NBCSN is an American pay television channel, owned by the NBC Sports Group division of NBCUniversal. It launched on July 1, 1995, as the Outdoor Life Network, dedicated to programming involving fishing, outdoor adventure programs, outdoor sports. By the turn of the 21st century, OLN became better known for its extensive coverage of the Tour de France but began covering more "mainstream" sporting events, resulting in its relaunch as Versus in September 2006. In 2011, the original owner of the network, acquired a majority stake in NBC Universal; as a result, Comcast merged the operations of its pay channels with those of NBC. In particular, it aligned the operation of its sports channels with NBC's sports division, NBC Sports. On January 2, 2012, Versus was rebranded as the NBC Sports Network to reflect these changes; as of September 15, 2014, the majority of NBC Sports' operations, including NBCSN, is based in facilities in Stamford, Connecticut. As of February 2015, NBCSN is available to 81,578,000 pay television households in the United States.
The channel launched as the Outdoor Life Network on July 1, 1995. Its programming consisted of hunting and outdoor adventure shows. In its early days, the channel reached around one million homes and found most of its carriage via the then-infant platforms of direct broadcast satellite services and digital cable. In 1999, OLN acquired the U. S. broadcast rights to the Tour de France for US$3 million. Coverage of the Tour on OLN brought greater viewership to the fledgling channel, due in part to the then-growing popularity of American rider Lance Armstrong. In 2004, where Armstrong would aim for a record-breaking sixth straight Tour de France title, OLN would devote over 344 hours in July to coverage of the Tour, along with documentaries and other original programming surrounding the event –, promoted through a $20 million advertising campaign. Overall, while its coverage of the Tour de France helped OLN expand its carriage to over 60 million homes, critics became concerned that OLN's coverage had placed too much of its focus on Armstrong as its main attraction for viewers, doubted if OLN could sustain itself without the viewership that Lance Armstrong's presence had brought to its coverage.
Some critics had jokingly referred to OLN as the "Only Lance Network" due to its overemphasis on the American rider. Following the 2005 Tour, OLN debuted a new lineup of programming – anchored by repeats of the popular reality television series Survivor. OLN's executives believed that bringing Survivor into its lineup would fit well with the new direction it had planned for OLN, could attract viewership from fans of the show who had watched it on CBS. Around the same period, OLN acquired the rights to the Dakar Rally, America's Cup, the Boston Marathon, the Iditarod. OLN planned to cover these multi-day events in a similar style to how it covered the Tour, hoping that its coverage might bring "surprise" results for the channel. Due in part to Lance's absence from the Tour in 2006, its ratings for live coverage of the first four stages of the race drew in 49% fewer viewers than previous years. In May 2005, ESPN rejected a $60 million offer to renew its broadcasting contract with the National Hockey League into the 2005-06 NHL season, the league rejected its alternate proposal for a revenue sharing agreement similar to the one it had established with NBC.
With the NFL shopping a new late-season package of Thursday and Saturday night games to potential broadcasters, speculation began to surface that Comcast would bid on the new NHL contract as its first step to transforming OLN into a mainstream sports channel that could compete with ESPN. Comcast had been involved in NHL broadcasting. In August 2005, ESPN declined to match Comcast's offer, OLN acquired pay television rights to the NHL beginning in the 2005–2006 season in a three-year deal worth close to $200 million; the new deal would include 58 regular season games on Monday and Tuesday nights, coverage of the NHL All-Star Game, conference finals, the first two games of the Stanley Cup Finals. With the help of its new NHL package, by June 2006, OLN had now reached 75 million subscribers. However, due in part to OLN's lesser carriage in comparison to ESPN, the NHL's ratings that season had suffered in comparison. In 2006, OLN broadcast selected games in the Arena Football League's 2006 season.
