Rhaetian Railway Ge 6/6 I
The Rhaetian Railway Ge 6/6 I is a class of metre gauge C′C′ electric locomotives operated by the Rhaetian Railway, the main railway network in the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. The class is so named because it was the first class of locomotives of the Swiss locomotive and railcar classification type Ge 6/6 to be acquired by the Rhaetian Railway. According to that classification system, Ge 6/6 denotes a narrow gauge electric adhesion locomotive with a total of six axles, all of which are drive axles. Due to their shape – they are similar in form to the SBB-CFF-FFS Crocodiles of the Gotthard Railway – the Ge 6/6 I locomotives have collectively been nicknamed the Rhaetian Crocodiles by rail fans, their internal working RhB designation is C-C. As with its standard-gauge counterpart, the Ge 6/6 is articulated, with a gear-driven Jackshaft between the two end axles of each unit, connected to the drive wheels by side rods. Following the electrification of the Albula Railway in 1919, the Rhaetian Railway needed to acquire more electric locomotives.
That need was met by the acquisition of six locomotives of a new class Ge 6/6, numbered 401 to 406. Manufacturers were Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works, Boveri & Cie and Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon; the introduction of electric operations on the line from Landquart to Davos Platz necessitated the introduction of new locomotives more powerful than the Ge 2/4 and Ge 4/6 class locos in service. In the wake of the first Ge 6/6 deliveries in 1921, further deliveries of locomotives in the class were made as follows: nos. 407 to 410 in 1922, nos. 411 and 412 in 1925, nos. 413 to 415 in 1929. With the 15 new Ge 6/6 locomotives, the Rhaetian Railway was able to replace the steam locomotives on its core network. Henceforth, the Ge 6/6s hauled the heavy and headline trains, including the Glacier Express; the Ge 6/6s were 13.3 metres long, weighed 66 tonnes. Their power output reached 940 kilowatts, enabled them to reach a top speed of 55 kilometres per hour; the 15 Ge 6/6 locomotives placed into service with the numbers 401–415 carried and carry no names.
The list set out below shows the year of commissioning, year of withdrawal, the present whereabouts of each locomotive in the class. Only in 1974, after more than 50 years of service, was the first example of the class withdrawn from service, due to an accident. However, as early as 1958 the newer locomotives of class Ge 6/6 II began to force the Crocodiles into less demanding services; the Ge 4/4 II class, delivered from 1973 accelerated this process, so that in 1984 no fewer than six Crocodiles were withdrawn. After no. 411 was put into storage in June 2001 following an accident — it is now on display in the Deutsches Museum, Munich — only nos. 412, 414 and 415 remained in operation. They were based in Samedan. Six locomotives of the Ge 6/6 I class are still in existence. Two of them are still in service with the Rhaetian Railway as operational locomotives. Locomotive no. 402 is on display in the Swiss Transport Museum in Lucerne, no. 406 has been displayed in several places, is at the Kerzers railway museum, no. 407 is displayed outside Bergün/Bravuogn as part of Albula Bahn Museum.
In 2006, on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the Glacier Express, no. 412, which has since been broken up, was repainted in blue to match the Alpine Pullman Classic. Nine examples of the class have been scrapped to date: no 401 was broken up in 1975 after an accident, six others followed after the delivery of the second series of the Ge 4/4 II in 1984; as the last machines to disappear for the time being, no. 413 and 412 were used in 1996 and 2008 as spare parts donors, scrapped. Claude Jeanmaire: Rhätische Bahn. Stammnetz-Triebfahrzeuge. Villigen AG, 1995. ISBN 3-85649-219-4 Francesco Pozzato u.a.: Die Krokodile Ge 6/6 I der Rhätischen Bahn. Loki spezial Nr.9, 1995. ISBN 3-85738-049-7 Railfaneurope.net Picture GalleryThis article is based upon a translation of the German language version as at December 2009
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit. It consists of a cylinder composed of multiple metal contact segments on the rotating armature of the machine. Two or more electrical contacts called "brushes" made of a soft conductive material like carbon press against the commutator, making sliding contact with successive segments of the commutator as it rotates; the windings on the armature are connected to the commutator segments. Commutators are used in direct current machines: dynamos and many DC motors as well as universal motors. In a motor the commutator applies electric current to the windings. By reversing the current direction in the rotating windings each half turn, a steady rotating force is produced. In a generator the commutator picks off the current generated in the windings, reversing the direction of the current with each half turn, serving as a mechanical rectifier to convert the alternating current from the windings to unidirectional direct current in the external load circuit.
