Crystal healing is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine technique that uses semiprecious stones and crystals such as quartz, amethyst or opals. Adherents of the technique claim that these have healing powers, although there is no scientific basis for this claim. In one method, the practitioner places crystals on different parts of the body corresponding to chakras. Despite this, scientific investigations have not validated claims that chakras or energy grids exist, nor is there any evidence that crystal healing has any greater effect upon the body than any other placebo. Precious stones have been thought of as healing objects by a variety of cultures worldwide. Crystal healing is associated with the New Age spiritual movement: "the middle-class New Age healing activity par excellence". In contrast with other forms of complementary and alternative medicine, participants in crystal healing view the practice as "individuated", i.e. dependent on extreme personalization and creative expression.
Practitioners of crystal healing purport that certain physical properties—e.g. Shape and markings—determine the ailments that a stone can heal. Paradoxically, practitioners "hold the view that crystals have no intrinsic qualities but that, their quality changes according to both" participants. After selecting the stones by color or their believed metaphysical qualities, they place them on parts of the body. Color selection and placement of stones are done according to concepts of grounding, chakras, or energy grids. Many other cultures have developed traditions of crystal healing over time, including the Hopi Native Americans of Arizona and Hawaiian islanders, some of whom continued to use it as of 1997; the Chinese have traditionally attributed healing powers to microcrystalline jade. There is no peer-reviewed scientific evidence. Alleged successes of crystal healing can be attributed to the placebo effect. Furthermore, there is no scientific basis for the concepts of chakras, being "blocked", energy grids requiring grounding, or other such terms.
Energy, as a scientific term, is a well-defined concept, measurable and bears little resemblance to the esoteric concept of energy used by proponents of crystal healing. In 1999, researchers French and Williams conducted a study to investigate the power of crystals compared with a placebo. Eighty volunteers were asked to meditate with either a quartz crystal, or a placebo stone, indistinguishable from quartz. Many of the participants reported feeling typical "crystal effects". In 2001 Christopher French, head of the anomalistic psychology research unit at the University of London and colleagues from Goldsmiths College outlined their study of crystal healing at the British Psychological Society Centenary Annual Conference, concluding "There is no evidence that crystal healing works over and above a placebo effect.”Crystal healing effects could be attributed to cognitive bias. Crystal healing techniques are practiced on animals, although some veterinary organizations, such as the British Veterinary Association, have warned that these methods are not scientifically proven and state that people should seek the advice of a vet before using alternative techniques.
Color healing Energy medicine Magnet therapy List of topics characterized as pseudoscience Lawrence E. Jerome.. Crystal Power: The Ultimate Placebo Effect. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-514-0 Crystal Healing: Stone-cold Facts About Gemstone Treatments - LiveScience James Randi debunks Crystal Power
Antananarivo known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar. The larger urban area surrounding the city, known as Antananarivo-Renivohitra, is the capital of Analamanga region; the city is located 1,280 m above the sea level in the center of the island and has been the country's largest population center since at least the 18th century. Antananarivo was the capital of the Merina people, who continue to form the majority of the city's estimated 1,300,000 inhabitants, as well as the surrounding urban areas which in all have a total metropolitan population approaching three million. All 18 Malagasy ethnic groups, as well as residents of Chinese, Indian and other origins, are well represented in the city. Antananarivo is the political, economic and cultural heart of Madagascar; the presidency, National Assembly and Supreme Court are located there, as are 21 diplomatic missions and the headquarters of many national and international businesses and NGOs. Antananarivo hosts the largest number of universities, art venues, medical services and other social service institutions of any city on the island.
Several national and local sports teams, including the championship-winning national rugby team, the Makis,and several basketball and football teams, are based in Antananarivo. Antananarivo was founded from about 1610 to 1625, when the Merina King Andrianjaka expelled the Vazimba inhabitants of the village of Analamanga at the highest meeting point of two forested ridges rising above the surrounding highland plains. Declaring it the site of his capital, Andrianjaka built a rova that expanded to become the royal palaces of the Kingdom of Imerina. According to oral history, he deployed a garrison of 1,000 soldiers to guard the site; the city served as the capital of the Kingdom of Imerina from its founding until 1710, when Imerina split into four warring quadrants. Antananarivo was declared the capital of the southern quadrant, his diplomatic and military successes extended Imerina far beyond its traditional borders, bringing the lands of neighboring ethnic groups under Merina control. These conquests were continued under his son, Radama I, whose control extended over two-thirds of the island, leading him to be considered the King of Madagascar by European diplomats, with Antananarivo as the island's capital.
