Ernest Hello was a French Roman Catholic writer, who produced books and articles on philosophy and literature. Born at Lorient, in Brittany, he was the son of a lawyer who held posts of great importance at Rennes and in Paris, he bequeathed the little ancestral estate of Keroman. The writer was a first-class student in Rennes and obtained honours as a law graduate at the famous College Louis-le-Grand in Paris, but declined that profession due to its moral ambivalence. Under the influence of the works of Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire, Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly and Louis Veuillot, the latter two being the most brilliant and feared polemical crusaders of the Church in the press, he founded a newspaper Le Croisé in 1859 but it only lasted two years due to a disagreement with his co-founder; this was one of the greatest disappointments of his life. Thereafter his essays appeared throughout France as well as in Belgium and New Orleans' "Le Propagateur". Frail from infancy, he suffered from a spinal or bone disease.
This struggle tinged his prose with a melancholy strain, strikingly original as mentioned in J.-K. Huysmans' work. Both writers, like Leon Bloy, are impossible to translate. In 1857 he married Zoë Berthier, an army officer's daughter and talented writer herself, ten years older and a friend for some years before their marriage, she became his devoted nurse, which brought upon herself abuse from gutter journalists of the time for her estimable guardianship. Hello's work is somewhat varied in form but uniform in spirit, his best-known book, Physionomie de saints, translated into English as Studies in Saintship, does not display his qualities best. Contes extraordinaires, published not long before his death, is better and more original, being cited for its artistic yet lucid prose, but Ernest Hello is remembered now for a series of philosophical and critical essays, from Renan, l'Allemagne et l'atheisme, re-published in an enlarged edition posthumously, through L'Homme on life and science in relation to present-day life, Les Plateaux de la balance to the posthumously published Le Siècle his master-work.
The peculiarity of his standpoint and the originality and vigour of his approach make his studies, of Shakespeare and others, of abiding importance as literary "triangulation," the results of object and point of view. His interest in the application of philosophy and theology for the modern human condition is an enduring exploration, indeed steps beyond the stricter parameters of Church thinking to speak to those seeking a way to live as well as fashion a creative perspective. M. Renan, l'Allemagne et l'Athéisme au XIXe Siècle. Le Style. Œuvres Choisies de Jeanne Chézard de Matel. Le Jour du Seigneur. L'Homme. Physionomies de Saints. Contes extraordinaires. Les Plateaux de la Balance. Philosophie et Athéisme. Le Siècle. Paroles de Dieu. Prières et Méditations Inédites. Du Neant à Dieu. I. Contradictions et Synthèse. II. L'Amour du Néant pour l'Être. La Prière du Néant à l'Être. Regards et lumières. Translated into English Studies in Saintship. Life and Art. Guérard, Albert Léon. "Ernest Hello." In: French Prophets of Yesterday.
New York: D. Appleton, pp. 63–68. Huneker, James. "Ernest Hello." In: Egoists: A Book of Supermen. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 269–276. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hello, Ernest". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Ernest Hello at Internet Archive
Armistice of 11 November 1918
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land and air in World War I between the Allies and their opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had been agreed with Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Known as the Armistice of Compiègne from the place where it was signed at 5:45 a.m. by the French Marshal Foch, it came into force at 11:00 a.m. Paris time on 11 November 1918 and marked a victory for the Allies and a defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender; the actual terms written by the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German forces to behind the Rhine, Allied occupation of the Rhineland and bridgeheads further east, the preservation of infrastructure, the surrender of aircraft and military materiel, the release of Allied prisoners of war and interned civilians, eventual reparations, no release of German prisoners and no relaxation of the naval blockade of Germany.
Although the armistice ended the fighting on the Western Front, it had to be prolonged three times until the Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919, took effect on 10 January 1920. On 29 September 1918 the German Supreme Army Command informed Kaiser Wilhelm II and the Imperial Chancellor, Count Georg von Hertling at Imperial Army Headquarters in Spa of occupied Belgium, that the military situation facing Germany was hopeless. Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff fearing a breakthrough, claimed that he could not guarantee that the front would hold for another two hours and demanded a request be given to the Entente for an immediate ceasefire. In addition, he recommended the acceptance of the main demands of US president Woodrow Wilson including putting the Imperial Government on a democratic footing, hoping for more favorable peace terms; this enabled him to save the face of the Imperial German Army and put the responsibility for the capitulation and its consequences squarely into the hands of the democratic parties and the parliament.
He expressed his view to officers of his staff on 1 October: "They now must lie on the bed that they've made for us."On 3 October, the liberal Prince Maximilian of Baden was appointed Chancellor of Germany, replacing Georg von Hertling in order to negotiate an armistice. After long conversations with the Kaiser and evaluations of the political and military situations in the Reich, by 5 October 1918, the German government sent a message to President Wilson to negotiate terms on the basis of a recent speech of his and the earlier declared "Fourteen Points". In the subsequent two exchanges, Wilson's allusions "failed to convey the idea that the Kaiser's abdication was an essential condition for peace; the leading statesmen of the Reich were not yet ready to contemplate such a monstrous possibility." As a precondition for negotiations, Wilson demanded the retreat of Germany from all occupied territories, the cessation of submarine activities and the Kaiser's abdication, writing on 23 October: "If the Government of the United States must deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats of Germany now, or if it is to have to deal with them in regard to the international obligations of the German Empire, it must demand not peace negotiations but surrender."In late October, Ludendorff, in a sudden change of mind, declared the conditions of the Allies unacceptable.
