SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Trademark

A trademark is a type of intellectual property consisting of a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings, it is recognized as a type of intellectual property. The first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold; the first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system.

The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system. The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer to the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements.

There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound. Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law; the term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities. When a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States; the essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections.

Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes. The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Stella Artois, which claims use of its mark since 1366, Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act".

In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'. In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some parti

Heilsbronn Abbey

Heilsbronn Abbey was a Cistercian monastery at Heilsbronn in the district of Ansbach in Middle Franconia, Germany. It was part of the Diocese of Eichstätt, it was founded in 1132–33 by Saint Otto of Bamberg and was settled by monks from Ebrach Abbey, under the first abbot Rapotho. It was one of the wealthiest monasteries of Germany, with possessions around Franconia as far as Regensburg and in Württemberg; these rich endowments were made by the dukes of Abenberg and their heirs, the Hohenzollern Burgraves of Nuremberg. It was the hereditary burial-place of the Hohenzollern family and ten burgraves of Nuremberg, five margraves and three electors of Brandenburg, besides many other persons of note, were buried here. Heilsbronn was a flourishing monastery until the time of the Reformation. In 1530 Abbot John Schopper founded a monastic school here, which became a Protestant school for princes, the doctrines of Luther found favour in the monastery, his successor, Sebastian Wagner supported Protestantism.

He married and resigned in 1543. In 1549 Roman Catholicism was restored at Heilsbronn, but only ostensibly, the abbey seems to have ceased to be a Catholic house in 1555, although it existed for some years longer; the last abbot who made any pretense to Catholic belief was Melchior Wunderer. The five succeeding abbots were Protestants, in 1631 Heilsbronn ceased to be an abbey, its valuable library was transferred to Erlangen. The buildings of the monastery have disappeared, with the exception of the fine church, known as Münster Heilsbronn, a Romanesque basilica, restored between 1851 and 1866, possessing paintings by Albrecht Dürer; the Monk of Heilsbronn was a didactic poet of the 14th century, author of the works Sieben Graden, Tochter Syon and Leben des heiligen Alexius. Rehm, Ein Gang durch und um die Münster-Kirche in Kloster Heilsbronn Meyer, J. Die Hohenzollerndenkmale in Heilsbronn Muck, Geschichte von Kloster-Heilsbronn Stillfried, Kloster-Heilsbronn, ein Beitrag in den Hohenzollernschen Forschungen Wagner, A. Über den Mönch von Heilsbronn This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..

"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Heilsbronn". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 212–213

All That Glitters... (module)

All That Glitters... is an adventure module published in 1984 by TSR for the first edition of the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons fantasy roleplaying game. It is set in the World of Greyhawk campaign setting and is intended for 5-8 player characters of levels 5-7. In this scenario, a map to a treasure of gold leads the player characters through a jungle and wilderness inhabited by fierce tribesmen; the module includes a description of the "Wind Walkers' Passages", which are strange tunnels that pass right through a mountain range called the Hadarna Mountains. The player characters acquire pieces of a map showing a journey through forest and desert leading to a temple and treasure. UK6 All That Glitters was written by Jim Bambra, with interior art by Tim Sell and cover art by Brian Williams, was published by TSR in 1984 as a 32-page booklet with an outer folder; this module is part of the UK series of modules and was written and developed by TSR UK division, but was printed in the US. Graeme Morris and Tom Kirby contributed to the storyline, Phil Gallagher was in charge of production.

Cartography was by Paul Ruiz. Chris Hunter reviewed the module for Imagine magazine. Hunter noted that, compared to UK5, this module is a more conventional "follow-the-treasure-map-adventure". Although he thought this a "hackneyed idea", Hunter considered, he described the main part of the module as "well thought out". Overall he called this "a worthwhile and interesting excursion". All That Glitters... at the TSR Archive United Kingdom Series at the Acaeum.com