The first direct current commutator-type machine, the dynamo, was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832, based on a suggestion by André-Marie Ampère. Commutators are inefficient, require periodic maintenance such as brush replacement. Therefore, commutated machines are declining in use, being replaced by alternating current machines, in recent years by brushless DC motors which use semiconductor switches. A commutator consists of a set of contact bars fixed to the rotating shaft of a machine, connected to the armature windings; as the shaft rotates, the commutator reverses the flow of current in a winding. For a single armature winding, when the shaft has made one-half complete turn, the winding is now connected so that current flows through it in the opposite of the initial direction. In a motor, the armature current causes the fixed magnetic field to exert a rotational force, or a torque, on the winding to make it turn. In a generator, the mechanical torque applied to the shaft maintains the motion of the armature winding through the stationary magnetic field, inducing a current in the winding.
In both the motor and generator case, the commutator periodically reverses the direction of current flow through the winding so that current flow in the circuit external to the machine continues in only one direction. Practical commutators have at least three contact segments, to prevent a "dead" spot where two brushes bridge only two commutator segments. Brushes are made wider than the insulated gap, to ensure that brushes are always in contact with an armature coil. For commutators with at least three segments, although the rotor can stop in a position where two commutator segments touch one brush, this only de-energizes one of the rotor arms while the others will still function correctly. With the remaining rotor arms, a motor can produce sufficient torque to begin spinning the rotor, a generator can provide useful power to an external circuit. A commutator consists of a set of copper segments, fixed around the part of the circumference of the rotating machine, or the rotor, a set of spring-loaded brushes fixed to the stationary frame of the machine.
Two or more fixed brushes connect to the external circuit, either a source of current for a motor or a load for a generator. Commutator segments are connected to the coils of the armature, with the number of coils depending on the speed and voltage of the machine. Large motors may have hundreds of segments; each conducting segment of the commutator is insulated from adjacent segments. Mica is still used on large machines. Many other insulating materials are used to insulate smaller machines; the segments are held onto the shaft using a dovetail shape on the edges or underside of each segment. Insulating wedges around the perimeter of each segment are pressed so that the commutator maintains its mechanical stability throughout its normal operating range. In small appliance and tool motors the segments are crimped permanently in place and cannot be removed; when the motor fails it is replaced. On large industrial machines it is economical to replace individual damaged segments, so the end-wedge can be unscrewed and individual segments removed and replaced.
Replacing the copper and mica segments is referred to as "refilling". Refillable dovetailed commutators are the most common construction of larger industrial type commutators, but refillable commutators may be constructed using external bands made of fiberglass or forged steel rings. Disposable, molded type commutators found in smaller DC motors are becoming more common in larger electric motors. Molded type commutators must be replaced if damaged. In addition to the used heat and tonnage methods of seasoning commutators, some high performance commutator applications require a more expensive, specific "spin seasoning" process or over-speed spin-testing to guarantee stability of the individual segments and prevent premature wear of the carbon brushes; such requirements are common with traction, aerospace, nuclear and high speed applications where premature failure can lead to serious negative consequences. Friction between the segments and the brushes causes wear to both surfaces. Carbon brushes, be
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor. Electric locomotives with on-board fueled prime movers, such as diesel engines or gas turbines, are classed as diesel-electric or gas turbine-electric and not as electric locomotives, because the electric generator/motor combination serves only as a power transmission system. Electric locomotives benefit from the high efficiency of electric motors above 90%. Additional efficiency can be gained from regenerative braking, which allows kinetic energy to be recovered during braking to put power back on the line. Newer electric locomotives use AC motor-inverter drive systems that provide for regenerative braking. Electric locomotives are quiet compared to diesel locomotives since there is no engine and exhaust noise and less mechanical noise; the lack of reciprocating parts means electric locomotives are easier on the track, reducing track maintenance.
Power plant capacity is far greater than any individual locomotive uses, so electric locomotives can have a higher power output than diesel locomotives and they can produce higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration. Electric locomotives are ideal for commuter rail service with frequent stops. Electric locomotives are used on freight routes with high traffic volumes, or in areas with advanced rail networks. Power plants if they burn fossil fuels, are far cleaner than mobile sources such as locomotive engines; the power can come from clean or renewable sources, including geothermal power, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar power and wind turbines. The chief disadvantage of electrification is the high cost for infrastructure: overhead lines or third rail and control systems. Public policy in the U. S. interferes with electrification: higher property taxes are imposed on owned rail facilities if they are electrified. The EPA regulates exhaust emissions on locomotive and marine engines, similar to regulations on car & freight truck emissions, in order to limit the amount of carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxides, soot output from these mobile power sources.