He now demanded to resume the war. However the German soldiers were pressing to get home, it was scarcely possible to arouse their readiness for battle anew, desertions were on the increase. The Imperial Government stayed on course and Ludendorff was replaced by Wilhelm Groener. On 5 November, the Allies agreed to take up negotiations for a truce, now demanding reparation payments; the latest note from Wilson was received in Berlin on 6 November. That same day, the delegation led by Matthias Erzberger departed for France. A much bigger obstacle, which contributed to the five-week delay in the signing of the Armistice and to the resulting social deterioration in Europe, was the fact that the French and Italian governments had no desire to accept the "Fourteen Points" and President Wilson's subsequent promises. For example, they assumed that the de-militarization suggested by Wilson would be limited to the Central Powers. There were contradictions with their post-War plans that did not include a consistent implementation of the ideal of national self-determination.
As Czernin points out: The Allied statesmen were faced with a problem: so far they had considered the "fourteen commandments" as a piece of clever and effective American propaganda, designed to undermine the fighting spirit of the Central Powers, to bolster the morale of the lesser Allies. Now the whole peace structure was supposed to be built up on that set of "vague principles", most of which seemed to them unrealistic, some of which, if they were to be applied, were unacceptable; the sailors' revolt which took place during the night of 29 to 30 October 1918 in the naval port of Wilhelmshaven spread across the whole country within days and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918 and to the announcement of the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. However, in various areas soldiers challenged the authority of their officers and on occasion established Soldiers' Councils, thus for example the Brussels Soldiers' Council was set up by revolutionary soldiers on 9 November 1918. On 9 November, Max von Baden handed over the office of Chancellor to Friedrich Ebert, a Social Democrat.
Ebert's SPD and Erzberger's Catholic Centre Party had enjoyed an uneasy relationship with the Imperia
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
Ivo of Kermartin
Saint Ivo of Kermartin, T. O. S. F; also known Yvo or Ives, was a parish priest among the poor of Louannec, the only one of his station to be canonized in the Middle Ages. He is the patron of Brittany and abandoned children, his feast day is 19 May. Poetically, he is referred to as "Advocate of the Poor". Born at Kermartin, a manor near Tréguier in Brittany, on 17 October 1253, Ivo was the son of Helori, lord of Kermartin, Azo du Kenquis. In 1267 Ivo was sent to the University of Paris. While other students partied, Ivo studied and visited the sick, he refused to eat meat or drink wine. Among his fellow-students were the scholars Duns Scotus and Roger Bacon, he went to Orléans in 1277 to study canon law under Peter de la Chapelle, a famous jurist who became bishop of Toulouse and a cardinal. On his return to Brittany, having received minor orders he was appointed an "official", the title given to an ecclesiastical judge, of the archdeanery of Rennes, he protected orphans and widows, defended the poor, rendered fair and impartial verdicts.
It’s said that those on the losing side respected his decisions. Ivo represented the helpless in other courts, paid their expenses and visited them in prison, he earned the title “Advocate of the Poor.” Although it was common to give judges “gifts,” Ivo refused bribes. He helped disputing parties settle out of court so they could save money. Meanwhile, he studied Scripture, there are strong reasons for believing the tradition held among Franciscans that he joined the Third Order of St. Francis sometime at Guingamp. Ivo was ordained to the priesthood in 1284, he continued to practice law and once, when a mother and son couldn’t resolve their differences, he offered a Mass for them. They reached a settlement. Ivo was soon invited by the Bishop of Tréguier to become his official, accepted the offer in 1284, he displayed great zeal and rectitude in the discharge of his duty and did not hesitate to resist taxation by the king, which he considered an encroachment on the rights of the Church. Due to his charity he gained the title of patron of the poor.
Having been ordained he was appointed to the parish of Tredrez in 1285 and eight years to Louannec, where he died of natural causes after a life of hard work and repeated fasting. Tours was near Orleans. One day he found his widow-landlady in tears, her tale was that next day she must go to court to answer to the suit of a traveling merchant who had tricked her. It seemed that two of them and Roe, lodging with her, had left in her charge a casket of valuables, while they went off on their business, but with the strict injunction that she was to deliver it up again only to the two of them jointly demanding it; that day, Doe had come back, called for the casket, saying that his partner Roe was detained elsewhere, she in good faith in his story had delivered the casket to Doe. But later came Roe demanding it, charging his partner with wronging him, holding the widow responsible for delivering up the casket to Doe contrary to the terms of their directions, and if she had to pay for those valuables it would ruin her.
