In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures; the earliest form of railway was a wooden wagonway, along which single wagons were manhandled always in or from a mine or quarry. The wagons were guided by human muscle power. Timber rails wore rapidly: flat cast-iron plates were provided to limit the wear. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels. Flanged wheels became universal, the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by teams of horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the needs of the horses and wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. Whe
The Plastic Man Comedy/Adventure Show is an animated television series produced by Ruby-Spears Productions from 1979 to 1981. It featured various adventures of the DC Comics superhero Plastic Man; the show features many adventures in different segments: Plastic Man, Baby Plas, Plastic Family, Mighty Man and Yukk and Fangpuss, Rickety Rocket. By the 1980-81 season, it was shortened from 120 to 90 minutes, it was retooled, replacing everything except Plastic Man and Baby Puss with two new half hour segments Heathcliff and Dingbat and Thundarr the Barbarian; the show was repackaged by Arlington Television into 130 half-hour episodes, released into national, first-run-off-network daily syndication in 1984. The Plastic Man Comedy Show was produced and directed by Steve Whiting and featured a live-action "Plastic Man", played by Taylor Marks. Plastic Man's origin was never expressly stated on this series, but it was implied he was the small-time crook Patrick "Eel" O'Brian who reformed after he was left for dead by the mob and gained plastic stretch powers.
Plastic Man, his girlfriend Penny, his Polynesian sidekick Hula-Hula travel the world and are given their assignments from the Chief to stop any threat to the world. Plastic Man retains his sense of humor in dangerous situations, such as a giant octopus capturing Penny and Hula-Hula causing him to comment "What Scout troop did he belong to"? In early episodes Penny has a crush on Plastic Man, who chooses to ignore it as he himself has a crush on the dark-haired female Chief. However, in the second season Plastic Man reciprocates Penny's crush on the two marry; the marriage produces a son who has the same powers as Plastic Man and spawns a lighter series of episodes featuring "Baby Plas" doing things such as saving his friends from neighborhood bullies. Its original lineup in the first season consists of: Plastic Man is about the stretchy superhero himself. Baby Plas is about Penny's baby son. Plastic Family focuses on the adventures of all three of the Plastic Family. Mighty Man & Yukk is about a tiny superhero, his dog who can talk and wears a doghouse-helmet, because he is so ugly that he can destroy anything just by looking at it.
Fangface and Fangpuss is about a reluctant werewolf and his baby cousin a werewolf, their adventures. Rickety Rocket is about an artificially intelligent space ship, created by a group of African-American kid geniuses who solve mysteries in the future, in the vein of Speed Buggy. By its second season, it was cut down to 90 minutes and everything except Plastic Man and Baby Plas replaced by three new segments in the lineup: Heathcliff Dingbat Thundarr the Barbarian Intro "From out of the pages of DC Comics comes the world's newest and greatest superhero, Plasticman! He can spring, he can stretch. He can fly, he can bounce. He can change his shape. And, he can dance; each week Plasticman will face the world's greatest collection of villains. There's action. There's comedy. There's danger. There's Penny. There's Bad Luck. There's plenty for everybody on the Plastic Man Comedy / Adventure Show!" Plastic: Eat your heart out, ape man! The Weed – Plastic Man takes on the Weed, a walking sentient plant who robs a university of its plant growth formula in order to create his own plant monster in order to destroy the world's capitals, starting with Lima, unless an astronomical sum of money is ransomed to him.
