Celtics, beginning their long and storied rivalry. In 1968, the Lakers acquired four-time NBA Most Valuable Player Wilt Chamberlain, won their sixth NBA title—and first in Los Angeles—in 1972, led by new head coach Bill Sharman. After the retirement of West and Chamberlain, the team acquired Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who won multiple MVP awards, but was unable to make the Finals in the late 1970s; the 1980s Lakers were nicknamed "Showtime" due to their fast break-offense led by Magic Johnson. The team won five championships in a nine-year span, contained Hall of Famers Johnson, Abdul-Jabbar, James Worthy, was led by Hall of Fame coach Pat Riley. After Abdul-Jabbar and Johnson retired, the team struggled in the early 1990s, before acquiring Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant in 1996. With the duo, who were led by another Hall of Fame coach Phil Jackson, the team won three consecutive titles between 2000 to 2002, securing the franchise its second "three-peat".
The Lakers won two more championships in 2009 and 2010, but failed to regain their former glory in the following decade. The Lakers hold the record for NBA's longest winning streak, 33 straight games, set during the 1971–72 season. 21 Hall of Famers have played for Los Angeles. Four Lakers—Abdul-Jabbar, Johnson, O'Neal, Bryant—have won the NBA MVP Award for a total of eight awards; the Lakers' franchise began in 1947 when Ben Berger and Morris Chalfen of Minnesota purchased the disbanded Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League for $15,000 from Gems owner Maury Winston. Minneapolis sportswriter Sid Hartman played a key behind the scenes role in helping put together the deal and the team. Inspired by Minnesota's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", the team christened themselves the Lakers. Hartman helped them hire John Kundla from College of St. Thomas, to be their first head coach, by meeting with him and selling him on the team; the Lakers had a solid roster, which featured forward Jim Pollard, playmaker Herm Schaefer, center George Mikan, who became the most dominant player in the NBL.
In their first season, they led the league with a 43–17 record winning the NBL Championship that season. In 1948, the Lakers moved from the NBL to the Basketball Association of America, Mikan's 28.3 point per game scoring average set a BAA record. In the 1949 BAA Finals they won the championship; the following season, the team improved to 51–17, repeating as champions. In the 1950–51 season, Mikan won his third straight scoring title at 28.4 ppg and the Lakers went 44–24 to win their second straight division title. One of those games, a 19–18 loss against the Fort Wayne Pistons, became infamous as the lowest scoring game in NBA history. In the playoffs, they defeated the Indianapolis Olympians in three games but lost to the Rochester Royals in the next round. During the 1951 -- 52 season, the Lakers won 40 games, they faced the New York Knicks in the NBA Finals. In the 1952–53 season, Mikan led the NBA in rebounding, averaging 14.4 rebounds per game, was named MVP of the 1953 NBA All-Star Game.
After a 48–22 regular season, the Lakers defeated the Fort Wayne Pistons in the Western playoffs to advance to the NBA Finals. They defeated the New York Knicks to win their second straight championship. Though Lakers star George Mikan suffered from knee problems throughout the 1953–54 season, he was still able to average 18 ppg. Clyde Lovellette, drafted in 1952, helped the team win the Western Division; the team won its third straight championship in the 1950s and fifth in six seasons when it defeated the Syracuse Nationals in seven games. Following Mikan's retirement in the 1954 off-season, the Lakers struggled but still managed to win 40 games. Although they defeated the Rochester Royals in the first round of the playoffs, they were defeated by the Fort Wayne Pistons in the semifinals. Although they had losing records the next two seasons, they made the playoffs each year. Mikan came back for the last half of the 1955–56 season, but struggled and retired for good after the season. Led by Lovellette's 20.6 points and 13.5 rebounds, they advanced to the Conference Finals in 1956–57.