Antananarivo remained the island's capital after Madagascar was colonized by the French in 1897 and remained thus after independence in 1960. Antananarivo has expanded from the royal palaces at its center, which dominate every view from their location at the peak of a curving ridge 200 m above the surrounding Betsimitatatra plains. In the 17th century, the plains were transformed into paddy fields to meet the population's need for rice. Around the palaces, which were destroyed in a 1995 fire but have since been reconstructed, lies the historic district, populated by members of the andriana; the Analakely valley at the base of the ridge was the site of a Friday market established in the 18th century that, until being discontinued in 1997 because of traffic congestion, was considered the largest open air market in the world. This neighborhood was further developed under French rule and continues to serve as the capital's economic heart; the city is managed by the Commune Urbaine d'Antananarivo under the direction of its President of the Special Delegation, Ny Havana Andriamanjato, appointed in March 2014.
Limited funds and mismanagement have hampered consecutive CUA efforts to manage overcrowding and traffic, waste management, security, public water and electricity, other challenges linked to explosive population growth. Major historic landmarks and attractions in the city include the reconstructed royal palaces and the Andafiavaratra Palace, the tomb of Rainiharo, Tsimbazaza Zoo, Mahamasina Stadium, Lake Anosy, four 19th-century martyr cathedrals, the Museum of Art and Archaeology; the English pronunciation of Antananarivo is or. The Malagasy pronunciation is, the pronunciation of the old French name Tananarive is or in English and in French. Antananarivo was the site of a town called Analamanga, meaning "Blue Forest" in the Central Highlands dialect of the Malagasy language. Analamanga was established by a community of the island's first occupants. Merina King Andrianjaka, who migrated to the region from the southeast coast, seized the location as the site of his capital city. According to oral history, he deployed a garrison of 1,000 soldiers to capture and guard the site.
The hill and its city retained the name Analamanga until the reign of King Andriamasinavalona, who renamed it Antananarivo in honor of Andrianjaka's soldiers. Unlike most capital cities in southern Africa, Antananarivo was a major city before the colonial era. After expelling the Vazimba who inhabited the town at the peak of Analamanga hill, Andrianjaka chose the site for his rova, which expanded over time to enclose the royal palaces and the tom
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements. It was developed in 19th-century New England by Mary Baker Eddy, who argued in her 1875 book Science and Health that sickness is an illusion that can be corrected by prayer alone; the book became Christian Science's central text, along with the Bible, by 2001 had sold over nine million copies. Eddy and 26 followers were granted a charter in 1879 to found the Church of Christ, in 1894 the Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, was built in Boston, Massachusetts. Christian Science became the fastest growing religion in the United States, with nearly 270,000 members by 1936, a figure that had declined by 1990 to just over 100,000; the church is known for its newspaper, the Christian Science Monitor, which won seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002, for its public Reading Rooms around the world. Eddy described Christian Science as a return to "primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing".
There are key differences between Christian Science theology and that of other branches of Christianity. In particular, adherents subscribe to a radical form of philosophical idealism, believing that reality is purely spiritual and the material world an illusion; this includes the view that disease is a mental error rather than physical disorder, that the sick should be treated not by medicine, but by a form of prayer that seeks to correct the beliefs responsible for the illusion of ill health. The church does not require that Christian Scientists avoid all medical care—adherents use dentists, obstetricians, physicians for broken bones, vaccination when required by law—but maintains that Christian-Science prayer is most effective when not combined with medicine. Between the 1880s and 1990s, the avoidance of medical treatment led to the deaths of several adherents and their children. Parents and others were prosecuted for, in a few cases convicted of, manslaughter or neglect. Several periods of Protestant Christian revival nurtured a proliferation of new religious movements in the United States.