The Weed fails to realize. Wham-Bam! Beware of the Clam! – A sentient clam with a pirate captain-motif, called "The Clam" steals a water-controlling machine from the Chinese government. The Chief tells Plastic Man the machine is in Italy, however, a false report by the Clam's hoods, leaving New York City undefended for the Clam to make a tsunami, evacuating NYC and flooding it except for the top floors of the tallest buildings, allowing the Clam and his underlings to commit robberies as all the banks and department stores are now submerged; the Horrible Half-Ape – While working on a secret government project, Professor Darwin's experiment goes wrong. The mistake is costly as it leaves Professor Darwin half human; as Half-Ape, he plans to steal a visiting flying saucer to start an interplanetary war. The Minuscule Seven – A group of small gangsters called the Minuscule Seven plot to win basketball tournaments their way. It's up to Plastic Man to stop them. Superstein – Dr. Superstein plots to steal the minds of people to power his monster army.
The Diabolical Doctor Dome – Doctor Dome discovers a way to extract Plastic Man's superpowers and uses them to commit crimes. The Dangerous Doctor Dinosaur – Doctor Dinosaur uses his dinosaurs to help rob banks and national landmarks. Empire of Evil – An airplane carrying the children of an important official crashes in the forbidden zone of Stone Island, run by a sinister group known as the Empire of Evil. Plastic Man and his friends are sent to return them to safety; the Maniacal Computerhead – Computerhead is an evil robot that has developed a device that can bring any machine to life. He sets out to create an army of machines to take over the world. Badladdin – Plastic Man must make a plan to stop an evil genie, abducting teenagers at an alarming rate; the genie grants wishes to teenagers. He turns them into a statue of gold and takes them for his collection, his next target is Penny's nephew, in a track & field competition. Plastic-Man had once foug
George Willoughby was a Quaker activist who advocated for world peace, conducted nonviolent protests against war and preparations for war. Willoughby lived next to the Old Pine Farm Natural Land Trust in Deptford, Gloucester County, part of the New Jersey Green Acres program, he was raised in the Panama Canal zone. He met Lillian Willoughby, in Iowa in the 1930s, he was a conscientious objector during World War II and helped find homes for Japanese-Americans, put in camps at the outbreak of the war. He was involved with the Committee for Non-Violent Action, formed in 1957 to resist the US Government's program of nuclear weapons testing, one of the first organizations to employ direct nonviolent action to protest against the nuclear arms race, he was a crew member of the Golden Rule, a small boat that in 1958 sailed into the South Pacific to protest atomic testing there by the United States. With the other crew members, William R. Huntington, James Peck, Orion Sherwood, skipper Albert Bigelow he was arrested 5 nautical miles from Honolulu and sentenced to 60 days in jail.
Their act of non-violent protest against the testing of nuclear arms and the nuclear arms race attracted worldwide media coverage and inspired similar actions by members of the Vancouver-based Don't Make a Wave Committee. From 1971 to 1987, Willoughby and his wife were central to a group of 20 houses practicing communal living in West Philadelphia, called "The Life Center," devoted to helping the community; the Life Center was home to, supported the activities of the Philadelphia branch of Movement for a New Society. The Willoughbys lived in a small third-floor apartment; when a Philadelphia Daily News reporter encountered them there in June 1980, they were baking their own bread. In 1981 he helped to start Peace Brigades International. Taking on the simple life was a way to keep any income away from the federal government. So, the IRS confiscated their red Volkswagen for back taxes. During the auction at the IRS headquarters in Chester in 1970, the Willoughbys and supporters served lemonade in the hallway before submitting the winning bid of $900 to buy the car back.
In 1992, George and Lillian Willoughby provided 30+ acres of undeveloped property along Big Timber Creek as the foundation of the Old Pine Farm Natural Lands Trust located in Deptford Township, NJ. Part of the New Jersey Green Acres Program, this open space has available to the public from dawn to dusk for more than 20 years. Willoughby died on January 5, 2010, he was survived by three daughters, Sally Willowbee and Sharon Willoughby. A Biography of Lillian and George Willoughby: Twentieth-Century Quaker Peace Activists George Willoughby's obituary at War Resisters International Remembering George Willoughby, by Nonviolence.org's Martin Kelley Philadelphia Daily News Obituary Swarthmore College Peace Collection History of Peace Brigades International