Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for money. Economists refer to a network that allows trade as a market. An early form of trade, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter involves trading things without the use of money; when either bartering party started to involve precious metals, these gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money; as a result, buying can be separated from earning. The invention of money simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade. In one modern view, trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs. Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere.
For example: different regions' sizes may encourage mass production. In such circumstances, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations. Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is defined as traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. Openness to free trade increased in some areas from 1815 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Trade openness increased again during the 1920s, but collapsed during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Trade openness increased again from the 1950s onwards. Economists and economic historians contend that current levels of trade openness are the highest they have been. Trade is from Middle English trade, introduced into English by Hanseatic merchants, from Middle Low German trade, from Old Saxon trada, from Proto-Germanic *tradō, cognate with Old English tredan.
Commerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum "together" and merx, "merchandise." Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. In the Mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures involved members of the species Homo sapiens, principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35,000–30,000 BP; some trace the origins of commerce to the start of transactions in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of flint during the stone age. Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in New Guinea from 17,000 BCE.
The earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Middle paleolithic. Robert Carr Bosanquet investigated trade in the Stone Age by excavations in 1901. Trade is believed to have first begun in south west Asia. Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this material was the preferred choice rather than chert from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean region. Obsidian is thought to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools, although since other more obtainable materials were available, use was found exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the rich man's flint". Obsidian was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean region. Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material. Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE Anatolia was the source for trade with the Levant and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990.
Melos and Lipari sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean region as known to archaeology. The Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of lapis lazuli; the material was most traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE. Ebla was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE. Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley; the Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies. From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including
The following is a list of the urban local bodies in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Elections to the urban local bodies in Uttarakhand are held once in five years, are conducted by Uttarakhand State Election Commission. Both direct and indirect elections apply for the urban local bodies. Direct election posts include: Municipal Corporation: Mayor and Corporators Municipal Council: Chairperson and Councillors Nagar Panchayat: Chairperson and Ward MembersIndirect election posts include: Municipal Corporation: Deputy Mayor Municipal Council: Deputy Chairperson Nagar Panchayat: Deputy ChairpersonVarious statutory/standing committees are elected by the way of indirect elections; the cantonment boards consists of eight elected members, three nominated military members, three ex-officio members, one representative of the district magistrate. Local self-government in India Municipal governance in India List of municipal corporations in India List of cities in Uttarakhand by population List of cities in India by population Official website Uttarakhand Urban Development Directorate
The Kumite 1 League is a mixed martial arts league and martial arts promotion, based in Mumbai, India. The league is backed by Toyam Industries. Kumite 1 League debuted its inaugural season on September 28, 2018 in Mumbai and Mike Tyson was appointed as the brand ambassador of the event. Kumite 1 League is founded by Mohamedali Budhwani in 2017, with the purpose to promote and popularise the sport of Mixed Martial Arts in India. Kumite 1 League 1.0 was the introductory event held at the National Sports Club of India Dome, Mumbai on September 28, 2018, in the presence of brand ambassador Mike Tyson. The event was attended by international sports and entertainment personalities from India; the event was broadcast in India on Sony ESPN, Sony ESPN HD and Sony Liv and it was beamed across more than 80 countries. Bappi Lahiri composed a special jingle for Mike Tyson during his visit to India. Music composer Asif Panjwani created the theme music for Kumite 1 League; the MMA champion. The inaugural season was won by Nelson Paes.
In June 2019, It launched Kumite 1 Warrior Hunt, India's first-ever MMA talent hunt & Sports Reality TV show, searching for the best Mixed Martial Arts athletes in India. Mixed martial arts Official Website