2010 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships
The 2010 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships was held at the Ahoy Rotterdam indoor sporting arena in the Netherlands from 16 to 24 October 2010. In this year's championships, there was a total of 73 participating federations with 615 gymnasts. 53 men's and 44 women's teams. The competition schedule was. More than 70 countries were expected to compete in the event. Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors The top three scores from each country for each apparatus was counted towards the total. In the qualifying round, the top four were counted. In all, 45 nations entered the qualifying round. Unlike the women's team event, there was more inconsistency in the strengths and weaknesses of the team. China qualified first overall. Japan qualified second, 1.082 behind. They came first in rings, third in three disciplines and 11th in floor; the US were third, more than four points behind. They came first in high bar, but 13th in pommel horse, between fourth and sixth in the other events.
They were ahead of Great Britain by only 0.059. Great Britain came first in floor and pommel but were only ninth and tenth in parallel bars and rings respectively. Germany was fifth, followed by Russia, who came first in vault but were eighth or worse in three disciplines; the last two teams to qualify were Korea and France, the latter denying Romania qualification by 0.150, or 0.04%. Italy and Puerto Rico were all within 1.1 points of qualification. The hosts came 17th, more than six points outside qualification. After qualifying in last place, France improved to finish fifth in the final, while Great Britain regressed from fourth to seventh. In all 299 men competed in the qualifying round. Of these 164 complete all six apparatus; each nation were limited to two qualifiers for the 24-man final. Steven Legendre of the US, Kenya Kobayashi of Japan and Kristian Thomas of Great Britain ended 15th, 16th and 17th but were their nation's third best and did not progress to the final. Ruslan Paneleymonov and Andrey Cherkasov were the others affected by this policy.
Kōhei Uchimura was the highest qualifier, more than two points ahead of Philipp Boy. Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Thomas Bouhail became the first French gymnast to become a world champion. Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Zhang Chenglong of China edged out local favorite Epke Zonderland by 0.133 to win this event. Oldest and youngest competitors As with the men, the top three scores from each country for each apparatus was counted towards the total. In the qualifying round, the top four scores were included. In all, 34 nations entered the qualifying round. Russia came second in each of the four disciplines to qualify first overall. China came first in the uneven bars and third and fourth in the remaining apparatus, to qualify second overall; the United States was first in vault and beam, but only fifth in floor, came third overall. Less than one point separated the top three.
Romania came first in floor to qualify fourth, more than five points behind the US. There were more than 3 points down to Great Britain and Australia; the host nation missed qualification by 1.6 points. Russia won their first women's team title, it was a close-run contest with the result hinging on Russia's final floor performer. In the final, the US came sixth in the floor, losing 2.666 to Russia and 1.566 to China on this apparatus. The US' third-best floor score was the lowest of the 24 included scores for the apparatus. After qualifying in last place, Japan improved to finish fifth in the final, he Kexin of China posted the highest score of the meet on the uneven bars, scoring a 16.133 in the team finals. This made. In all 216 women competed in the qualifying round. Of these 142 completed all four apparatus; each nation were limited to two qualifiers for the 24-woman final. The highest ranked person affected by this was Mackenzie Caquatto, the third highest American, she finished less than 1.2 from the third highest qualifier.
Mattie Larson, Ksenia Afanasyeva and Emily Little were the others in the top 24 to be excluded from the final. Aliya Mustafina qualified first, 1.585 ahead of Rebecca Bross. Aly Raisman qualified third, but she fell in the uneven bars in the final, came equal last in that apparatus to end up 13th overall. Jiang Yuyuan placed second in the final. Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Tatiana Nabieva's assistant coach Alexander Kiryashov contested Nabieva's reduced start value on her first vault. Nabieva's 1st vault's S. V. was a 6.5, attempting a 2.5 twist, but was brought down to a 5.8 when she didn't complete the twist. Her 2nd vault had had a 6.1 start value, but she was penalized once again for piking her form and landing out of bounds and was brought down to a 5.7. Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Oldest and youngest competitors Lauren Mitchell became the first Australian female world champion in gymnastics, posting the highest score after being last to perform in the final.
