The Toyota Allion and its twin the Toyota Premio are sedans sold in Japan since 2001 by Toyota. The sedans are designated as compact by Japanese dimension regulations, the exterior dimensions do not change with periodic updates; the Allion replaced the Toyota Carina, a model that first appeared in 1970. The Toyota Carina ED, a four-door hardtop coupe that appeared in 1985, was replaced by the Toyota Brevis, available with the Allion until 2007. Unlike Toyota's other vehicles, the Allion and Premio are not exported, are new to Japan only; the Premio is the successor of the Toyota Corona which first appeared in 1957. The Toyota Corona EXiV, a four-door hardtop coupe that appeared in 1989, was replaced by the Toyota Progrès, briefly available with the Premio until 2007; the Allion is exclusive to Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyota Store as a smaller companion to the Toyota Crown, while the Premio is exclusive to Toyopet Store locations, as a smaller companion to the Toyota Mark X. Both cars are related to the Toyota Avensis, an imported four-door hatchback from Europe, available at all Japanese dealership locations.
The Toyota Camry, the largest car exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store locations, is larger, based on appearance packages, offers the same luxury or performance features found in the Allion or Premio. The name "Allion" is created based on the phrase "all-in-one", while "Premio" is a play on words for "premium". Mechanically, they are identical to the Toyota Avensis, exported new internationally as well as sold new in Japan; the Premio/Allion are only offered as 4-door sedans, while the Avensis is available only as a four door hatchback, sharing its chassis with MPV's also. The first generation Premio is an upscale, luxurious sedan in comparison to the Allion, which has a more youthful, sporting nature. Wood trim and chrome accents gives the Premio an elegant look while the Allion considered to be a sporty or executive type car. Appearance modification options made for the first generation Allion are not made or marketed for the Premio; the second generation cars share the interior appearances and optional equipment, with exterior visual differences.
Three options packages are offered with the three different engines offered, coupled with the choice of front- or all-wheel-drive, thereby giving Japanese buyers options as to which annual road tax obligation they are willing to pay. The first generation Allion and Premio were launched on 25 December 2001; the Allion has an emphasis towards younger buyers in comparison to the Premio sedan, which has a more elegant approach. The Premio and the Allion share the same engines and interior; the Allion can be customized with front spoilers and rear mounted trunk wings, as well as ground effect body parts to enhance the vehicles appearance specially designed and sold by Toyota. The Allion features rear tilting seats; the Allion continues the Toyota tradition by being made for taxi usage, driving school and law enforcement versions. On 20 December 2004, the Allion received a modest restyle with the introduction of LED taillights; the Premio received an update at the same time. Both cars were offered with three engine sizes.
The 2.0-liter model received a CVT automatic. The second generation Allion and Premio were introduced on 4 June 2007, with Toyota continuing to offer appearance modifications at local dealerships; these cars continued to fill the gap between Camry. G-BOOK is on the list of optional features; the Premio gained the inclusion of a LED in the rear lamp cluster. Other changes included the smart entry and start system, a rear-view monitor in color, a hard disk navigation system compatible with the G-Book mX telematics service. Four-wheel drive was offered on vehicles equipped with the 1.8-liter 2ZR-FE direct-injection engine. A 2.0-liter valvematic 3ZR-FAE engine was made available in January 2008, cutting the emission by 75 percent from the level required by the 2005 Japanese emission standards, achieving 20 percent better fuel economy than required by the 2010 fuel consumption standards. The transmission was a Super CVT-i. Fuel consumption figures for the 1.5-liter models were improved to 18 km/L, the 1.8-liter models were improved to 17 km/L, both types now fitted with CVT transmission.
