Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles. Track cycling has been around since at least 1870; when track cycling was in its infancy, it was held on velodromes similar to the ones used today. These velodromes consisted of two straights and banked turns, though they varied more in length and material than the modern 250m track. One appeal of indoor track racing was that spectators could be controlled, hence an entrance fee could be charged, making track racing a lucrative sport. Early track races attracted crowds of up to 2,000 people. Indoor tracks enabled year-round cycling for the first time; the main early centers for track racing in Britain were Birmingham, Liverpool and London. The most noticeable changes in over a century of track cycling have concerned the bikes themselves, engineered to be lighter and more aerodynamic to enable ever-faster times. With the exception of the 1912 Olympics, track cycling has been featured in every modern Olympic Games.
Women's track cycling events were first included in the modern Olympics in 1988. The sport was moved indoors since 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney because the of hot weather. Along the decades, track lengths have been reduced. Early velodromes varied in length between 500 metres long. By the 1960s, a standard length of 333.334 metres length was used for international competitions. Since 1990, international velodromes are built with a length of 250 metres, though tracks of many lengths are still in use. Track cycling is popular in Europe, notably Belgium, France and the United Kingdom where it is used as off-season training by road racers who can be seen at professional six-day events In the United States, track racing reached a peak of popularity in the 1930s when six-day races were held in Madison Square Garden in New York; the word "Madison" is still used as the name for a type of race. In Japan, the Keirin race format is a popular betting sport; the sport is well-regarded, riders are extensively trained through the Japanese Keirin School.
Track cycling events fit into two broad categories: sprint races and endurance races. Riders will fall into one category and not compete in the other. Sprint races are between 3 and a laps in length and focus on raw sprinting power and race tactics over a small number of laps to defeat opponents. Sprint riders train to compete in races of this length, do not compete in endurance events; the main sprint events are: Endurance races are held over longer distances. These races test the riders endurance capacity, as well as speed; the length of track endurance events varies by race type, whether it is a part of the Omnium or not, the gender of the competitors. Many track endurance riders compete in road cycling events; the main endurance events are: There are five events in track cycling at the Olympics: team sprint, match sprint, keirin and team pursuit. The madison will be added in the Tokyo 2020 Olympics; each event will be run separately for women. It was not until the 2012 Summer Olympics, that women were allowed to compete in the same number of events as men.
The UCI Track Cycling World Championships are held every year in March or April at the end of the winter track season. There are 20 events in the World Championships, 10 for men and 10 for women. Qualification places are determined by different countries performance during the World Cup Classic series held through the season; the UCI Track Cycling World Cup series consists of six, held in different countries beginning annually in October, finishing in January. These meeting include 17 of the 19 events. Events won and points scored by the riders throughout this series count towards qualification places individually and for their nation in the World Championships at the end of the season; the overall leader in each event may wear a white points leaders jersey at each race, with the overall winner at the end of the season may keep the jersey and wear it at the World Championships. Riders compete for either national teams or trade teams, though the future of trade teams is unknown after controversial decisions by the UCI to eliminate World Cup events, replace them with Nation's Cup events.
The UCI Track Cycling World Ranking is based upon the results in all UCI-sanctioned races over a twelve-month period. The ranking includes an individual and a nations ranking and includes the disciplines: individual pursuit, points race, sprint, time trial, omnium, team pursuit, team sprint and madison. Women's track cycling was only introduced as an Olympic sport in 1988, women were not permitted to compete in the same number of events as men until 2012. Though men and women compete in the same number of events, there are still significant differences between men's and women's races of the same type. For example, in the team sprint, men race three riders over three laps, whereas women race two riders over two laps, men's individual pursuit is a 4km race and women only race 3km, it is the case that women race shorter distances than men in mass start events such as stand-alone scratch and points races, omnium events. In many cycle sports, women race shorter distances, are paid less, receive less air-time.
It was not until 2018. It is unclear how this will impact female track cyclists, as track cycling is not an athlete's primary source of income (rather they are
Ingleburn High School is a government-funded comprehensive co-educational secondary day school, located in Ingleburn, a south-western suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The school follows the NSW Board of Studies' curriculum, provided to all schools in NSW; the School's motto is "Tolerance and Excellence". In 2008, the school consisted of 63.6 teaching staff and 880 students. Of the year 7 cohort, 2007, 50% met national numeracy benchmarks; the 2009 year 9 cohort ranked below or below both similar schools and all Australian schools in all performance areas except for spelling in which the cohort performed close to similar and all Australian schools. For 2009, Ingleburn High School was ranked 455 out of 555 NSW secondary schools by The Sydney Morning Herald, placing it in the bottom 20% of schools for which data was available. In 2004, the student attendance rate for years 7 to 10 was below the state averages. In the years 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, the student attendance rate for years 7 to 10 and for years 11 to 12 were below the state averages.
In 2008, the staff attendance rate was 93.9%. There are programmes to support students of specific non-European origins. One programme in particular involves a "federally funded" "Aboriginal Education Worker" whose role will be to work with only Aboriginal students; the reason for this staff member is that the State has made it compulsory that only students of Aboriginal origin must have an "Individual Education Plan". Other programmes available to all students include the school newsletter voucher programme in which students who "collect 3 vouchers from different newsletters" may redeem their vouchers for a bronze award from a deputy principal; the school's latest programme is PBIS or "Positive Behavior In School". S. Office of Special Education Programs"; the programme occupies students' time every fortnight requiring students to "focus on the positive behavioural expectations...of all students". Workshops includes topics such as "discussing with students our expectations regarding...moving around and through corridors and walkways".
This programme occupies staff time in "development sessions". Michele Bruniges - former Director General of Education Meg Lees - former head of the Australian Democrats Glenn Williams - baseball player List of government schools in Sydney Education in Australia Ingleburn High School Website
"Birthmarks" is the fourth episode of the fifth season of House and the ninetieth episode overall. It aired on October 14, 2008. A 25-year-old Chinese adoptee travels to China to find her birth parents, but they reject her, stating they never had a daughter. While praying, she lifts a small Buddha and collapses, vomiting blood; the initial diagnosis is. Meanwhile, House learns his father refuses to attend the funeral. Cuddy uses the SARS diagnosis as a ruse to “inoculate” House, in reality injecting him with a powerful sedative. House wakes up to find himself in a car with his estranged best friend Wilson, taking him to his father's funeral. While being driven to the funeral, House works with his team by phone, their discussions are interrupted when Wilson is pulled over by a policeman for a House-created traffic offense. The stop results in Wilson’s arrest on an old out-of-state warrant, still open because of another House-related error. Back at Princeton-Plainsboro, the team is still perplexed by the patient's illness.
House delivers an unsuitable yet self-enlightening eulogy. Afterwards, House feigns grief. House calls China to learn more about his patient’s trip, finds out that the birth parents adamantly refused to acknowledge the daughter’s existence. Wilson suggests. House hypothesizes that the biological parents attempted to kill their infant by pushing needles into her brain; the needles were disturbed by a powerful magnet contained within the Buddha statue, affecting her brain functions and causing her first collapse. Kutner, who has formed an emotional attachment with the patient, explains to her adoptive parents that her alcoholism was caused by a needle which had embedded itself in the portion of her brain that controls addictive behavior; as the day ends, Wilson tells House that he is returning to Princeton-Plainsboro, House tells Wilson that the DNA test has proved his theory that John was not his biological father. Wilson says that no one gets to choose their parents, admits that the trip was the most fun he has had since Amber died.
Http://www.housemd-guide.com/season5/504birthmarks.php "Birthmarks" on IMDb