The channel televised a weekly regular-season game for 11 weeks as well as a wild card playoff game. However, the agreement was not renewed and was picked up by ESPN, who acquired a minority stake in the league's ownership. In April 2006, Comcast announced that it would be renaming Outdoor Life Network to Versus in the fall of 2006; as the network had shifted beyond "outdoor" programming, the name "Versus" was intended to represent the common element of competition within its lineup. OLN's re-launch as Versus occurred on September 25, 2006. Among the new programming acquired by Versus was a number of combat sports, beginning with a series of boxing programs promoted by Bob Arum's Top Rank group; the channel began televising Chuck Norris's World Combat League, a kickboxing promotion where fights are contested in a unique round ring without ropes. Versus entered into a partnership with World Extreme Cagefighting to bring mixed martial arts events to the chan
Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theater, dance and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in this discipline. In addition to basic lighting, modern stage lighting can include special effects, such as lasers and fog machines. People who work on stage lighting are referred to as lighting technicians or lighting designers; the equipment used for stage lighting are used in other lighting applications, including corporate events, trade shows, broadcast television, film production, photographic studios, other types of live events. The personnel needed to install and control the equipment cross over into these different areas of "stage lighting" applications; the earliest known form of stage lighting was during the early Grecian theaters. They would build their theatres facing east to west so that in the afternoon they could perform plays and have the natural sunlight hit the actors, but not those seated in the orchestra.
Natural light continued to be utilized when playhouses were built with a large circular opening at the top of the theater. Early Modern English theaters were roofless, allowing natural light to be utilized for lighting the stage; as theaters moved indoors, artificial lighting became a necessity and it was developed as theaters and technology became more advanced. At an unknown date, candlelight was introduced which brought more developments to theatrical lighting across Europe. While Oliver Cromwell was ruling Britain, all stage production was suspended in 1642 and no advancements were made to English theaters. During this theatrical famine, great developments were being made in theaters on the European mainland. Charles II, who would become King Charles II witnessed Italian theatrical methods and brought them back to England when he came to power. New playhouses were built in their large sizes called for more elaborate lighting. After the refurbishing of the theaters, it was found that the "main source of light in Restoration theaters to be chandeliers" which were "concentrated toward the front of the house, over the forestage".
English theatres during this time used dipped candles to light sconces. Dipped candles were made by dipping a wick into hot wax to create a cylindrical candle. Candles needed frequent trimming and relighting regardless of what was happening on-stage because "they dripped hot grease on both the audience and actors". Chandeliers blocked the view of some patrons. There were two different types of Restoration theaters in England: Restoration commercial theaters and Restoration court theaters. Commercial theaters tended to be more "conservative in their lighting, for economic reasons" and therefore used "candle-burning chandeliers" primarily. Court theatres could afford to "use most of the Continental innovations" in their productions. Theaters such as the Drury Lane Theatre and the Covent Garden Theatre were lit by a large central chandelier and had a varying number of smaller stage chandeliers and candle sconces around the walls of the theaters. Two main court theaters, built between 1660 and 1665, were the Hall Theatre.
Chandeliers and sconces seemed to be the primary lighting sources here but other developments were being made at the Hall. By the 1670s, the Hall Theatre started using footlights, between 1670 and 1689 they used candles or lamps, it can be noted that by the end of the 17th century, "French and English stages were similar". There is not much written on theatrical lighting in England at the end of the 17th century and from the little information historians do have, not much changed by the middle of the 18th century. Gas lighting hit the English stage in the early 1800s beginning with the Drury Lane and Covent Garden theaters. In the 1820s, a new type of artificial illumination was developed. In this type of illumination, a gas flame is used to heat a cylinder of quicklime. Upon reaching a certain temperature, the quicklime would begin to incandesce; this illumination could be directed by reflectors and lenses. It took some time from the development of this new Limelight before it found its way into theatrical use, which started around 1837.