In the latter half of the 19th century these included what came to be known as the metaphysical family: groups such as Christian Science, Divine Science, the Unity School of Christianity and the United Church of Religious Science. From the 1890s the liberal section of the movement became known as New Thought, in part to distinguish it from the more authoritarian Christian Science; the term metaphysical referred to the movement's philosophical idealism, a belief in the primacy of the mental world. Adherents believed that material phenomena were the result of mental states, a view expressed as "life is consciousness" and "God is mind." The supreme cause was referred to as Divine Mind, God, Life, Principle or Father–Mother, reflecting elements of Plato, Berkeley, Hegel and transcendentalism. The metaphysical groups became known as the mind-cure movement because of their strong focus on healing. Medical practice was in its infancy, patients fared better without it; this provided fertile soil for the mind-cure groups, who argued that sickness was an absence of "right thinking" or failure to connect to Divine Mind.
The movement traced its roots in the United States to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, a New England clockmaker turned mental healer, whose motto was "the truth is the cure." Mary Baker Eddy had been a patient of his, leading to debate about how much of Christian Science was based on his ideas. New Thought and Christian Science differed in that Eddy saw her views as a unique and final revelation. Eddy's idea of malicious animal magnetism marked another distinction, introducing an element of fear, absent from the New Thought literature. Most she dismissed the material world as an illusion, rather than as subordinate to Mind, leading her to reject the use of medicine, or materia medica, making Christian Science the most controversial of the metaphysical groups. Reality for Eddy was purely spiritual. Christian Science leaders place their religion within mainstream Christian teaching, according to J. Gordon Melton, reject any identification with the New Thought movement. Eddy was influenced by her Congregationalist upbringing.
According to the church's tenets, adherents accept "the inspired Word of the Bible as sufficient guide to eternal Life... acknowledge and adore one supreme and infinite God... acknowledge His Son, one Christ. When founding the Church of Christ, Scientist, in April 1879, Eddy wrote that she wanted to "reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing", she suggested that Christian Science was a kind of second coming and that Science and Health was an inspired text. In 1895, in the Manual of the Mother Church, she ordained the Bible and Science and Health as "Pastor over the Mother Church". Christian Science theology differs in several respects from that of traditional Christianity. Eddy's Science and Health reinterprets key Christian concepts, including the Trinity, divinity of Jesus and resurrection. At the core of Eddy's theology is the view that the spiritual world is the only reality and is good, that the material world, with its evil and death, is an illusion. Eddy saw humanity as an "idea of Mind", "perfect, eternal and reflects the divine", according to Bryan Wilson.
Cupping therapy is an ancient form of alternative medicine. Cupping is used in more than 60 countries, its usage dates back to as far as 1,550 B. C. There are different forms of cupping. Cups are applied onto the skin and a suction is created, pulling the skin up, it is meant to increase blood flow to certain areas to the body. Cupping has been characterized as a pseudoscience. There is no good evidence it has any health benefits, there are some risks of harm from fire and wet cupping. Cupping is poorly supported by scientific evidence, with a 2014 review of recent evidence finding that "because of the unreasonable design and poor research quality, the clinical evidence of cupping therapy is low." A 2011 review found that "the effectiveness of cupping is not well-documented for most conditions", that systematic reviews showing efficacy for the treatment of pain "were based on poor quality primary studies." The American Cancer Society notes that "available scientific evidence does not support claims that cupping has any health benefits" and that the treatment carries a small risk of burns.
In their 2008 book Trick or Treatment, Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst write that no evidence exists of any beneficial effects of cupping for any medical condition. Critics of alternative medicine such as Harriet Hall and Mark Crislip have characterized cupping as "pseudoscience nonsense", "a celebrity fad", "gibberish", observed that there is no evidence that cupping works any better than a placebo. Pharmacologist David Colquhoun writes that cupping is "laughable... and utterly implausible." Practicing surgeon David Gorski observes, "...it’s all risk for no benefit. It has no place in modern medicine, or at least shouldn’t." While ineffective, cupping is safe when applied by trained professionals on people who are otherwise healthy. Cupping may result in bruising, pain, and/or skin infection, is not recommended for people with health problems due to side effects. In 2016, the Cambodian Ministry of Health warned that cupping could be a health risk and dangerous for people with high blood pressure or heart problems.