The Lakers had one of the worst seasons in team history in 1957–58 when they won a league-low 19 games. They had hired Mikan, the team's general manager for the previous two seasons, as head coach to replace Kundla. Mikan was fired in January when
The ECHL is a mid-level professional ice hockey league based in Princeton, New Jersey, with teams scattered across the United States and two franchises in Canada. It is a tier below the American Hockey League; the ECHL and the AHL are the only minor leagues recognized by the collective bargaining agreement between the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, meaning any player signed to an entry-level NHL contract and designated for assignment must report to a club in either the ECHL or the AHL. Additionally, the league's players are represented by the Professional Hockey Players' Association in negotiations with the ECHL itself; some 623 players have played at least one game in both the NHL and the ECHL. For the 2018–19 season, 25 of 31 National Hockey League teams have affiliations with an ECHL team with the Anaheim Ducks, Columbus Blue Jackets, Florida Panthers, Montreal Canadiens, Nashville Predators, San Jose Sharks having no official affiliations as of September 29, 2018.
The two independent teams are Rapid City Rush. However, unaffiliated NHL teams do sometimes lend contracted players to ECHL teams for development and increased playing time; the league's regular season ends in April. The current ECHL champion is the Colorado Eagles, although the organization has since left the league to join the American Hockey League; the league, which combined teams from the defunct Atlantic Coast Hockey League and All-American Hockey League, began play as the East Coast Hockey League in 1988 with 5 teams—the Carolina Thunderbirds. In 2003, the West Coast Hockey League ceased operations, the ECHL Board of Governors approved membership applications from the Anchorage/Alaska Aces, the Bakersfield Condors, the Fresno Falcons, the Idaho Steelheads, the Las Vegas Wranglers, the Long Beach Ice Dogs and the San Diego Gulls as well as from potential teams in Ontario and Reno, Nevada. Alaska, Fresno, Las Vegas, Long Beach and San Diego began play in the 2003–04 season as expansion teams.
In a change reflective of the league's now-nationwide presence, the East Coast Hockey League shortened its name to the orphan initialism ECHL on May 19, 2003. The ECHL reached its largest size to date that season before being reduced to 28 teams for the 2004–05 season; the ECHL has attempted to be more tech-friendly to its fans. Some improvements on the league's website have included a new schedule and statistics engine powered by League Stat, Inc. internet radio coverage for most teams, pay-per view broadcasting of ECHL games through B2 Networks. In 2008, the league introduced the ECHL toolbar for internet browsers which gave users short cut access to statistics, scores and news updates. At the annual ECHL Board of Governors Meeting on June 15, 2010, in Henderson, the Board of Governors approved changes to the names of the conferences and divisions; the former American Conference was renamed the Eastern Conference, while the National Conference was re-designated the Western Conference. Within the Eastern Conference, the East Division was renamed the Atlantic Division, the Western Conference's former West Division was dubbed the Mountain Division.
The league lost its only Canadian team with the folding of the Victoria Salmon Kings subsequent to the 2010–11 season. The league increased to 20 teams for the 2011–12 season with the addition of the expansion franchise Chicago Express and the Colorado Eagles who played in the Central Hockey League. With the folding of the Chicago Express at the conclusion of the 2011–12 season and the announcement of expansion franchises in Orlando, San Francisco and Fort Wayne the league played the 2012–13 season with 23 teams; that number dropped to 22 for the 2013–14 season with the folding of the Trenton Titans and subsequently fell to 21 with the mid-season folding of the San Francisco Bulls on January 27, 2014. On November 26, 2013, the ECHL announced that the Indy Fuel would begin play for the 2014–15 season and would play its home games at the Fairgrounds Coliseum, a 6,145-seat building located on the Indiana State Fairgrounds in Indianapolis. On October 7, 2014, the ECHL announced that the seven remaining active members of the Central Hockey League would be admitted as new members for the 2014–15 season, raising the number of teams to 28 and placing a team in Canada for the first time since 2011.