Defending champion Beth Tweddle of Great Britain failed to qualify, she was a reserve for the final. Women's all-around champion Aliya Mustafina won three individual apparatus medals, accounting for four of Russia' five medals in individu
Swimwear is clothing designed to be worn by people engaging in a water-based activity or water sports, such as swimming and surfing, or sun-orientated activities, such as sun bathing. Different types may be worn by men and children. Swimwear is described by a number of names, some of which are used only in particular locations, including swimsuit, bathing suit, swimming costume, bathing costume, swimming suit, swimming togs, cossie, or swimming trunks for men, besides others. A swimsuit can be worn as an undergarment in sports that require a wetsuit such as water skiing, scuba diving and wakeboarding. Swimsuits may be worn to display the wearer's physical attributes, as in the case of beauty pageants or bodybuilding contests, glamour photography and magazines like the annual Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue feature models and sports personalities in swimsuits. There is a wide range of styles of modern swimsuits available, which vary as to body coverage and materials; the choice of style may depend on community standards of modesty, as well as current fashions, personal preferences.
The choice will consider the occasion, for example whether it is to be worn for a passive occasion such as sunbathing or for an activity such as surfing or swimsuit competition. Swimwear for men exposes the chest, while suits for women cover at least the breasts. Rayon was used in the 1920s in the manufacture of tight-fitting swimsuits, but its durability when wet, proved problematic, with jersey and silk sometimes being used. In the 1930s, new materials were being developed and use in swimwear latex and nylon, swimsuits began hugging the body women's swimsuits. In western culture, men's swimsuit styles include boardshorts, swim trunks, briefs or "speedos", g-strings, in order of decreasing lower body coverage, Women's swimsuits include one-piece, bikinis, or thongs. While they go through many trends in pattern and cut there is not much modification to the original variety of suit. A recent innovation is the burqini, favored by some Muslim women, which covers the whole body and head in a manner similar to a diver's wetsuit.
These are an updated version of full-body swimwear, available for centuries, but conforms with Islam's traditional emphasis on modest dress. In Egypt, the term "Sharia swimsuit" is used to describe full-body swimwear. Swimsuits can be loose-fitting, they are lined with another layer of fabric if the outer fabric becomes transparent when wet. Swimsuits range from designs that completely cover the body to designs that expose all of the body; the choice of swimsuit will depend on personal and community standards of modesty and on considerations such as how much or how little sun protection is desired, prevailing fashions. All swimsuits cover the genitals and pubic hair, while most except thongs or G-string cover much or all of the buttocks. Most swimsuits in western culture leave at least the head, shoulders and lower part of the leg exposed. Women's swimsuits cover at least the areola and bottom half of the breasts. Both men and women may sometimes wear swimsuits covering more of the body when swimming in cold water.
In colder temperatures, the swimwear is needed to conserve body heat and protect the body core from hypothermia. Competitive swimwear refers to the swimsuit, clothing and accessories used in the aquatic sports of swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo; some swimsuits are designed for swimming competitions where they may be constructed of a special low resistance fabric that reduces skin drag. For some kinds of swimming and diving, special bodysuits called; these suits are made from spandex and provide little thermal protection, but they do protect the skin from stings and abrasion. Most competitive swimmers wear special swimsuits including partial bodysuits, racerback styles and racing briefs to assist their glide through the water thus gaining a speed advantage. Unlike regular swimsuits, which are designed for the aesthetic appearances, swimsuits designed to be worn during competitions are manufactured to assist the athlete in swim competitions, they reduce friction and drag in the water, increasing the efficiency of the swimmer's forward motion.
The tight fits are said to reduce muscle vibration, thus reducing drag. This reduces the possibility that a high forwards dive will remove a divers swimwear. Starting around 2000, in an effort to improve the effectiveness of the swimsuits, engineers have taken to designing them to replicate the skin of sea-based animals, sharks in particular. In July 2009, FINA voted to ban non-textile swimsuits in competitive events from 2010; the new policy was implemented to combat the issues associated with performance enhancing swimsuits, hindering the ability to measure the performance of swimmers. Subsequently, the new ruling states that men's swimsuits may maximally cover the area from the navel to the knee, women's counterparts from the shoulder to the knee; some swimmers use a specialized training suit called drag suits to artificially increase drag during practice. Drag suits are swimwear with an outer layer of looser fabric – mesh or nylon – to increase resistance against the water and build up the swimmer's endurance.