Research suggests that cupping is harmful in people who are thin or obese: According to Jack Raso, cupping results in capillary expansion, excessive fluid accumulation in tissues, the rupture of blood vessels. Cupping therapy adverse events can be divided into local and systemic adverse events; the local adverse events were scar formation, skin infection, abscess formation, pain at the cupping site, systemic adverse events including: anemia, vasovagal attack, insomnia and nausea. Fire cupping can sometimes result in minor to severe burns at the cupping site, may lead to hospitalization and may require skin grafting to repair the injury. Other burns can occur due to carelessness with the flammable substances being used, such as spills and over application; some contraindications for cupping may include: pregnancy, dry or cracked skin, open wounds, or thin blood. While details vary between practitioners and cultures, the practice consists of drawing tissue into a cap placed on the targeted area by creating a partial vacuum – either by the heating and subsequent cooling of the air in the cup, or via a mechanical pump.
The cup is left in place for somewhere between five and fifteen minutes. Cupping therapy types can be classified using four distinct methods of categorisation; the first system of categorisation relates to "technical types" including: dry, wet and flash cupping therapy. The second categorisation relates to "the power of suction related types" including: light and strong cupping therapy; the third categorisation relates to "the method of suction related types" including: fire, manual suction, electrical suction cupping therapy. The fourth categorisation relates to "materials inside cups" including: herbal products, ozone, moxa and magnetic cupping therapy. Further categories of cupping were developed later; the fifth relates to area treated including: facial, female and orthopedic cupping therapy. The sixth relates to "other cupping types" that include aquatic cupping; the cupping procedure involves creating a small area of low air pressure next to the skin. However, there are varieties in the tools used, the methods of creating the low pressure, the procedures followed during the treatment.
The cups can be of various shapes including balls or bells, may range in size from 1 to 3 inches across the opening. Plastic and glass are the most common materials used today, replacing the horn, pottery and bamboo cups used in earlier times; the low air pressure required may be created by heating the cup or the air inside it with an open flame or a bath in hot scented oils placing it against the skin. As the air inside the cup cools, it contracts and draws the skin inside. More vacuum is created with a mechanical suction pump acting through a valve located at the top of the cup. Rubber cups are available that squeeze the air out and adapt to uneven or bony surfaces. In practice, cups are used only on softer tissue that can form a good seal with the edge of the cup, they may be used singly or with many to cover a larger area. They may be placed over an acupuncture needle. Skin may be lubricated. Cupping is not painful. There might be discomfort due to the tight suction created, pulling the skin up.
After a cupping session, the person might see red circle marks on their body. It is a misconception that these red circle
Jamaica Plain is a neighborhood of 4.4 square miles in the city of Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Founded by Boston Puritans seeking farm land to the south, it was part of the town of Roxbury; the community seceded from Roxbury as a part of the new town of West Roxbury in 1851, became part of Boston when West Roxbury was annexed in 1874. In the 19th century, Jamaica Plain became one of the first streetcar suburbs in America and home to a significant portion of Boston's Emerald Necklace of parks, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. In 2010, Jamaica Plain had a population of 37,468 according to the United States Census. Shortly after the founding of Boston and Roxbury in 1630, William Heath's family and three others settled on land just south of Parker Hill in what is now Jamaica Plain. In the next few years, William Curtis, John May and others set up farms nearby along Stony Brook, which flowed from south to north from Turtle Pond to an outlet in the Charles River marshes in the current filled-in Fens area of Boston.