From 2 October 2009, fuel consumption for the 1.5-liter models was further improved to 18.6 km/L by improvements to the engine and alternator control. The Premio and Allion were revised in April 2010 with more aggressive and sharper looking headlights and twin LED tail lights while the interior remaining somewhat same; the 1.8-liter engine changed from the 2ZR-FE to the Valvematic 2ZR-FAE, improving fuel consumption to 18.6 km/L. In June 2010, fuel consumption for the 1.5-liter models was improved to 20 km/L by improvements to engine and transmission control. Toyota revised the Allion again on 13 June 2016 with a facelift. At the same time, "bi-beam" LED headlights and the collision avoidance system called "Toyota Safety Sense C" were introduced, adopting a styling influence from the larger, more prestigious S210 Crown. Toyota Allion Toyota Premio
The Pontiac Vibe is a compact automobile, sold by Pontiac from 2002 to 2010. It was jointly developed by General Motors along with Toyota, who manufactures the mechanically similar Toyota Matrix. Manufactured by the Toyota-GM joint venture NUMMI in Fremont, the Vibe succeeded the Chevrolet Prizm in production at NUMMI and like the Prizm, it was derived from the Toyota Corolla, making it the last of the GM and Toyota developed S-body cars. From 2002 to 2004, a rebadged right-hand drive variant of the Vibe was exported as the Toyota Voltz to the Japanese domestic market; the Voltz was not discontinued after two model years. Production of the Vibe ended in 2009 with the discontinuation of the Pontiac brand and the closing of NUMMI under the General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization, its twin, the Toyota Matrix, was in production for another three years for the American market and four years for the Canadian market, as the Matrix was manufactured by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada in Cambridge and was unaffected by NUMMI closing down operation.
The 2003–2006 Vibe was available in an economical base trim, an AWD mid-trim, the more powerful GT sport trim. Powertrains available for this car are a Toyota-built 1.8 L straight-4 16-valve engine producing 126 hp on the base model, 118 hp on the all-wheel drive model, or a version with VVTL-i producing 164 hp for the GT. The Vibe was at one time the most fuel efficient vehicle sold by GM in North America, but ceased to be the case with the revised United States Environmental Protection Agency testing procedures in 2008. Although the Vibe and Matrix are similar designs, the two brands use several different components, which are brand-specific, for their heating and air conditioning systems; these components include the air conditioning compressor and related hoses, the heater hoses, the heater core, the serpentine belt. There have been some minor changes between model years; the Vibe went on sale as a 2003 model. Power ratings for the first three model years were higher, with the GT up to 180 hp, the base model rated at 130 hp, the all-wheel drive model rated at 123 hp.
Engine power claims were decreased for 2006 as a result of Toyota's re-testing of its engines for the new Society of Automotive Engineers ratings standard. The GT and all-wheel-drive trims were discontinued for the 2007 model year due to poor sales and new federal emissions standards; the front fascia was freshened in the 2005 model year. In an attempt to'converge' the Pontiac look, the front grille was restyled to resemble the look of the Pontiac Solstice adopted by other vehicles in the Pontiac line; the 2003-2004 Vibes had a front grille more resembling the discontinued Pontiac Aztek. First generation Vibe/Matrix/Corolla odometers do not have the ability to "roll over" 299,999 km or 299,999 mi. No recall or "fix" is available for this. Mileage must be kept track of manually; the Vibe was produced in right-hand drive configuration and exported to the Japanese market as the Toyota Voltz from 2002 to 2004. The Vibe was redesigned, along with the Matrix, for the 2009 model year, debuted at the December 2007 LA Auto Show.
"The new Vibe's design is sporty yet functional," according to Ron Aselton, chief designer. "Clean lines, minimal overhangs and wheels pushed to the corners give the vehicle a muscular stance." The GT trim and AWD options return, two new inline-four engines are offered. This was Pontiac's last new model and remained as the brand's only remaining car for the 2010 model year; the second generation FWD Vibes offer computerized traction-control and anti-lock brakes. Rear disc brakes are standard on all models. Luggage racks are no longer standard order. Power outputs of the two engines are 158 hp respectively; the Vibe offers 91.4 cubic feet of passenger volume and 20.1 cubic feet of cargo volume, for a total of 111.5 cubic feet with rear seats that fold flat. The cargo area is 30 inches high and 40 inches wide, large enough to accommodate a standard-sized, North American washing machine or clothes dryer with enough extra room for an appliance dolly. First deliveries to dealerships were posted on GM's Website in April 2008, with comments that initial sales were brisk.