Limelight became popular in the 1860s and beyond. Lighting advances made in English theaters during this time frame paved the way for the many lighting advances in the modern theatrical world. Stage lighting has multiple functions, including: Selective visibility: The ability to see what is occurring on stage. Any lighting design will be ineffective if the viewers cannot see the characters, unless this is the explicit intent. Revelation of form: Altering the perception of shapes onstage three-dimensional stage elements. Focus: Directing the audience's attention to an area of the stage or distracting them from another. Mood: Setting the tone of a scene. Harsh red light has a different effect than soft lavender light. Location and time of day: Establishing or altering position in time and space. Blues can suggest night time while red can suggest a sunrise or sunset. Use of mechanical filters to project sky scenes, the Moon, etc. Projection/stage elements: Lighting may be used to project scenery or to act as scenery onstage.
Plot: A lighting event may trigger or advance the action onstage and off. Composition: Lighting may be used to show only the areas of the stage which the designer wants the audience to see, to "paint a picture". Effect: In pop and rock concerts or DJ shows or raves, colored lights and lasers may be used as a visual effect. Ligh
An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, rink bandy, broomball, speed skating, figure skating, ice stock sport and curling as well as exhibitions and ice shows. There are two types of rinks in prevalent use today: natural, where freezing occurs from cold ambient temperatures, artificial, where a coolant produces cold temperatures in the surface below the water, causing the water to freeze. There are synthetic ice rinks where skating surfaces are made out of plastics. Rink, a Scottish word meaning ` course', was used as the name of a place; the name uses. Early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were first made in the'rink mania' of 1841–44; as the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Eliakim Littell's Living Age headed "The Glaciarium" reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon.
The area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". By 1844, these venues fell out of fashion, as customers grew tired of the'smelly' ice substitute, it was only thirty years that refrigeration technology developed to the point that natural ice could be feasibly used in the rink; the world's first mechanically frozen ice rink was the Glaciarium, opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a small building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea, London, on 7 January 1876. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, where a rink measuring 40 by 24 feet was established; the rink was based with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide and water; the pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice. Gamgee discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, patented it as early as 1870.
Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could be used by spectators, decorated the walls with views of the Swiss Alps; the rink proved a success, Gamgee opened two further rinks in the year: at Rusholme in Manchester and the "Floating Glaciarium" at Charing Cross in London, this last larger at 115 by 25 feet. The Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879. In Germany, the first ice skating rink opened in 1882 in Frankfurt during a patent exhibition, it operated for two months. Ten years a larger rink was permanently installed on the same site; the oldest indoor artificial ice rink still in use is the one in Boston's Matthews Arena, on the campus of Northeastern University. Many ice rinks consist of, or are found on, open bodies of water such as lakes, ponds and sometimes rivers. Rinks can be made in cold climates by enclosing a level area of ground, filling it with water, letting it freeze.
Snow may be packed to use as a containment material. A famous example of this type of rink is the Rideau Canal Skateway in Ottawa, Canada, estimated at 1,782,000 square feet and 7.8 kilometres long, equivalent to 90 Olympic size skating rinks. The rink is prepared by letting the canal water freeze; the rink is resurfaced nightly by cleaning the ice of snow and flooding it with water from below the ice. The rink is recognized as the "world's largest frozen ice rink" by the Guinness Book of World Records because "its entire length receives daily maintenance such as sweeping, ice thickness checks and there are toilet and recreational facilities along its entire length"; the longest ice skating trail can be found in Invermere, British Columbia, Canada, on Lake Windermere Whiteway. The frozen trail measures 29.98 kilometres. In any climate, an arena ice surface can be installed in a properly built space; this consists of a bed of sand or a slab of concrete, through which pipes run. The pipes carry a chilled fluid which can lower the temperature of the slab so that water placed atop will freeze.
This method is known as'artificial ice' to differentiate from ice rinks made by freezing water in a cold climate, indoors or outdoors, although both types are of frozen water. A more proper technical term is'mechanically frozen' ice. A famous example of this type of rink is the outdoor rink at Rockefeller Center in New York. Modern rinks have a specific procedure for preparing the surface. With the pipes cold, a thin layer of water is sprayed on the concrete to seal and level it; this thin layer is painted pale blue for better contrast.