John Polley followed with a farm which he purchased from Lt. Joshua Hewe in 1659 at the site of the present day Soldier's Monument at the intersection of South and Centre streets, closer to the "Great Pond" known as Jamaica Pond. For services rendered during the Pequot War, Joseph Weld received a grant of 278 acres of land between South Street and Centre Street, his son John built a home along South Street in what is now the Arnold Arboretum, his descendants continued to live in the area for many generations. In the late 17th century, the name "Jamaica" first appears for the area of Roxbury between Stony Brook and the Great Pond. There are a number of theories regarding the origin of the name "Jamaica Plain". A well-known theory traces the origin to "Jamaica rum", a reference to Jamaican cane sugar's role in the Triangle Trade of sugar and slaves. Another explanation is that "Jamaica", though a different letter "A" pronunciation, is an Anglicization of the name of Kuchamakin, regent for the young Chickatawbut, sachem of the Massachusett tribe.
On some maps, until the mid-19th century, the area was marked as "Jamaica Plains". John Ruggles and Hugh Thomas donated land in 1676 for the building of the community's first school. A gift of 75 acres of land south of the "Great Pond" by John Eliot provided financial support for the school, named the Eliot School in his honor. During the 18th century, the farms of the Jamaica section of Roxbury transitioned from subsistence to market orientation, serving the growing Boston population. At the same time, wealthy men built estates in the bucolic countryside. In 1740, Benjamin Faneuil, nephew of Boston merchant Peter Faneuil, bought land between Centre Street and Stony Brook. In 1752, Commodore Joshua Loring built a home to which he retired. At Jamaica Pond, the provincial governor, Francis Bernard, built a summer home on 60 acres. In 1769, the community's first church was built paid for by Susannah and Benjamin Pemberton before permission was granted from the two existing parishes of Roxbury. After many appeals and bargains, the families along South Street and to the west were released by the Second Parish in 1772 and the Third Parish of Roxbury was incorporated, on May 26, 1773, the colonial legislature granted an act "setting off the nine families and their lands from the First Precinct of the Town of Roxbury and annexing to the Third Precinct in the said town."
During the occupation of Boston, the colonial assembly met in this building. The church was the only church in Jamaica Plain for seventy years and during that time became one of the original Unitarian churches and continues on the same site now known as the First Church in Jamaica Plain; the original white clapboard building was replaced by the stone Romanesque Revival building in 1854 designed by the architect Nathaniel Bradlee. The Minutemen from the Third Parish fought at Lexington and Bunker Hill under the command of Captain Lemuel Child and are commemorated on a plaque next to the Civil War Monument. In 1775, troops from Rhode Island and Connecticut were quartered with residents of Jamaica Plain. General Washington stationed troops on today's Bussey Hill in the Arnold Arboretum; the units protected the road south to Dedham, where the American arsenal was kept, in case the British broke the siege of Boston. With the American Revolution, many of the Tory estate owners fled the country, were replaced by the rising elite of the new Boston.
In 1777, John Hancock purchased an estate near the pond. The widow Ann Doane bought the estate once owned by Loyalist Joshua Loring, she soon was remarried, to attorney David S. Greenough; when Samuel Adams became governor of Massachusetts, he bought the former Peacock Tavern at today's Centre and Allandale streets, near the Faulkner Hospital. With his wealth made in the China trade, James Perkins built his home, overlooking Jamaica Pond in 1802; the early years of the 19th century continued the trends of the post-Independence years. An aqueduct was built to Boston and inner Roxbury by the Jamaica Pond Aqueduct Corporation, which provided water to Boston and the Town of West Roxbury, from 1795 to 1886. Carriages carried people to Roxbury and Boston on Centre Street, in 1806 on the new Norfolk and Bristol Turnpike toll road. In 1826, "hourlies" ran from Jamaica Plain to Roxbury and Boston on a regular schedule, the 1830s brought larger "omnibuses" to carry the growing passenger base; the first train line reached Jamaica Plain in 1834 when t
Chiropractic treatment techniques
Chiropractors use manipulation of the spine as a treatment. It was founded in North America by DD Palmer in the 19th century. Spinal manipulation became more popular in the 1980s. There are about 200 chiropractic techniques, but there is a significant amount of overlap between them, many techniques involve slight changes of other techniques. According to the American Chiropractic Association the most used techniques by chiropractors are Diversified technique 95.9%, Extremity manipulating/adjusting 95.5%, Activator Methods 62.8%, Gonstead technique 58.5%, Cox Flexion/Distraction 58.0%, Thompson 55.9%, Sacro Occipital Technique 41.3%, Applied Kinesiology 43.2%, NIMMO/Receptor Tonus 40.0%, Cranial 37.3%, Manipulative/Adjustive Instruments 34.5%, Palmer upper cervical 28.8%, Logan Basic 28.7%, Meric 19.9%, Pierce-Stillwagon 17.1%. There is no evidence that chiropractic manipulation is effective for any medical condition, with the possible exception of treatment for lower back pain; the safety of manipulation on the cervical spine has been debated.
