A manual transmission known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries as a stick shift, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission. A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; the number of forward gear ratios is expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear; this type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.
In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine's crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disc is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate; when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk; this makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine. Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio.
Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic though no distinction between the two terms need be made. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions use four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear, although consumer automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as seven gears. Transmissions for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment have 8 to 25 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Operating aforementioned transmissions use the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. French inventors Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are credited with the development of the first modern manual transmission, they demonstrated their three-speed transmission in 1894 and the basic design is still the starting point for most contemporary manual transmissions.
This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases, reverse. The gears were engaged by sliding them on their shafts, which required careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at the same speed when engaged; these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that accompanied. Newer manual transmissions on 4+-wheeled vehicles have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, with "synchro-mesh" being a further refinement of the constant mesh principle. In both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a higher gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the engine allowed to slow down until the transmission parts for the next gear are at a proper speed to engage; the vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade and other such factors.
To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the throttle is used to speed up the engine and thus the relevant transmission parts, to match speeds for engaging the next lower gear. For both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released; some drivers use the clutch only for starting from a stop, shifts are done without the clutch. Other drivers will depress the clutch, shift to neutral engage the clutch momentarily to force transmission parts to match the engine speed depress the clutch again to shift to the next gear, a process called double clutching. Double clutching is easier to get smooth, as speeds that are close but not quite matched need to speed up or slow down only transmission parts, whereas with the clutch engaged to the engine, mismatched speeds are fighting the rotational inertia and power of the engine. Though automobile and light truck transmissions are now universally synchronized, transmissions for heavy trucks and machinery, motor
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Liquefied petroleum gas
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas referred to as propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, vehicles. It is used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer; when used as a vehicle fuel it is referred to as autogas. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are propane butane, most mixes including both propane and butane. In the northern hemisphere winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane. In the United States two grades of LPG are sold: commercial propane and HD-5; these specifications are published by the Gas Processors Association and the American Society of Testing and Materials. Propane/butane blends are listed in these specifications. Propylene and various other hydrocarbons are also present in small concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5%, is utilized as an autogas specification.
A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added. The internationally recognized European Standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene or amyl mercaptan are approved odorants, although neither is being utilized. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, is entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum, or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground, it was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, the first commercial products appeared in 1912, it provides about 3% of all energy consumed, burns cleanly with no soot and few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water pollution hazards. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium grade petrol. However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than either that of petrol or fuel oil, as its relative density is lower; as its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will evaporate at normal temperatures and pressures and is supplied in pressurised steel vessels.
They are filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition and temperature, but is around 250:1; the pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure varies depending on composition and temperature. LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. There are two main dangers from this; the first is a possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is within the explosive limits and there is an ignition source. The second is suffocation causing a decrease in oxygen concentration. A "full" LPG cylinder contains 85% liquid, the ullage volume will contain vapour at a pressure that varies with temperature. LPG has a wide variety of uses used for cylinders across many different markets as an efficient fuel container in the agricultural, hospitality, construction and fishing sectors.
It can serve as fuel for cooking, central heating and to water heating and is a cost-effective and efficient way to heat off-grid homes. LPG is used for cooking in many countries for economic reasons, for convenience or because it is the preferred fuel source. In India, nearly 8.9 million tons of LPG was consumed in the six months between April and September 2016 in the domestic sector for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 215 million with a circulation of more than 350 million LPG cylinders. Most of the LPG requirement is imported. Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale. LPG is subsidised by the Indian government for domestic users. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in India as it affects the middle class voting pattern. LPG was once a standard cooking fuel in Hong Kong. However, other than electric, induction, or infrared stoves, LPG-fueled stoves are the only type available in most suburban villages and many public housing estates.
LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in all households, with the exception of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, which have a natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Since 2001, poor families receive a government grant used for the acquisition of LPG. Since 2003, this grant is part of the government main social welfare program. Since 2005 the national oil company Petrobras differentiates between LPG destined for cooking and LPG destined for other uses, practicing a lower price for the former; this is a result of a directive from Brazilian federal government, but its demise is being debated. LPG is used in North America for domestic cooking and outdoor grilling. Predominantly in Europe and rural parts of many co
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Turbo-diesel written as turbodiesel and turbo diesel, refers to any Diesel engine equipped with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is common in modern car and truck Diesel engines to produce higher power outputs, lower emissions levels, improved efficiency from a similar capacity of engine. Turbo-Diesels in automobiles offer a higher refinement level than their aspirated counterparts. In general, a turbocharger artificially increases the engine's compression by blowing an extra air-amount into the combustion chamber; this has two effects: An increase in engine efficiency and an increase of air mass present, allowing for more fuel to be burnt, which improves the torque output. Diesel engines are ideal for turbocharging because of the way their torque output is controlled: They rely on quality torque adjustment, meaning that not the quantity of air-fuel mixture, but the quality of this mixture is manipulated; this is done by manipulating the amount of fuel injected. The air-mass does not have to match the fuel mass, as the Diesel engine relies on manipulation of λ v. Having a lean air-fuel mixture, caused by blowing additional air into the combustion chamber with a turbocharger, is therefore not a problem.
An additional advantage of the Diesel engine is the lack of fuel during the compression stroke. In Diesel engines, the fuel is injected near top dead centre, when the piston is near its highest position; the fuel ignites due to compression heat. Preignition, caused by the artificial turbocharger compression increase during the compression stroke, cannot occur. Adding an intercooler to a turbocharged engine further increases engine performance by cooling down the air-mass and thus allowing more air-mass per volume; the turbocharger was invented in the early 20th century by Alfred Büchi, a Swiss engineer and the head of Diesel engine research at Gebruder Sulzer engine manufacturing company in Winterthur. Büchi intended his device to be used on Diesel engines, his patent of 1905 noted the efficiency improvements that a turbocharger could bring to Diesel engines which in 1922 had first been developed for use in road transportation. At the time and bearing technology was not sufficiently advanced to allow a practical turbocharger to be built.
The first practical turbodiesels were marine engines fitted to two German passenger liners - the Danzig and the Preussen in 1923, each having two 10-cylinder engines of 2,500 horsepower. By the late 1920s, several Diesel engine builders were making large turbodiesels for marine and stationary use, such as Sulzer Bros. MAN, Daimler-Benz, Paxman. Turbocharger technology was improved by developments during World War II and subsequent development of the gas turbine, it was now possible to use smaller turbochargers on smaller, higher-speed engines. Diesel locomotives with turbodiesels began appearing in the late 1950s. In 1951 MAN presented a turbocharged version of their MK26 truck, although it was never put into mass production. Series production of turbocharged Diesel trucks commenced in 1954, when both MAN 750TL1 and Volvo Titan Turbo were introduced to the markets; the building of the Interstate Highway System in the USA from 1956 made long-distance road transportation of goods more attractive.
To keep up with general traffic, more powerful engines came in increasing demand. Cummins, CAT all had turbo-charging as an option by the late-1960s. In Europe, legislation was introduced in Germany mandating a minimum power-to-weight ratio for trucks. Most manufacturers met these requirement with large-displacement natural aspiration engines, some with the option of large-displacement or turbo-charging, while Scania and Volvo where among those that only provided turbocharged trucks that met the demands. Turbo-charging was not preferred as the engines were perceived to be less reliable, however the method won a decisive victory by the mid-1970s as the 1973 oil crisis increased fuel costs; the last market to see the absolute penetration of turbo Diesels was Japan, where legislation on particle emissions mandated natural aspiration engines until effective particle filters became available. Experiments with smaller turbodiesels of a size suitable for an automobile were carried out in the 1960s.
The Rover Company built experimental 2.5 liter 4-cylinder turbodiesels in 1963, but did not put the design into production. The first turbodiesel production car was the Mercedes-Benz 300SD, introduced in May 1978, it used a Garrett AiResearch turbocharger, was produced only for the United States. In Europe, the first turbodiesel was the Peugeot 604 in early 1979. Turbodiesel cars began to be built and sold in Europe during the late 1980s and early 1990s, a trend that has continued to the present day. In France, due to a tax structure which gave turbodiesels a comparative advantage, sales shot up earlier, reaching 33,000 passenger car sales in 1983. Since the 1990s, the compression ratio of turbodiesel engines has been declining; this is due to better specific power and better exhaust-emission behaviour of turbocharged engines with a lower compression ratio. Indirect injected engines used to have a compression
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word