Steadicam is a brand of camera stabilizer mounts for motion picture cameras invented by Garrett Brown and introduced in 1975 by Cinema Products Corporation. It mechanically isolates the operator's movement, allowing for a smooth shot when the camera moves over an irregular surface. Before the camera stabilizing system, a director had two choices for moving shots: The camera could be mounted on a dolly, a wheeled mount that rolls on tracks or leveled boards; this procedure is time consuming to set up, it is impractical in many situations. The camera operator could hold the camera; this manual grip allows speed and flexibility, but the most skilled operator cannot prevent shaking. Hand-held camera footage has traditionally been considered suitable for documentaries, reportage, live action, unrehearsable footage, or the evocation of authentic immediacy or cinéma vérité during dramatic sequences. While these cinematic techniques are still common, the Steadicam has added another dimension to motion picture cinematography and videography.
A Steadicam combines the stabilized steady footage of a conventional tripod mount with the fluid motion of a dolly shot and the flexibility of hand-held camera work. While smoothly following the operator's broad movements, the Steadicam's arm absorbs jerks and shakes, while its frictionless gimbal gives precise control of the camera and framing; the Steadicam was introduced to the industry in 1975 by inventor and cameraman Garrett Brown, who named the invention the "Brown Stabilizer". After completing the first working prototype, Brown shot a ten-minute demo reel of the revolutionary moves this new device could produce; this reel was seen including Stanley Kubrick and John G. Avildsen; the Steadicam was subsequently licensed to and manufactured by Cinema Products Corporation, which diversified the brand into a consumer line for DV cameras. The Steadicam was first used in the Best Picture–nominated Woody Guthrie biopic Bound for Glory, debuting with a shot that compounded the Steadicam's innovation: cinematographer Haskell Wexler had Brown start the shot on a elevated platform crane which jibbed down, when it reached the ground, Brown stepped off and walked the camera through the set.
This technically audacious and impossible shot created considerable interest in how it had been accomplished, impressed the Academy enough for Wexler to win the Oscar for Best Cinematography that year. It was used in extensive running and chase scenes on the streets of New York City in Marathon Man, released two months before Bound for Glory, it landed a notable third credit in Avildsen's Best Picture–winning Rocky in 1976, where it was an integral part of the film's Philadelphia street jogging/training sequences and the run up the Art Museum's flight of stairs, as well as the fight scenes where it can be plainly seen in operation at the ringside during some wide shots of the final fight. Rocky was released before Bound for Glory. Garrett Brown was the Steadicam operator on all of these; the Shining pushed Brown's innovations further, when director Stanley Kubrick requested that the camera shoot from above the floor. This prompted the innovation of "low mode" to mount the top of the camera to the bottom of an inverted post, which increased the creative angles of the system which could not go much lower than the operator's waist height.
This low-mode concept remains the most important extension to the system since its inception. A Steadicam rig was employed during the filming of Return of the Jedi, in conjunction with two gyroscopes for extra stabilization, to film the background plates for the speeder bike chase. Brown, who operated the shot, walked through a redwood forest, with the camera running at a speed of less than one frame per second; the end result, when projected at 24 frames per second, gave the impression of flying through the air at perilous speeds. In the Michael Crichton film Runaway, a Steadicam rig was used to simulate the point of view of a futuristic smart bullet in flight while targeting specific individuals by their heat signature; the operator wears a harness, the Steadicam vest, attached to an iso-elastic arm. This is connected by a multiaxis and ultra-low friction gimbal to the Steadicam "sled" which has the camera mounted at one end and counterbalancing weight at the other; the monitor substitutes for the camera's viewfinder, since the range of motion of the camera relative to the operator makes the camera's own viewfinder unusable.