Adverse results, including strokes and deaths, are rare. In the late 19th century in North America, therapies including osteopathy and chiropractic became popular. Spinal manipulation gained mainstream recognition during the 1980s. In this system, hands are used to manipulate, massage or otherwise influence the spine and related tissues, it is the most primary intervention used in chiropractic care. Diversified technique is a non-proprietary and eclectic approach to spinal manipulation, used by chiropractors; the technique, as it is applied today, is attributed to the work of Joe Janse Diversified is the most common spine manipulation technique used by chiropractors, with 96% of chiropractors using it for 70% of their patients. Diversified is the technique most preferred for use during future practice by chiropractic students. Diversified is the only spine manipulation technique taught in Canadian chiropractic programs. Like many chiropractic and osteopathic manipulative techniques, Diversified is characterized by a high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust.
It is considered the most generic chiropractic manipulative technique and is differentiated from other techniques in that its objective is to restore proper movement and alignment of spine and joint dysfunction. Atlas Orthogonal Technique is an upper cervical chiropractic treatment technique created by Frederick M. Vogel and Roy W. Sweat in 1979, it is a technique which uses a percussion instrument in attempts to adjust what is measured from specific X-rays and found to be a vertebral subluxation. It is based on the teachings of B. J. Palmer, who advocated the Hole-In-One version of spinal adjustment, it is used by straight chiropractors. Referring to the origins of upper cervical techniques, Dan Murphy, DC, DABCO, wrote: "Over the past 100 years, the practice of chiropractic has branched into dozens of specialty techniques; however for a third of this time, from the 1930s into the 1960s, the predominant practice of chiropractic involved the upper cervical spine." The Activator Method Chiropractic Technique is a chiropractic treatment method and device created by Arlan Fuhr as an alternative to manual manipulation of the spine or extremity joints.
The device is categorized as a mechanical force manual assisted instrument, regarded as a softer chiropractic treatment technique. The activator is a small handheld spring-loaded instrument which delivers a small impulse to the spine, it was found to give off no more than 0.3 J of kinetic energy in a 3-millisecond pulse. The aim is to produce enough force to move the vertebrae but not enough to cause injury; the AMCT involves having the patient lie in a prone position and comparing the functional leg lengths. One leg will seem to be shorter than the other; the chiropractor carries out a series of muscle tests such as having the patient move their arms in a certain position in order to activate the muscles attached to specific vertebrae. If the leg lengths are not the same, taken as a sign that the problem is located at that vertebra; the chiropractor treats problems found in this way moving progressively along the spine in the direction from the feet towards the head. Although prone "functional leg length" is a used chiropractic tool, it is not a recognized anthropometric technique, since legs are of unequal length, measurements in the prone position are not valid estimates of standing X-ray differences.
Measurements in the standing position are far more reliable. Another confounding factor is that moving the two legs held together and leaning them imperceptibly to one side or the other produces different results. Fuhr claims. In 2003, the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners found that 69.9% of chiropractors used the technique, 23.9% of patients received it. The majority of U. S. chiropractic schools and some schools in other countries teach the AMCT method, an estimated 45,000 chiropractors worldwide use AMCT or some part of the technique. There have been a number of studies of AMCT, including case reports, clinical studies and controlled trials, but there are still unanswered questions. A few low-quality studies have suggested that the activator may be as effective as manual adjustment in treatment of back pain. A single high-quality study has suggested that activator-assisted manipulation directed by leg-length testing was inferior to manual spinal manipulation guided by palpation and was more similar to the use of paracetamol for the treatment of low back pain.