"Have no fear," said young Ivo, "I will go to court tomorrow, for you."When the case was called before the Judge, the merchant Roe charged the widow with breach of faith, "Not so," pleaded Ivo, "My client need not yet make answer to this claim. The plaintiff has not proved his case; the terms of the bailment were that the casket should be demanded by the two merchants coming together. But here is only one of them making the demand. Where is the other? Let the plaintiff produce his partner." The judge promptly approved his plea. Whereupon the merchant, required to produce his fellow, turned pale, would have retired, but the judge, suspecting something from his plight, questioned. In short, they had conspired to plant the casket with the widow, to coerce her to pay the value of the alleged contents, thus the young advocate saved the widow from ruin, the fame of his clever defense of the widow soon went far and wide. On the occasion of the 700th anniversary of the birth of St. Ivo, Pope John Paul II said, "The values proposed by St Ivo retain an astonishing timeliness.
His concern to promote impartial justice and to defend the rights of the poorest persons invites the builders of Europe today to make every effort to ensure that the rights of all the weakest, are recognized and defended."Saint Yves is the patron of lawyers. As a result, many law schools and association of catholic lawyers have taken his names. For instance, the Society of St. Yves in Jerusalem, the Conférence Saint Yves in Luxembourg, or the Association de la Saint Yves Lyonnais, he was buried in Minihy-Tréguier in the church. There is a tomb of his in the cathedral in Tréguier where it was inscribed in Latin: Ivo was canonized in June 1347 by Clement VI at the urging of Philip I, Duke of Burgundy. At the inquest into his sanctity in 1331, many of his parishioners testified as to his goodness, that he preached in both chapel and field, that under him "the people of the land became twice as good as they had been before"; the connection between religion and good behaviou
Saint-Brieuc is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France. Saint-Brieuc is named after a Welsh monk Brioc, who Christianised the region in the 6th century and established an oratory there. Bro Sant-Brieg/Pays de Saint-Brieuc, one of the nine traditional bishoprics of Brittany which were used as administrative areas before the French Revolution, was named after Saint-Brieuc, it dates from the Middle Ages when the "pays de Saint Brieuc," or Penteur, was established by Duke Arthur II of Brittany as one of his eight "battles" or administrative regions. The town is located on the Bay of Saint-Brieuc. Two rivers flow through Saint-Brieuc: the Goued/Gouët and the Gouedig/Gouédic. Other towns of notable size in the département of Côtes d'Armor are Gwengamp/Guingamp and Lannuon/Lannion all sous-préfectures. In 2009, large amounts of sea lettuce, a type of algae, washed up on many beaches of Brittany, when it rotted it emitted dangerous levels of hydrogen sulphide. A horse and some dogs died and a council worker driving a truckload of it fell unconscious at the wheel and died.
Langueux, La Méaugon, Plérin, Ploufragan, Trégueux and Trémuson. Saint-Brieuc is one of the towns in Europe; the Cemetery of Saint Michel contains graves of several notable Bretons, sculptures by Paul le Goff and Jean Boucher. Outside the wall is Armel Beaufils's statue of Anatole Le Braz. Le Goff, killed with his two brothers in World War I, is commemorated in a street and with his major sculptural work La forme se dégageant de la matière in the central gardens, which includes a memorial to him by Jules-Charles Le Bozec and work by Francis Renaud; the town of St. Brieux in Saskatchewan, Canada is named after Saint-Brieuc of Brittany, it was founded by immigrants from this region in Brittany. It was settled in the early 1900s. Inhabitants of Saint-Brieuc are called briochins in French. In 2008, 3.98% of primary school children attended bilingual schools. The Saint-Brieuc railway station, situated on the Paris–Brest railway, is connected by TGV Atlantique to Paris Montparnasse station, journey time is about 3 hours.
There are no scheduled air services from Saint-Brieuc – Armor Airport. Saint-Brieuc is hometown of many personalities: Octave-Louis Aubert, editor Maryvonne Dupureur, Olympic 800m silver medallist Émile Durand, music theorist and teacher Léonard Charner and Admiral of France Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, symbolist writer Louis Auguste Harel de La Noë, engineer Célestin Bouglé, philosopher Louis Guilloux, writer Henri Nomy, admiral Patrick Dewaere, actor Kévin Théophile-Catherine,footballer Louis Rossel - Army officer and Communard Florent Du Bois de Villerabel, archbishop forced to resign after France's liberation in World War II Mamadou Wague, footballer Raymond Hains, artist Anaclet Wamba, boxer Yelle 1983 – present, musician Roland Fichet 1950 – present, Philosopher Saint-Brieuc préfecture of the Côtes-d'Armor is twinned with: Aberystwyth, Wales Agia Paraskevi, Greece Alsdorf, Germany Goražde, Bosnia and Herzegovina Diocese of Saint-Brieuc Communes of the Côtes-d'Armor department Élie Le Goff Entry for Élie Le Goff a Saint-Brieuc born sculptor The Saint-Michel cemetery in Saint-Brieuc INSEE City council website saint-brieuc.maville Saint-Brieuc Tourism French Ministry of Culture list for Saint-Brieuc
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It