They come in a variety of styles. Germs and mold can grow quickly on wet bathing suits. Medical professionals warn that wearing damp swimwear for long periods of ti
Flag of Romania
The national flag of Romania is a tricolor with vertical stripes, beginning from the flagpole: blue and red. It has a width-length ratio of 2:3; the Constitution of Romania provides. The proportions, shades of color as well as the flag protocol were established by law in 1994 and extended in 2001; the flag is coincidentally similar to the civil flag of Andorra and the state flag of Chad. The similarity with Chad's flag, which differs only in having a darker shade of blue, has caused international discussion. In 2004, Chad asked the United Nations to examine the issue, but then-president of Romania Ion Iliescu announced no change would occur to the flag; the flag of Moldova is related to the Romanian tricolor, except it has a 1:2 ratio, a lighter shade of blue, a different tint of yellow, the Moldovan coat of arms in the middle. The civil ensign of Belgium uses black rather than blue; the law mentioned above specifies that the stripes of the national flag are cobalt blue, chrome yellow and vermilion red.
The publication Album des pavillons nationaux et des marques distinctives suggests the following equivalents in the Pantone scale: During the 1970s and 1980s, with Protochronism receiving official endorsement, it was claimed that red and blue were found on late 16th-century royal grants of Michael the Brave, as well as shields and banners. Contemporary descriptions and reconstructions indicate the flag of Wallachia during Michael's reign was made of damask yellow-white but faded to white, it featured a black eagle with a cross in its beak. During the Wallachian uprising of 1821, the colors were present, among many others, on the canvas of the revolutionaries' flag and in its fringes; the tricolor was first adopted in Wallachia in 1834, when the reforming domnitor Alexandru II Ghica submitted naval and military colors designs for the approval of Sultan Mahmud II. The latter was a "flag with a red and yellow face having stars and a bird's head in the middle". Soon, the order of colors was changed, with yellow appearing in the center.
In 1848, the flag adopted for Wallachia by the revolutionaries was a blue-yellow-red tricolor. On 26 April, according to Gazeta de Transilvania, Romanian students in Paris were hailing the new government with a blue and red national flag, "as a symbol of union between Moldavians and Muntenians". Decree no. 1 of 14/26 June 1848 of the provisional government mentioned that "the National Flag will bear three colors: blue, red", emblazoned with the words "DPEПTATE ФPЪЦIE". It differed from earlier tricolors in that the blue stripe was on top, the princely monogram was eliminated from the corners, as was the crown atop the eagle at the end of the flagpole, while a motto was now present. Decree no. 252 of 13/25 July 1848, issued because "it has not been understood how the national flags should be designed", defined the flag as three vertical stripes influenced by the French model. The shades were "dark blue, light yellow and carmine red". Petre Vasiliu-Năsturel observes that from a heraldic point of view, on the French as well as the revolutionary Wallachian flag, the middle stripe represents a heraldic metal, the two flags could be related.
Other historians believe that the tricolor was not an imitation of the French flag, instead embodying an old Romanian tradition. This theory is supported by a note from the revolutionary minister of foreign affairs to Emin Pasha: "the colors of the band that we, the leaders, wear, as well as all our followers, are not of modern origin. We have had our flags since an earlier time; when we received the tricolor insignia and bands we did not follow the spirit of imitation or fashion". The same minister assured the extraordinary envoy of the Porte, Suleiman Pasha, that the flag's three colors had existed "for a long time. So they are not a borrowing or an imitation from the present or a threat for the future". After the revolution was quelled, the old flags were restored and the revolutionaries punished for having worn the tricolor. From 1859 until 1866, the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia had a red-yellow-blue Romanian tricolor, with horizontal stripes, as national flag; the flag was described properly in Almanahul român din 1866: "a tricolor flag, divided in three stripes, red and blue and laid out horizontally: red above, blue below and yellow in the middle".