The first units were delivered to buyers in early March. On April 27, 2009, GM announced the discontinuation of Vibe production, as well as all other Pontiac models, by the end of 2010, it was announced that Vibe production would end in August 2009, the last Vibe left the assembly line on August 17, 2009, according to a source at genvibe.com. This left Toyota with a major problem as they had to scramble to relocate some of the tooling, jointly used to produce the Matrix in another factory. GM did not produce a compact hatchback to succeed the Pontiac Vibe, choosing to bracket it with the Chevrolet Sonic hatchback and Buick Encore small crossover. In Canada, GM followed the Vibe with the larger Chevrolet Orlando compact MPV, which replaced the Chevrolet HHR. Chevrolet introduced a hatchback version of the Chevrolet Cruze to North America in 2016. In January 2010, Autoblog.com reported that the 2009 and 2010 model year Pontiac Vibes are included in the 2009–2010 Toyota vehicle recalls related to unintended acceleration due to shared components with the Toyota Matrix.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature; the alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks, ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which stop the crack from further progressing. Carbon ranging from 1.8 to 4 wt%, silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron–carbon system, the melting temperatures range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C, about 300 °C lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C.
Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its low melting point, good fluidity, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and gearbox cases, it is resistant to weakening by oxidation. The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in Burgundy, in England during the Reformation; the amounts of cast iron used for cannon required large scale production. The first cast-iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron was used in the construction of buildings. Cast iron is made from pig iron, the product of smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.
Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron along with substantial quantities of iron, limestone and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the molten iron, but this burns out the carbon, which must be replaced. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, which may be anywhere from 2–3.5% and 1–3%, respectively. If desired, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is sometimes melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola, but in modern applications, it is more melted in electric induction furnaces or electric arc furnaces. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into ladle. Cast iron's properties alloyants. Next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide and the production of white cast iron.
A high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon, the formation of those carbides. Nickel and copper increase strength, machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed; the carbon in the form of graphite results in a softer iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength, decreases density. Sulfur a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, which prevents the formation of graphite and increases hardness; the problem with sulfur is. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide; the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt, so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag. The amount of manganese required to neutralize sulfur is 1.7 × sulfur content + 0.3%. If more than this amount of manganese is added manganese carbide forms, which increases hardness and chilling, except in grey iron, where up to 1% of manganese increases strength and density.
Nickel is one of the most common alloying elements because it refines the pearlite and graphite structure, improves toughness, evens out hardness differences between section thicknesses. Chromium is added in small amounts to reduce free graphite, produce chill, because it is a powerful carbide stabilizer. A small amount of tin can be added as a substitute for 0.5% chromium. Copper is added in the ladle or in the furnace, on the order of 0.5–2.5%, to decrease chill, refine graphite, increase fluidity. Molybdenum is added on the order of 0.3–1% to increase chill and refine the graphite and pearlite structure. Titanium is added as a degasser and deoxidizer, but it increases fluidity. 0.15–0.5% vanadium is added to cast iron to stabilize cementite, increase hardness, increase resistance to wear and heat. 0.1–0.3% zirconium helps to form graphite and increase fluidity. In malleable iron melts, bismuth is added, on the scale of 0.002–0.01%, to increase how much silicon can be added. In white iron, boron is added to aid in the production of malleable iron.
The Toyota Celica or is an automobile produced by Toyota from 1970 to 2006. The Celica name derives from the Latin word coelica meaning "heavenly" or "celestial". In Japan, the Celica was exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships Toyota Corolla Store. Throughout its life span the Celica has been powered by various four-cylinder engines; the most significant change occurred in August 1985, when the car's drive layout was changed from rear-wheel drive to front-wheel drive. During the first three generations, American market Celicas were powered by various versions of Toyota's R series engines; the four-wheel drive turbocharged model called GT-Four worldwide was produced from 1986 to 1999. Variable valve timing came in certain Japanese models starting from December 1997 and became standard in all models from model year 2000. Through seven generations, the model has gone through many revisions, it has spawned design forks that were spun off to become separate models, including the Toyota Celica Supra.
