Tracy, California

Tracy is the second most populated city in San Joaquin County, United States. The population was 82,922 at the 2010 census. Tracy is located inside a geographic triangle formed by Interstate 205 on the north side of the city, Interstate 5 to the east, Interstate 580 to the southwest; until the 1760s, the area, now the city of Tracy was populated by the Yokuts tribe of Native Americans. Their lives revolved around subsistence from foods provided by the local creeks; the Yokuts were forced out by Spanish and Mexican and American immigrants and ravaged by diseases. The origins of Tracy are related to the mid-19th century construction of Central Pacific Railroad lines running from Sacramento through Stockton and to the San Francisco Bay Area. Tracy is part of the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, an extension of the Bay Area. A number of small communities sprang up along these lines, including the one named for railroad director Lathrop J. Tracy. Incorporated in 1911, Tracy grew and prospered as an agricultural area when railroad operations began to decline in the 1950s.

Beginning in the 1980s, Tracy experienced a growth spurt as people migrated to the city looking for affordable alternatives to Bay Area home prices, in addition to a more tranquil lifestyle. A steady period of growth ensued, as many companies found Tracy an ideal location for their distribution facilities. In December 1969, the town of Tracy was the host of the Altamont Free Concert, held at the Altamont Raceway Park. An estimated 300,000 people appeared at the speedway infield in an event, plagued by violence, but featured the Rolling Stones, Jefferson Airplane, The Flying Burrito Brothers and Crosby, Nash & Young. Located in the Greater Bay Area, Tracy sits near both infertile agricultural lands. Tracy has a Mediterranean climate; some of this land has come under increasing development pressure as the San Francisco Bay Area's vigorous population growth has spilled over into the Tracy area as well as other locations such as the new town of Mountain House near the Bay Area's edge. In an effort to reduce its impact on the environment, the city launched the Emerald Tracy Project in September 2009.

City spokesman Matt Robinson said that if it succeeds, Tracy will be the second city after Riverside to satisfy the state's goal for sustainable communities. On August 7, 1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Royster's Tire Disposal south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd; the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for over two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a better way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out; the cleanup of chemicals released by the fire cost $16.2 million, those releases did contaminate groundwater in the region anyway. Tracy is marked by a semi-arid climate, with mild, moist winters and hot and dry summers, thus displaying Mediterranean characteristics. December and January are the coolest months, average around 47°F, there are 19 nights with lows at or below freezing annually, with the coldest night of the year bottoming out below 30°F. July is the warmest month, averaging 76°F.

Average annual precipitation is 12.6 inches, which, by definition, would classify the area as a semi-arid. The 2010 United States Census reported that Tracy had a population of 82,922; the population density was 3,745.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Tracy was 43,724 White, 5,953 African American, 715 Native American, 12,229 Asian, 747 Pacific Islander, 13,173 from other races, 6,381 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 30,557 persons; the Census reported that 82,606 people lived in households, 69 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 247 were institutionalized. There were 24,331 households, out of which 13,143 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 15,122 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,196 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,627 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,501 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 184 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,326 households were made up of individuals and 1,026 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 3.40. There were 19,945 families; the population was spread out with 26,668 people under the age of 18, 7,476 people aged 18 to 24, 23,826 people aged 25 to 44, 19,202 people aged 45 to 64, 5,750 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. There were 25,963 housing units at an average density of 1,172.7 per square mile, of which 16,163 were owner-occupied, 8,168 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.5%. 54,275 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 28,331 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,929 people, 17,620 households

Surface Pro 4

The Surface Pro 4 is the fourth-generation Surface-series 2-in-1 detachable, developed and produced by Microsoft. The Surface Pro 4 was announced on October 2015 alongside the Surface Book. In the U. S. and Canada, the Surface Pro 4 was released on October 26, 2015. The Surface Pro 4 is an update over its predecessor, featuring Skylake CPUs, more RAM and SSD options and a 12.3-inch display with a greater resolution. At the same time, the device is compatible with most of its predecessor's accessories; the device's successor, the 2017 Surface Pro, was announced in May 2017, ahead of a release the following month. The Surface Pro 4 was announced on October 2015 alongside the Surface Book. Both devices were available for pre-order the following day and available for customers beginning on October 26, 2015; the device exhibited failure to sleep properly, which drained the battery quickly. Microsoft subsequently developed a fix, made available on February 17, 2016; the Surface Pro 4 is the same size as the Surface Pro 3, but has a thinner screen bezel which allows for a display of a greater size of 12.3 inches.

The screen resolution is greater than the Surface Pro 3's, at 2736x1824 at 267 PPI, with the same aspect ratio of 3:2 and 10-point multi-touch. The chassis is 0.03 inches thinner and 0.03 pounds lighter than the Surface Pro 3. The cooling system of the 2-in-1 has been dubbed hybrid liquid cooling system, it includes heat pipes with a flowing liquid, meant to avoid the use of the internal fan when the device is used for less demanding tasks such as web browsing. All Surface Pro 4 models feature 6th-generation Skylake Intel Core processors—m3, i5 or i7—which are more powerful and run cooler over its Intel Core Haswell predecessors found in the Surface Pro 3 and 2; the maximum clock rate of the most powerful CPU option is greater at 2.2 GHz, with up to 3.4 GHz in the Turbo Boost mode. The m3-powered model is fanless. RAM and SSD options available are 8, 16 GB and 128, 256, 512, 1024 GB respectively; the common traits, inherited from the previous-generation Surface Pro 3, are a continuous kickstand, magnesium casing with a silver-colored back side, 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wi-Fi radio, Bluetooth 4.0 Low Energy, full-size USB 3.0 port, microSD card reader, headset jack, Mini DisplayPort, Cover Port, a renamed SurfaceConnect, a port on the side to connect a wall charger, Docking Station or Surface Dock accessories.