Although the Ottoman Empire did not allow the United Principalities to have their own symbols, the new flag gained a degree of international recognition. Relating prince Cuza's May–June 1864 journey to Constantinople, doctor Carol Davila observed: "The Romanian flag was raised on the great mast, the Sultan's kayaks awaited us, the guard was armed, the Grand Vizier at the door... The Prince, dignified, concise in his speech, spent 20 minutes with the Sultan, who came to review us… Once again, the Grand Vizier led the Prince to the main gate and we returned to the Europe Palace, the Romanian flag still fluttering on the mast...". Article 124 of the 1866 Constitution of Romania provided that "the colors of the United Principalities will be Blue and Red". T
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in France; the modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, skating; the Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.
The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as Alpine skiing, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic programme; some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and reintroduced. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports; the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC; this allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by twelve different countries. They have been held four times in the United States, three times in France and twice each in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland; the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany and Herzegovina, Russia and South Korea. The IOC has selected Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be selected on June 23, 2019; as of 2018, no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February at the height of the Southern Hemisphere's summer. To date, twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States; the only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States.
Germany leads the all-time medal table of the Winter Olympic Games both on number of gold and overall medals won, followed by Norway and the United States. A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin, he attempted to have winter sports figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow and Madge Syers won the individual titles. Three years Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden; the organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.
The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I; the first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Hungary and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this "week" of events; the games proved to be
Casual wear/attire/clothing is a Western dress code category that comprises anything not traditionally appropriate with more formal dress codes: formal wear, semi-formal wear, or informal wear. In general, casual wear is associated with emphasising personal comfort and individuality over formality or conformity; as such, it may referred to as leisurewear. In a broader sense, the word "casual" may be defined as anything relaxed, spontaneous, "suited for everyday use", or "informal" in the sense of "not formal". In essence, because of its wide variety of interpretations, casual wear may be defined not by what it is but rather by what it is not: Formal wear, such as: Morning dress White tie but ceremonial dress variants, including: Court uniforms Full dress uniform Religious clothing Folk costumes Academic clothing Semi-formal wear, such as: Black lounge suit Black tie Informal attire, such as: Business professional wear, comprising lounge suits, dress shirts, neckties and dress shoesYet, when indicated as a dress code for instance on an invitation to a gathering or in an office place, casual wear may still be expected to be done tastefully, meaning that trousers and shirts do not have holes, tears, or stains.
It may be combined with informal wear dress code components, illustrated by dress codes such as business casual, smart casual. Furthermore, dress codes within casual wear category such as business casual, smart casual or casual Friday may indicate expectation of some sartorial effort, including suit jacket, dress trousers, resembling the result of informal attire. With the popularity of spectator sports in the late 20th century, a good deal of athletic gear has influenced casual wear, such as jogging suits, running shoes, track clothing. Work wear worn for manual labor falls into casual wear. Basic materials used for casual wear include denim, jersey and fleece. Materials such as velvet and brocade are associated with more formal cloths. While utilitarian costume comes to mind first for casual dress, there is a wide range of flamboyance and theatricality. Punk fashion and fashion of the 1970s and 1980s is a striking example. Madonna introduced a great deal of lace and cosmetics into casual wear during the 1980s.
In the 1990s, hip hop fashion played up elaborate jewelry and luxurious materials worn in conjunction with athletic gear and the clothing of manual labor. Sport coat, jeans, dress shirt, a T-shirt describe to be casual wear for men in the 21st century. Casual wear is the dress code in which forms of gender expression are experimented with. An obvious example is masculine jewelry, once considered shocking or titillating in casual circles, is now hardly noteworthy in semi-formal situations. Amelia Bloomer introduced trousers of a sort for women as a casual alternative to formal hoops and skirts; the trend toward female exposure in the 20th century tended to push the necklines of formal ball gowns lower and the skirts of cocktail dresses higher. For men, the exposure of shoulders and backs is still limited to casual wear. Western dress codes Formal wear Semi-formal wear Informal attire Casual wear Smart casual Business casual Workwear Combat uniform Sportswear Sportswear