The Celica was available as notchback and liftback coupes, as well as a convertible. Displayed at the October 1970 Tokyo Motor Show and marketed from December of the same year, the Celica was a two-door hardtop coupe that emphasized styling and driving enjoyment based on a platform shared with the Toyota Carina sedan, one size above the Toyota Corolla; this car was aimed at the North American market and was Toyota's response to the 1964 Ford Mustang, a standard sedan with stylized 2+2 bodywork. Over the generations the Celica evolved into a "sports car". In Japan where different dealer chains handle different models the Celica was exclusive to Toyota Store Japanese dealerships; the Celica filled a market position held by the 1965–1969 Toyota Sports 800, when Toyota Corolla Store locations were known as Toyota Public Store renamed in 1966 as Toyota Corolla Store. The initial trim levels offered were ET, LT, ST and GT with GTV added in 1972. For export markets the Celica was available in three different levels of trim.
At its introduction the Celica was only available as a pillarless hardtop notchback coupe, adopting "coke bottle styling". The prototype SV-1 liftback was shown as a concept car at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show & with slight modifications this was introduced in Japan in April 1973 as the 2.0L RA25 & 1.6L TA27 The liftback was exported to many Asian countries & Europe in RHD form as the RA28 / TA28 with either a 18R 2.0 litre or 1.6 litre 2T-B engine. After the October 1975 facelift it was available in both RHD and LHD forms in other markets; the RV-1 "concept" wagon was shown at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show but it did not reach production. The Japanese GT models had various differences from the ET, LT and ST including the hood flutes, power windows, air conditioning and specific GT trim but shared a few things with the ST – A full length center console and oil pressure/ammeter gauges while the LT had warning lights for these functions. With the exception of the American market, the GT had a 1600 cc 2T-G twincam engine or a 2000 cc 18R-G, not available on the ET, LT or ST and always had 5-speed manual gearboxes.
For the Japanese market GTs had 18R-G motors that were mated to a Porsche designed closer ratio P51 5 speed gearbox whereas export models had the W-50. For the American market only the GT had only a single cam engine with a choice of automatic or 4 speed manual gearboxes on early models upgrading to the W-50 5 speed in 1974–1977. There was the GTV version, which introduced in 1972 with less luxurious interior than the GT to reduce weight; the GTV came with the same motor but with a thicker front sway bar & firmer suspension for better handling. In 1973 Japanese GTVs had a roof console "OK" monitor with a map light and a basic computer which detected blown brake bulbs, brake fluid level, main fuse & a floor console engine oil temperature gauge; the first-generation Celicas can be further broken down into two distinctive models. The first of these was the original with slant nose; this is for coupe model only, TA22, RA20, RA21 & RA22. These models were produced from 1970 to 1975 and came equipped with the 2T, 2T-G 1.6 litre, or 18R 2.0 litre motor.
They had a 95 inches wheelbase. The second series had a flat nose and longer wheelbase; this facelift model appeared in Japan in 1974 but for export was the 1975 model year being TA23, RA23, RA24, RA25, RA28, TA28 & RA29. The Japanese version had engines under 2.0 litres so as to conform to Japanese regulations concerning engine displacement size, thereby allowing buyers to avoid an additional tax for a larger engine. Japanese buyers did pay a higher annual road tax for engines over 1.5 litres while staying under the 2.0 litre threshold. In some markets, the lower-end LT was equipped with the single carbureted four-cylinder 2T engine displacing 1600 cc, while the ST came with a twin Solex downdraft carburetor 2T-B engine; the 2T-G that powered the high-end GT / GTV model was a DOHC 1600 cc engine equipped with twin Mikuni-Solex Carburetors. The first Celica for North America, 1971 ST was powered by 1.9 litre 8R engine. The 1972–1974 models have 2.0 litre 18R-C engines. For 1975–77, the engine for the North American Celica is the 2.2 litre 20R.