Because railroad infrastructure is owned in the U. S. railroads are unwilling to make the necessary investments for electrification. In Europe and elsewhere, railway networks are considered part of the national transport infrastructure, just like roads and waterways, so are financed by the state. Operators of the rolling stock pay fees according to rail use; this makes possible the large investments required for the technically and, in the long-term economically advantageous electrification. The first known electric locomotive was built in 1837 by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen, it was powered by galvanic cells. Davidson built a larger locomotive named Galvani, exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841; the seven-ton vehicle had two direct-drive reluctance motors, with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, simple commutators. It hauled a load of six tons at four miles per hour for a distance of one and a half miles, it was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use.
It was destroyed by railway workers. The first electric passenger train was presented by Werner von Siemens at Berlin in 1879; the locomotive was driven by a 2.2 kW, series-wound motor, the train, consisting of the locomotive and three cars, reached a speed of 13 km/h. During four months, the train carried 90,000 passengers on a 300-metre-long circular track; the electricity was supplied through a third insulated rail between the tracks. A contact roller was used to collect the electricity; the world's first electric tram line opened in Lichterfelde near Berlin, Germany, in 1881. It was built by Werner von Siemens. Volk's Electric Railway opened in 1883 in Brighton. In 1883, Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram opened near Vienna in Austria, it was the first in the world in regular service powered from an overhead line. Five years in the U. S. electric trolleys were pioneered in 1888 on the Richmond Union Passenger Railway, using equipment designed by Frank J. Sprague. Much of the early development of electric locomotion was driven by the increasing use of tunnels in urban areas.
Smoke from steam locomotives was noxious and municipalities were inclined to prohibit their use within their limits. The first electrically-worked underground line was the City and South London Railway, prompted by a clause in its enabling act prohibiting the use of steam power, it opened in 1890, using electric locomotives built by Platt. Electricity became the power supply of choice for subways, abetted by the Sprague's invention of multiple-unit train control in 1897. Surface and elevated rapid transit systems used steam until forced to convert by ordinance; the first use of electrification on a main line was on a four-mile stretch of the Baltimore Belt Line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1895 connecting the main portion of the B&O to the new line to New York through a series of tunnels around the edges of Baltimore's downtown. Parallel tracks on the Pennsylvania Railroad had shown that coal smoke from steam locomotives would be a major operating issue and a public nuisance. Three Bo+Bo units were used, at the south end of the electrified section.
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
Pennsylvania Railroad class DD1
The Pennsylvania Railroad DD1 was a class of boxcab electric locomotives built by the Pennsylvania Railroad. The locomotives were developed as part of the railroad's New York Tunnel Extension, which built the original Pennsylvania Station in New York City and linked it to New Jersey via the North River Tunnels; the Pennsylvania built a total of 66 locomotives in its Altoona Works. Westinghouse supplied the electrical equipment; the first locomotives entered service with the opening of Pennsylvania Station. They operated between Manhattan Transfer and Pennsylvania Station, from there to the coach yards at Sunnyside Yard in Queens, New York. With the arrival of the Class L5 locomotives in 1924 some DD1s moved to the Pennsylvania-owned Long Island Rail Road, which had substantial electrified commuter rail operations; the conversion of the New York–Philadelphia main line to alternating current in the 1930s saw the remainder of the DD1s scrapped or transferred to the LIRR. One pair, Nos. 3936 and 3937, is preserved at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Each semi-permanently coupled pair weighed 313,000 pounds. DD1-class locomotives were nearly always operated as a pair—never individually and as two pairs in a double-heading configuration; the PRR classed their 4-4-0 locomotives as class D, the DD1 was two 4-4-0 locomotives coupled back to back, resulting in the new class, DD. Each pair was assigned a single "Electrified Zone Number"; each locomotive had its own Westinghouse 315-A, direct current, commutating pole, electric motors within a monocoque cab. The motors had a continuous power rating of 1,580 horsepower at 58 miles per hour, could produce up to 2,130 horsepower at 38 miles per hour for no more than an hour, their top speed was 85 miles per hour, but PRR/LIRR timetables had a speed limit of 65 miles per hour. The motors were connected to the two 72-inch drivers via a coupling rods; the design of the DD1 served as a transition between steam locomotives and modern electric locomotives. Despite their ungainly appearance, DD1s ran "quietly and smoothly...with no appreciable rod clanking", had a low maintenance cost.