Before the 2015–16 season, the AHL's creation of a Pacific Division led the three California ECHL teams to relocate to former AHL cities with the Bakersfield Condors, Ontario Reign, Stockton Thunder relocating to become the Norfolk Admirals, Manchester Monarchs, Adirondack Thunder, respectively. By the 2018–19 season, the ECHL had expanded into other markets vacated by the AHL in the Maine Mariners, Newfoundland Growlers, Worcester Railers. Notes Representatives from all potential expansion franchises, markets that have been granted expansion franchises and franchises that have suspended operations must attend th
Legends Football League
The Legends Football League is a women's 7-on-7 tackle American football league, with games played in the spring and summer at NBA, NFL, NHL and MLS arenas and stadiums. The league was founded in 2009 as the Lingerie Football League and was rebranded as the Legends Football League in 2013; the league's administrative offices are located in Los Angeles. The concept of the LFL originated from an alternative Super Bowl halftime television special called the Lingerie Bowl, a pay-per-view event broadcast opposite the Super Bowl halftime show; the first three Lingerie Bowls were held annually from 2004 to 2006 and were billed as Lingerie Bowls I, II, III. From 2007 to 2009, the next three planned. In 2009, LFL chairman Mitch Mortaza expanded the concept from a single annual exhibition game to a ten-team lingerie football league. Most LFL teams in the United States use the same color scheme as a professional men's football team in the area; this would be the local NFL teams, although UFL, former NFL teams' color schemes have been used in areas with no current NFL team.
In Canada, the teams' colors are based on either CFL teams or ice hockey teams. As of 2014, some teams in Australia use the local state colors. In addition, a small number of US based have adopted their own color schemes not reflective of other local teams. Many of the teams are coached by former NFL players and coaches who are well known in their respective cities. Many of the players have a background in competitive athletics at the college and semi-pro level, in sports such as track and field, volleyball, soccer and fitness-style bodybuilding. A few have experience in tackle football from playing in other semi-pro leagues. On January 10, 2013, the Lingerie Football League announced it would change its name to the Legends Football League; the league announced that the athletes would wear "performance apparel" instead of lingerie, but the uniforms look much the same as before. In addition to the new uniforms, redesigned shoulder pads were introduced to provide more protection for players. Other league changes included eliminating images of sexy women from team logos and changing the league tagline from "True Fantasy Football" to "Women of the Gridiron".
Playing style is full-contact and similar to other indoor football leagues. Uniforms consist of shoulder pads, elbow pads, knee pads, performance wear, ice hockey-style helmets with clear plastic visors in lieu of face masks. Prior to the 2013 season, players wore garters and panties. There are no kickoffs, except the option for an on-side kick should the game be close near the end, nor field goals. Kicking off after every scoring drive was added before the 2013 Pacific Cup, but was removed shortly after the first game of the LFL Australia season. A team must attempt to get a first down on every fourth down. After a touchdown, a team can attempt a one-point conversion from the one-yard line, or a two-point conversion from the three-yard line. Since 2015, teams are given the option to punt; the defense can return the ball to their end zone off any conversion attempt for 2 points. There are seven women on each side of the 50-yard field, one fewer than the eight players found in arena football or other indoor leagues.
Teams consist of 20 players. This means that there are three or four players who play both ways, as "iron women", but coaches are allowed free substitution. The standard offensive formation features 1 quarterback, 1 running back, 1 center, 1 guard, 1 tight end, 2 wide receivers; the standard defensive formation features 2 defensive linewomen, 1 linebacker, 2 cornerbacks, 2 safeties. The field is 50 yards between end zones, 30 yards wide, the end zones are 8 yards deep the same as other indoor leagues. A game consists of a 12-minute halftime. In the event of a tie, an extra 8 minute sudden death period is played. If still tied, the game ends drawn, each team receives a one in the tie column in the standings. Teams get 2 timeouts per overtime period. Teams are allowed two coaches' challenges per game by throwing a red flag. If after the play is reviewed, it is upheld, the team loses a timeout. All reviews are automatic in the final two minutes of each half and all overtime periods, as are scoring plays and turnovers.