The Celica GT and LT models were introduced in the US for the 1974 model year. The top-line GT included a 5-speed W-50 manual transmission, rocker panel GT stripes and styled steel wheels with chrome trim rings; the LT was marketed as an economy model. 1974 saw minor change
The Toyota Caldina is an automobile manufactured by Toyota for the Japanese market and released in 1992. It replaced the Toyota Carina and Toyota Corona wagons, was sold at both Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations in Japan. While the Caldina has never been exported by Toyota outside Japan, its All-Trac 4WD capability and large capacity have made it a popular grey import in Australia, New Zealand and many South American countries; the Caldina was discontinued in 2007, with the Toyota Avensis wagon assuming the market position held by the Caldina. The original Toyota Caldina was the 5-door wagon or commercial van version of the four-door sedan Toyota Corona and Toyota Carina in Japan; the wagon has independent strut rear suspension while the commercial wagon has semi-independent leaf springs. Sharing a platform with Toyota Allion and Toyota Premio, the Caldina is the Japanese version of the European Toyota Avensis wagon, launched in Japan in mid-1997; the 4WD models are coded ST215, were offered as Active Sports GT models with the 3S-GE engine.
The top of the line GT-T came with the turbocharged 260 PS fourth generation 3S-GTE engine, included an all-wheel drive system similar to the Toyota Celica GT-Four. The GT-T came with optional electronic stability control; the Aerial version countoured roof racks as standard. Weighing 1,640 kg, the manual Caldina GT-T has a 0–100 km/h time of 7.4 seconds, with the automatic version only 0.1 seconds slower. A refresh was given in 2000 with plastic headlights; the mostly-plastic interior was updated. In 2001, an extra lug was added to the turbo manifold to prevent the manifold from warping, a common issue on GT-T models. Reliability of the GT-T engines proved to be a concern throughout the lifespan of the 3S powered GT-Ts, with spun main bearings and shattered oil pump gears being common issues amongst owners. Engines for lesser models are the 1.8 L 7A-FE, the 2.0 L gasoline 3S-FE, the 2.2 L diesel 3C-TE. Reliability and maintenance issues combined with relative obscurity, hampered perceived resale values of the GT-T in countries outside Japan, making the GT-T a cheap people carrier in grey markets like Australia.
The all-new Caldina launched in September 2002 is a pure sports wagon and does not share body panels with Allion and Avensis. Engines for the Caldina are 1.8 L 1ZZ-FE, 2.0 L 1AZ-FSE, or 2.0 L turbo 3S-GTE. Trim levels are 1.8 X, 1.8 Z, 2.0 Z, 2.0 ZT, 2.0 GT-Four. There is an MKII Model for the years 2005-2007 with a minor refresh given to them. All models have an automatic transmission and the GT-Four only comes in a Tiptronic transmission. With the discontinuation of Celica, the Caldina was one of the sportiest Toyota models sold in Japan; as a tribute to Toyota's motorsports development guru and the creator of the first GT-Four, Hiromu Naruse, a special edition Caldina GT-Four was produced. The Caldina GT-Four “N” edition.. This model was equipped with several performance enhancements specified by Naruse: Sport ABS Improved shocks and altered spring ratings Front upper strut bar Torsen rear LSD Recaro front seats and interior trimProduction of the third generation Caldina ended in mid-2007, without a real successor.
That was the end of both the 3S-GTE engine and the "GT-Four" name in Toyota's line-up. The Caldina GT-Four was featured in the video games Gran Turismo 4 and 5, as well as Kaido Battle 2: Chain Reaction and Kaido Battle: Touge No Densetsu
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part. The camshaft was described in Turkey by Al-Jazari in 1206, he employed it as part of his automata, water-raising machines, water clocks such as the castle clock. The camshaft appeared in European mechanisms from the 14th century. Among the first cars to utilize engines with single overhead camshafts were the Maudslay designed by Alexander Craig and introduced in 1902 and the Marr Auto Car designed by Michigan native Walter Lorenzo Marr in 1903. In internal combustion engines with pistons, the camshaft is used to operate poppet valves, it consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The cam lobes force the valves open by pressing on the valve, or on some intermediate mechanism, as they rotate. Camshafts can be made out of several types of material; these include: Chilled iron castings: Commonly used in high volume production, chilled iron camshafts have good wear resistance since the chilling process hardens them.