In the film industry the armature and weight are traditionally called the sled, as the two units combined resembled a sled in an early model of the Steadicam. The sled includes the top stage where the camera is attached, the post which in most models can be extended, with the monitor and batteries at the bottom to counterbalance the camera weight; this is how the Steadicam stays upright, by making the bottom heavier than the top, pivoting at the gimbal. This leaves the center of gravity of the whole rig, however heavy it may be at the operator's fingertip, allowing deft and finite control of the whole system with the lightest of touches on the gimbal; the skill of the operator is to keep the desired framing and composition by feathering his touch on the gimbal, while the rig and operator is in motion, indeed, when still. The combined weight of the counterbalance and camera means that the armature bears a high inertial mass, not moved by small body movements from the operator; the pivoting armature adds additional stabiliza
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. Humans can only hear sound waves as distinct pitches when the frequency lies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound waves above 20 kHz is not perceptible by humans. Sound waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound. Different animal species have varying hearing ranges. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases and solids including vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer. An audio engineer, on the other hand, is concerned with the recording, manipulation and reproduction of sound. Applications of acoustics are found in all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, speech, underwater acoustics, vibration.
Sound is defined as " Oscillation in pressure, particle displacement, particle velocity, etc. propagated in a medium with internal forces, or the superposition of such propagated oscillation. Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in." Sound can be viewed as a wave motion in air or other elastic media. In this case, sound is a stimulus. Sound can be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. In this case, sound is a sensation. Sound can propagate through a medium such as air and solids as longitudinal waves and as a transverse wave in solids; the sound waves are generated by a sound source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium; as the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave. At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure and displacement of the medium vary in time.
At an instant in time, the pressure and displacement vary in space. Note that the particles of the medium do not travel with the sound wave; this is intuitively obvious for a solid, the same is true for liquids and gases. During propagation, waves can be refracted, or attenuated by the medium; the behavior of sound propagation is affected by three things: A complex relationship between the density and pressure of the medium. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines the speed of sound within the medium. Motion of the medium itself. If the medium is moving, this movement may increase or decrease the absolute speed of the sound wave depending on the direction of the movement. For example, sound moving through wind will have its speed of propagation increased by the speed of the wind if the sound and wind are moving in the same direction. If the sound and wind are moving in opposite directions, the speed of the sound wave will be decreased by the speed of the wind; the viscosity of the medium.
Medium viscosity determines the rate. For many media, such as air or water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible; when sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties, it may be refracted. The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound can travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids and plasmas; the matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Sound is transmitted through gases and liquids as longitudinal waves called compression waves, it requires a medium to propagate. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as transverse waves. Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation. Sound waves may be "viewed" using parabolic objects that produce sound; the energy carried by an oscillating sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression or lateral displacement strain of the matter, the kinetic energy of the displacement velocity of particles of the medium.
Although there are many complexities relating to the transmission of sounds, at the point of reception, sound is dividable into two simple elements: pressure and time. These fundamental elements form the basis of all sound waves, they can be used to describe, in every sound we hear. In order to understand the sound more a complex wave such as the one shown in a blue background on the right of this text, is separated into its component parts, which are a combination of various sound wave frequencies. Sound waves are simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are characterized by these generic properties: Frequency, or its inverse, wavelength Amplitude, sound pressure or Intensity Speed of sound DirectionSound, perceptible by humans has frequencies from abou
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity and resolution of the film; the emulsion will darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal; this creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to ultraviolet, X-rays and high-energy particles. Unmodified silver halide crystals are sensitive only to the blue part of the visible spectrum, producing unnatural-looking renditions of some colored subjects; this problem was resolved with the discovery that certain dyes, called sensitizing dyes, when adsorbed onto the silver halide crystals made them respond to other colors as well.