DD1 locomotives operated off of 650 volt direct current from a third rail. The first DD1-class of locomotives were introduced into regular passenger service on November 27, 1910 to operate in the North River Tunnels under the Hudson River; as steam locomotives were prohibited from entering the tunnels, the electric DD1 shuttled passengers from the Pennsylvania Railroad's Manhattan Transfer station in New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in New York City. A total of 66 locomotives were constructed by the Pennsylvania Railroad's Juniata Shops in Altoona starting 1909; as the new L5s were being introduced in 1924, most DD1s were transferred to the Long Island Rail Road. Both 3936 and 3937 were shifted from mainline passenger duty, hauled the empty passenger trains from Pennsylvania Station to the Sunnyside Yard; the Long Island Rail Road scrapped most of their DD1s from 1949 to 1951, only two pairs remained in 1962. By 1978, Nos. 3936 and 3937 comprised the last existing DD1 and were donated to the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, by the Pennsylvania's successor Penn Central as part of a collection with twelve other significant locomotives.
Both locomotives were jointly listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 17, 1979. PRR locomotive classification Staufer, Alvin F.. Pennsy Power: Steam and Electric Locomotives of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1900-1957. Research by Martin Flattley. Carollton, OH: Alvin F. Staufer. ISBN 978-0-9445-1304-0. LCCN 62020878. OCLC 602543182. Hart, George M. National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form. Retrieved October 20, 2013. Bezilla, Michael. Electric traction on the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1895-1968. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-00241-5. Cudahy, Brian J. Rails Under the Mighty Hudson, New York: Fordham University Press, ISBN 978-0-82890-257-1, OCLC 911046235 Middleton, William D.. The Pennsylvania Railroad - Under Wire. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89024-617-7. OCLC 51208625. Westing, Frederick. "The Locomotive That Made Penn Station Possible". Trains. Vol. 16 no. 12. Pp. 28–38. ISSN 0041-0934. LIRR Early Electric Engines
An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators. Languages other than English may lift; because of wheelchair access laws, elevators are a legal requirement in new multistory buildings where wheelchair ramps would be impractical. There are some elevators which can go sideways in addition to the usual up-and-down motion; the earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that Archimedes built his first elevator in 236 BC.
Some sources from historical periods mention elevators as cabs on a hemp rope powered by hand or by animals. In 1000, the Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress. In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England and France. Louis XV of France had a so-called'flying chair' built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in 1743. Ancient and medieval elevators used drive systems based on windlasses; the invention of a system based on the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793. Several years another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in the Arkhangelskoye near Moscow; the development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides.
The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Starting in the coal mines, by the mid-19th century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories; these steam driven devices were soon being applied to a diverse set of purposes—in 1823, two architects working in London and Hormer, built and operated a novel tourist attraction, which they called the "ascending room". It elevated paying customers to a considerable height in the center of London, allowing them a magnificent panoramic view of downtown. Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the ensuing decade; the elevator used a counterweight for extra power. The hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846 for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo; these supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: exploiting Pascal's law, they provided a much greater force.
A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform to be raised and lowered. Counterweights and balances were used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus. Henry Waterman of New York is credited with inventing the "standing rope control" for an elevator in 1850. In 1845, the Neapolitan architect Gaetano Genovese installed in the Royal Palace of Caserta the "Flying Chair", an elevator ahead of its time, covered with chestnut wood outside and with maple wood inside, it included a light, two benches and a hand operated signal, could be activated from the outside, without any effort on the part of the occupants. Traction was controlled by a motor mechanic utilizing a system of toothed wheels. A safety system was designed to take effect, it consisted of a beam pushed outwards by a steel spring. In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke, he demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in 1854, the first such passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City on 23 March 1857.
The first elevator shaft preceded the first elevator by four years. Construction for Peter Cooper's Cooper Union Foundation building in New York began in 1853. An elevator shaft was included in the design, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented; the shaft was cylindrical. Otis designed a special elevator for the building; the Equitable Life Building completed in 1870 in New York City was thought to be the first office building to have passenger elevators. However Peter Ellis, an English architect, installed the first elevators that could be described as paternoster elevators in Oriel Chambers in Liverpool in 1868; the first electric elevator was built by Werner von Siemens in 1880 in Germany. The inventor Anton Freissler developed the ideas of von Siemens and built up a successful enterprise in Austria-Hungary; the safety and speed of electric elevators were enhanced by Frank Sprague who added floor control, automatic elevators, acceleration control of cars, safeties.
His elevator ran faster and with larger loads than hyd