Other elements are added to the iron before casting to make the material more suitable for its application. Billet Steel: When a high quality camshaft or low volume production is required, engine builders and camshaft manufacturers choose steel billet; this is a much more time consuming process, is more expensive than other methods. However, the finished product is far superior. CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, CNC camshaft grinders will be used during production. Different types of steel bar can be used, one example being EN40b; when manufacturing a camshaft from EN40b, the camshaft will be heat treated via gas nitriding, which changes the micro-structure of the material. It gives a surface hardness of 55-60 HRC; these types of camshafts can be used in high-performance engines. The relationship between the rotation of the camshaft and the rotation of the crankshaft is of critical importance. Since the valves control the flow of the air/fuel mixture intake and exhaust gases, they must be opened and closed at the appropriate time during the stroke of the piston.
For this reason, the camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly, via a gear mechanism, or indirectly via a belt or chain called a timing belt or timing chain. Direct drive using gears is unusual because of the cost; the reversing torque caused by the slope of the cams tends to cause gear rattle which for an all-metal gear train requires further expense of a cam damper. Rolls-Royce V8 used gear drive as, unlike chain, it could be made silent and to last the life of the engine. Where gears are used in cheaper cars, they tend to be made from resilient fibre rather than metal, except in racing engines that have a high maintenance routine. Fibre gears have a short life span and must be replaced much like a timing belt. In some designs the camshaft drives the distributor and the oil and fuel pumps; some vehicles may have the power steering pump driven by the camshaft. With some early fuel injection systems, cams on the camshaft would operate the fuel injectors. Honda redesigned the VF750 motorcycle from chain drive to the gear drive VFR750 due to insurmountable problems with the VF750 Hi-Vo inverted chain drive.
An alternative used in the early days of OHC engines was to drive the camshaft via a vertical shaft with bevel gears at each end. This system was, for example, used on the pre-World War I Mercedes Grand Prix cars. Another option was to use a triple eccentric with connecting rods. O. Bentley-designed engines and on the Leyland Eight. In a two-stroke engine that uses a camshaft, each valve is opened once for every rotation of the crankshaft. In a four-stroke engine, the valves are opened only half as often; the timing of the camshaft can be advanced to produce better low RPM torque, or retarded for better high RPM power. Changing cam timing moves the overall power produced by the engine down or up the RPM scale; the amount of change is little, affects valve to piston clearances. Refer to this video. Duration is the number of crankshaft degrees of engine rotation during which the valve is off the seat. In general, greater duration results in more horsepower; the RPM at which peak horsepower occurs is increased as duration increases at the expense of lower rpm efficiency.
Duration specifications can be misleading because manufacturers may select any lift point from which to advertise a camshaft's duration and sometimes will manipulate these numbers. The power and idle characteristics of a camshaft rated at a.006" lift point will be much different from one with the same rating at a.002" lift point. Many performance engine builders gauge a race profile's aggressiveness by looking at the duration at.020".050" and.200". The.020" number determines how responsive the motor will be and how much low end torque the motor will make. The.050" number is used to estimate where peak power will occur, the.200" number gives an estimate of the power potential. A secondary effect of increased duration can be increased overlap, the number of crankshaft degrees during which both intake and exhaust valves are off their seats, it is overlap which most affects idle quality, inasmuch as the "blow-through" of the intake charge back out thru the exhaust valve which occurs during overlap reduces engine efficiency, is greatest during low RPM operation.
In general, increasing a camshaft's duration increases the overlap, unless the intake and exhaust lobe centers are m
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla was the best-selling car worldwide by 1974 and has been one of the best-selling cars in the world since then. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, surpassing the Volkswagen Beetle. Toyota reached the milestone of 40 million Corollas sold over eleven generations in July 2013; the series has undergone several major redesigns. The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans, with "corolla" Latin for "small crown"; the Corolla has always been exclusive in Japan to Toyota Corolla Store locations, manufactured in Japan with a twin, called the Toyota Sprinter until 2000. From 2006 to 2018 in Japan and much of the world, the hatchback companion has been called the Toyota Auris. Early models were rear-wheel drive, while models have been front-wheel drive. Four-wheel drive versions have been produced.