All Surface Pro 4 models come with a 64-bit version of Windows 10 Pro and a Microsoft Office 30-day trial. Windows 10 comes pre-installed with Mail, People, Photos, Movies and TV, Microsoft Edge. With Windows 10, a "Tablet mode" is available. In this mode, all windows are opened full-screen and the interface becomes more touch-centric; the device has a Windows Hello-compatible camera. It combines the use of a infrared cameras to authenticate the user; the Surface Pro 4 is backward compatible with all accessories of its predecessor. At the Windows 10 Devices Event on October 6, 2015, alongside new Surface 2-in-1s, new accessories were announced; the Surface Dock is a redesigned docking accessory in a brick form factor. It is compatible with all past and future Surface models with a SurfaceConnect side port used to connect a wall charger or Docking Station accessory: Surface Pro 3, 4 and Surface Book; the Surface Dock will have 2 Mini DisplayPorts, 1 Gigabit Ethernet, 4 USB 3.0, 1 audio out ports.

Although Surface Pro 4 is backward compatible with Type Cover accessory of Surface Pro 3, an attachable keyboard which doubles as a screen protector, the Surface Pro 4 Type Cover has been announced with and without a fingerprint ID sensor. The new Type Cover is thinner and lighter than its predecessor, has improved magnetic stability for lap use, a mechanical keyboard with improved key spacing, as well as a larger touchpad. An updated version of Surface Pen is included with the Surface Pro 4, which has 1024 levels of pressure sensitivity and is heavier with a rubberized tip. However, the new pen has only one button on the side rather than the previous pen's two. There is an eraser on the end that doubles as a button, which may perform different tasks, like opening the OneNote app or activating Cortana, can be customized using the Surface App; the Surface Pro 4 is known to have wide spread flicker issues with the display named as Flickergate after the independent website, set up by the affected users after getting no fix from Microsoft.

Microsoft's spokesperson acknowledged the issue stating: "We are aware that some customers have experienced a screen flicker on Surface Pro 4 and are monitoring the situation closely. Customers impacted by this should contact Microsoft support."Microsoft has stated that bad batteries and Type Covers may be repaired under warranty. The Type Cover has connectivity issues that afflict many due to a Windows update; this seems to be a common issue across the Surface series, with a sudden death to the Type Cover. The Surface Pro 4 received positive reviews from technology critics. Most praise a sharper and larger display compared to the one found in the predecessor, redesigned cooling system, improved technical specifications, an improved Type Cover; the common disadvantages found by reviewers were that the Type Cover is still a separate purchase, the modest performance of the Intel Core m3 chip, modest battery life

Albert L. Marsh

Albert Leroy Marsh, was an American metallurgist. In 1905 he co-invented the first metallic alloy from which a high-resistance wire could be made that could be used as a durable and safe heating element. While working at Hoskins Manufacturing, the company of chemist, electrical engineer and entrepreneur William Hoskins the two experimented for several years until the alloy was perfected; the material was patented that year as chromel and still today marketed as nichrome. For this invention, Marsh was acclaimed as "father of the electrical heating industry". Marsh was born August 16, 1877, in Pontiac, the oldest of three children; the family moved to Pana, Illinois, in 1884. Marsh went to University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 1901, Albert received his bachelor of science degree in Chemical Engineering; the same year, he married Minnie E Hayward in Massachusetts. While working with an electric storage battery and doing technical writing, he experimented with nickel and chromium alloys in his spare time.

In 1904, needing a better location to work on his wiring project and additional funding, he made a business arrangement with William Hoskins of Chicago. Hoskins was with a firm of consulting chemists, he hired Marsh at a small salary – while giving him permission to work on the alloy project in his spare time. When formed as Hoskins Manufacturing Company, the business relocated to Detroit, Michigan; when perfected, the new alloy was 300 times stronger than other types at that time. Chromel is made of 20 % chromium; the US patent was granted February 1906, in Marsh's name, sold to Hoskins Manufacturing. By Hoskins's own account, he was involved in the experimentation process, not a funder. Toasters, dental furnaces and chromel wire for home appliance manufacturers were the first focus of the Hoskins company; the first two were unprofitable and were dropped. The company concentrated on manufacturing the chromel wire. Marsh served as chief engineer and general manager of Hoskins Manufacturing Co. in Detroit.

He was named president of the firm in 1915. In 1936, Marsh was awarded the John Price Wetherill Medal of The Franklin Institute for "significant and timely contribution to the science of automotive engineering" and "for outstanding discoveries in the physical sciences". In 1941, the American Metals Congress bestowed upon Marsh with The Sauveur Award for outstanding metallurgical achievement. Albert Marsh, Scientist