The LFL began in the United States. The LFL kicked off an LFL league in Australia in December 2013; the LFL plans to launch a fourth global league – LFL Europa – in 2015. LFL Europa would include teams in Manchester, Düsseldorf and Hamburg. Barcelona and Frankfurt had been mentioned as potential franchise cities. In 2015, the LFL is planning to have the champions of each of the four proposed global leagues compete in an inaugural LFL World Bowl in São Paulo, Brazil; the LFL hopes to launch a Latin American league in the near future which would include six franchises throughout Mexico, Br
Junior Basketball Association
The Junior Basketball Association is an American basketball league. It is designed as an alternative to the National Collegiate Athletic Association, allowing high school and junior college players to play professionally; the league was first announced in December 2017 by LaVar Ball, he said it would be funded by Ball's sports apparel company Big Baller Brand. The JBA features eight teams from major American cities, with games in ten venues, it played its inaugural season during 2018. On December 20, 2017, SLAM magazine had first reported on the formation of the Junior Basketball Association after being sent a statement from LaVar Ball, the chief executive officer of Big Baller Brand and father to Los Angeles Lakers player Lonzo Ball and former BC Prienai players LiAngelo and LaMelo Ball. According to Ball, his decision to launch the league was prompted by comments from Mark Emmert, president of the NCAA. Earlier in the month, Emmert had remarked on LiAngelo's departure from UCLA following a shoplifting arrest in China: "Is this a part of someone being part of your university as a student-athlete or is it about using college athletics to prepare yourself to be a pro?
If it's the latter, you shouldn't be there in the first place."The JBA was established as an alternative route for top amateur players to play professionally without having to compete at the college level for no money. As of the 2018 season, each player earns $3,000 per month, 60 percent of their jersey sales, in addition to other endorsement deals; the JBA is funded by Big Baller Brand, players are required to wear the brand's merchandise. The league was expected to pay for travel and lodging expenses, although the source of its finances was not disclosed, its official logo features LaVar Ball's son Lonzo. On February 2, 2018, it was revealed that the JBA had directly messaged about 80 blue-chip high school basketball players through Twitter about joining its league, with a vast majority declining the offer and none of them accepting; the league appointed former National Basketball Association players Ed O'Bannon and Earl Watson, along with Lonzo Ball, to its advisory board and selection committee for choosing players who will compete in the league.
In its inaugural tryouts, the JBA most notably signed Greg Floyd Jr. a four-star recruit from Las Vegas, Kezo Brown, a Chicago native and former three-star point guard for Simeon Career Academy. The founder's youngest son LaMelo, a former five-star recruit with professional experience joined, being labeled by the league as its "marquee player."Near the halfway mark of the 2018 JBA season, LaMelo's older brother LiAngelo Ball joined the league after stating that he would not participate. The 2018 JBA season consisted of eight teams, with each representing an American city and having nickname "Ballers." Teams did not occupy a specified home arena. The JBA is made up with up to 10 players on each roster; the league only allows players between the ages of 16 and 21 and accepts graduating seniors or students working towards a General Educational Development, with rare exceptions being included. All teams featured players handpicked from tryouts held before the season. According to the league, players who fail to play professional basketball would be able to work for Big Baller Brand.
The 2018 JBA season included an All-Star Game and Finals. The regular season included eight games per team, with games taking place in venues across the United States; the champions of the inaugural season, the Los Angeles Ballers, were given Cadillac ATS vehicles as a reward from the league. Following an eight-team playoffs tournament, which concluded in August, the league scheduled a 28-game international tour from September to December 2018 in which its top players would face several European and Asian professional teams. Through the 2018 season, the JBA aired games through Facebook Live. With Allen Bell from the "AB the HERO" youtube channel and Brandon Williams from "Fresh Talk Sports" as the broadcaster for each game. Shortly after JBA was announced in December 2017, Mike Golic of ESPN was among those who expressed doubts about the league's future; the Niagara Gazette considered the league as "ambitious, but not original." On the other hand, The Root considered Ball's idea "genius," and Salon believed that the JBA could "force NCAA reform."