First orthochromatic and panchromatic films were developed. Panchromatic film renders all colors in shades of gray matching their subjective brightness. By similar techniques, special-purpose films can be made sensitive to the infrared region of the spectrum. In black-and-white photographic film, there is one layer of silver halide crystals; when the exposed silver halide grains are developed, the silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative. Color film has at least three sensitive layers, incorporating different combinations of sensitizing dyes; the blue-sensitive layer is on top, followed by a yellow filter layer to stop any remaining blue light from affecting the layers below. Next comes a green-and-blue sensitive layer, a red-and-blue sensitive layer, which record the green and red images respectively. During development, the exposed silver halide crystals are converted to metallic silver, just as with black-and-white film.
But in a color film, the by-products of the development reaction combine with chemicals known as color couplers that are included either in the film itself or in the developer solution to form colored dyes. Because the by-products are created in direct proportion to the amount of exposure and development, the dye clouds formed are in proportion to the exposure and development. Following development, the silver is converted back to silver halide crystals in the bleach step, it is removed from the film during the process of fixing the image on the film with a solution of ammonium thiosulfate or sodium thiosulfate. Fixing leaves behind only the formed color dyes, which combine to make up the colored visible image. Color films, like Kodacolor II, have as many as 12 emulsion layers, with upwards of 20 different chemicals in each layer; the earliest practical photographic process was the daguerreotype. The light-sensitive chemicals were formed on the surface of a silver-plated copper sheet; the calotype process produced paper negatives.
Beginning in the 1850s, thin glass plates coated with photographic emulsion became the standard material for use in the camera. Although fragile and heavy, the glass used for photographic plates was of better optical quality than early transparent plastics and was, at first, less expensive. Glass plates continued to be used long after the introduction of film, were used for astrophotography and electron micrography until the early 2000s, when they were supplanted by digital recording methods. Ilford continues to manufacture glass plates for special scientific applications; the first flexible photographic roll film was sold by George Eastman in 1885, but this original "film" was a coating on a paper base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and attached to a sheet of hardened clear gelatin; the first transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was made from flammable nitrocellulose, now called "nitrate film". Although cellulose acetate or "safety film" had been introduced by Kodak in 1908, at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being tougher more transparent, cheaper.
The changeover was completed for X-ray films in 1933, but although safety film was always used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm films until it was discontinued in 1951. Hurter and Driffield began pioneering work on the light sensitivity of photographic emulsions in 1876, their work enabled the first quantitative measure of film speed to be devised. They developed H&D curves, which are specific for each paper; these curves plot the photographic density against the log of the exposure, to determine sensitivity or speed of the emulsion and enabling correct exposure. Early photographic plates and films were usefully sensitive only to blue and ultraviolet light; as a result, the relative tonal values in a scene registered as they would appear if viewed through a piece of deep blue glass. Blue skies with interesting cloud formations photographed as a white blank. Any detail visible in masses of green foliage was due to the colorless surface gloss. Bright yellows and reds appeared nearly black.
Most skin tones came out unnaturally dark, uneven or freckled complexions were exaggerated. Photographers sometimes compensated by adding in skies from
Low-key lighting is a style of lighting for photography, film or television. It is a necessary element in creating a chiaroscuro effect. Traditional photographic lighting, three-point lighting uses a key light, a fill light and a back light for illumination. Low-key lighting uses only a key light, optionally controlled with a fill light or a simple reflector. Low key light accentuates the contours of the subject by throwing areas into shade while a fill light or reflector may illuminate the shadow areas to control contrast; the relative strength of key-to-fill, known as the lighting ratio, can be measured using a light meter. Low key lighting has a higher lighting ratio, e.g. 8:1, than high-key lighting, which can approach 1:1. The term "low key" is used in cinematography and photography to refer to any scene with a high lighting ratio if there is a predominance of shadowy areas, it tends to heighten the sense of alienation felt by the viewer, hence is used in film noir and horror genres. It is used in dark dramas/ thrillers.
Low-key lighting is associated with German Expressionism and film noir. High-key lighting Contre-jour