The Corolla's traditional competitors have been the Nissan Sunny, introduced the same year as the Corolla in Japan and the Honda Civic and Mitsubishi Lancer. The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's engine codes. Corollas are manufactured in Japan at the original Toyota Takaoka location built in 1966. Various production facilities have been built in Brazil, China, Pakistan, South Africa, Thailand, Vietnam and Venezuela. Production has been carried out in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Production in the United States ended in March 2010. Production resumed the following year after the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Mississippi plant was opened in November 2011 in Blue Springs, Mississippi. In Japan, the Corolla has always been exclusive to the Japanese retail sales chain called Toyota Corolla Store, established in 1961, known as Toyota Public Store, selling the Toyota Publica. A badge engineered version called the Sprinter was introduced around the same time as the Corolla in Japan, sold through a different Toyota Japan dealership sales channel known since 1966 as Toyota Auto Store.
There have been several models over the years, including the Corolla Ceres hardtop, Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno sports coupés and hatchbacks, the Corolla FX hatchback, which became the Corolla RunX, while the Sprinter became the Allex, with the introduction of the ZZE128 Corolla. The RunX and Allex was replaced by the Auris in 2006. A luxury version of the Auris installed with V6 engines was sold at Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations as the Blade, discontinued in 2012. A compact MPV named the Corolla Verso has been released in European markets, its Japanese counterpart is the Corolla Spacio, discontinued as of the 10th generation. The Corolla Rumion is sold in the US-market as the Scion xB; the Corolla Matrix, better known just as the Matrix, shares the E120 and E140 platforms, is considered the hatchback/sport wagon counterpart of the North American Corolla sedan, as the European/Australasian Corolla hatchback is not sold there. Toyota combines the sales figures of the Corolla sedan and Matrix.
The Pontiac Vibe, the General Motors badged version of the Matrix, shares the Corolla platform. The Pontiac Vibe was exported from Fremont, California, to the Japanese market where it was sold as the Toyota Voltz. Over many years, there have been rebadged versions of the Corolla, sold by General Motors, including the Holden Nova in Australia during the early 1990s, the Sprinter-based Chevrolet Nova, Chevrolet Prizm, Geo Prizm; the Corolla liftback of Toyota Australia was badged as the T-18. The five-door liftback was sold with the Corolla Seca name in Australia and the nameplate survived on successive five-door models; the Daihatsu Charmant was produced from the E30 to the E70 series. The Tercel was a front wheel drive car, first introduced in 1980 at Japanese Toyota dealerships called Toyota Corolla Store, was called the Corolla Tercel and given its own name in 1984; the Tercel platform was used for the Corolla II hatchback in Japan. The first Corolla generation was introduced in November 1966 with the new 1100 cc K pushrod engine.
The Corolla Sprinter was introduced as the fastback version in 1968, exclusive to a Toyota Japan dealership retail outlet called Toyota Auto Store. In May 1970, the E20 was restyled with a more rounded body; the now mutually exclusive Corolla and Sprinter names were used to differentiate between two different treatments of sheet metal and trim. The Corolla Levin and Sprinter Trueno names were introduced as the enhanced performance version of the Corolla and Sprinter when a double overhead camshaft version of the 2T engine was introduced in March 1972. In September 1970, the 1400 cc T and 1600 cc 2T OHV engines were added to the range. In Australia, only the 3K powered 2-door KE20 was available as a wagon / panelvan; the brakes were single system with no booster, solid discs on rear drums. Front sway bar but no rear sway bar. Parts are not compatible with models. In NZ, the 4-door KE20 was available. Most models stopped production in July 1974 but the KE26 wagon and van were still marketed in Japan alongside the new 30-series, until production ended in May 1978.
April 1974 brought rounder and heavier Corollas an