Lonzo Ball, son of the JBA's founder, suggested that he would have preferred the JBA over college basketball had that option been around at the time. During the 2018 JBA season, multiple NBA players commented on the league, including C. J. McCollum and Metta World Peace. In addition, Trae Young of the Atlanta Hawks attended a JBA game in Las Vegas. JBA tickets, which cost $99 for courtside seats, $59 for center court, $40 for above center court, were criticized as "unreasonably expensive" by the USA Today website For The Win; the website labeled JBA ticket sales as "comically abysmal," with over 90 percent of seats still being available less than three weeks before the season opener. The New York Post wrote, "In what should come a surprise to no one, LaVar Ball is struggling to find an audience with his newly launched Junior Basketball Association."On August 16, 2018, Brandon Phillips, cut by the Los Angeles Ballers in the middle of the season to make way for LiAngelo Ball, alleged that he was only paid one-third of his promised salary while having to pay for travel costs.
He expressed regret for giving up his college basketball eligibility for the JBA. Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
ROSSETTI is an architectural design and planning firm headquartered in Detroit, Michigan The firm engages in the design of professional sports stadiums, entertainment venues and commercial buildings. Within the past decade, ROSSETTI has focused on designing sports anchored developments and master planning, where stadiums are designed and planned to integrate into an urban environment. ROSSETTI is a owned architectural firm, founded in Detroit, in 1969, by Gino Rossetti. In 1999, the firm's ownership was passed onto Matt Rossetti; the firm's early projects centered on health care facilities, corporate headquarters, interiors and master planning. The firm began approaching the sports and entertainment industry after ROSSETTI was contracted in 1984 to design The Palace of Auburn Hills; the project, which broke ground in 1986, opened in 1988, marked the firms first major success in sports entertainment. Today, ROSSETTI works with clients worldwide on a wide variety of projects, with a focus on sports and entertainment.
ROSSETTI's focus globally is in Europe. Daytona International Speedway - Daytona Rising ROSSETTI’s innovative design transformed Daytona International Speedway into the first motorsports stadium; the corporate value proposition is a new model for corporate sponsorship and immersive brand activation. The Palace of Auburn Hills ROSSETTI designed and engineered a new hospitality suite product for the Palace of Auburn Hills. Prior to this, "Sky Box" suites were located along the upper concourse of arenas. Placed within the lower seating bowls, the hospitality suites at the Palace were the first of their kind. Return on Design ROSSETTI has provided ROD analyses for two dozen clients evaluating the fan and VIP experience, hospitality segmentation, sponsor activation and more. For new venues, ROD programs spaces for revenue generation. For existing venues, new premium products secure necessary renovations while providing a return on investment within 2–5 years. Research and Development ROSSETTI R&D developed and launched Sightline Designer in 2012, a parametric plug-in for Grasshopper which allows designers the ability to interactively design 3D seating bowls.
Clients and designers experience, in real-time, the effects of design decisions on spectator viewing quality, the shape of the seating bowl and heights of concourses. Hill, Eric J. and John Gallagher. AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3. Meyer, Katherine Mattingly and Martin C. P. McElroy with Introduction by W. Hawkins Ferry, Hon A. I. A.. Detroit Architecture A. I. A. Guide Revised Edition. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1651-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list http://www.dbusiness.com/DBusiness/September-October-2009/Soccer-Cities/ Serious Fun http://archinect.com/firms/cover/25274007/rossetti-architects http://www.yellowpages.com/southfield-mi/mip/rossetti-associates-10797941 Carter, David M.. Money Games: Profiting from the Convergence of Sports and Entertainment. Stanford UP. ISBN 0-8047-5955-3. Rossetti official website