Graston Technique is a trademarked therapeutic method for dia
Black salve known by the brand name Cansema, is a dangerous and controversial alternative cancer treatment. The product is classified as an escharotic—a topical paste which burns and destroys skin tissue and leaves behind a thick, black scar called an eschar. Escharotics were used to treat skin lesions in the early 1900s, but have since been replaced by safer and more effective treatments. Escharotics, such as black salves, are advertised by some alternative medicine marketers as treatments for skin cancer with unsubstantiated testimonials and unproven claims of effectiveness; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration has listed Cansema as a "fake cancer cure" and warns consumers to avoid it. Cancer salves were first documented as a form of quackery in a 1955 Time article: "A 37-year-old housewife had a skin condition that proved not to be a cancer. Convinced that it was, she had gone to a backwoods healer. Soon a quarter-sized hole disfigured her nose, opened up the nasal cavity. Duke's plastic surgeons had to build her a new nose."
Although more recent reports document that some alternative medicine practitioners use the internet to market escharotics as purported "cures" for skin cancer, they are not recommended as treatments for skin lesions or skin cancer by medical authorities. The effectiveness of escharotics is unproven, while safer and more effective conventional treatments exist for skin cancers, such as: cryotherapy. Escharotics can cause serious damage to normal skin, their manufacture is unregulated, so the strength and purity of marketed products are unknown and unverified. Numerous reports in the medical literature describe serious consequences of using escharotics in place of standard treatments for skin cancer, ranging from disfigurement to preventable cancer recurrences; the website Quackwatch posted a warning against the use of escharotics in 2008, with a collection of sourced documents compiling issues of patient injury from their use. A more recent study revealed that many individuals who have used black salve were unaware of its potential dangers.
In a 2016 news release titled "Beware of black salve," the American Academy of Dermatology urged patients to consult a dermatologist before using home remedies for skin cancers. Furthermore, individuals increase their risk of further complications or death if they choose to delay conventional medical treatment to attempt treatment with black salve. In 2017, a patient with breast cancer posted photos and updates to a black salve research group as she progressed through her black salve applications. Despite her worsening condition, she believed that the black salve was going to cure her cancer. “And please no comments to see a doctor. I’ve been there; this is my path and I trust in it and my God, healing me”, she wrote. She sought conventional treatment, but died of a prolonged infection some months later, it was reported in 2018. In a similar black salve discussion group, people described the use of black salve on their cats and horses. Over the course of eight months, one member posted photos of the black salve's ongoing effects on her dog's nasal cancer, whilst another documented and questioned its use on her horse.
In 2018 in Australia black salve has been linked to the death of Helen Lawson who decided to use "natural remedies" under the direction of Dennis Wayne Jensen. Jensen advocated covering Lawson's abdomen in black salve claiming it would draw out the ovarian cancer, leaving Lawson with a mass of wounds on her abdomen: “You have never seen anything like what happened to Helen, it is so confronting,” she said. “Literally above her pubic bone, all across her abdomen up to her rib cage, she was raw, mutilated bubbling flesh.”Belinda said that within a few weeks of Helen applying the black salve the wound was so large that surgeons could not have operated if they had wanted to. Lawson died in April 2018. Subsequently, Jensen was issued an interim prohibition order, by the Health Complaints Commissioner, forbidding practicing any health services whilst the death of Lawson is being investigated; this was pursuant to section 90 of the Health Complaints Act 2016 Common ingredients of black salves include zinc chloride and bloodroot, a plant used in herbal medicine.
The extract of bloodroot is called sanguinarine, a quaternary alkaloid which attacks and destroys living tissue and is classified as an escharotic. Other formulations include the four ingredients: Red Clover, Sheep Sorrel, Blood Root, crushed into a paste using mortar and pestle; this is applied sparingly to the affected area, kept covered for 2-3 days. The Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia is advising consumers against purchasing or using black salve, red salve or cansema products; the TGA has found the Australian Vaccination-Skeptics Network in breach of advertising regulations, in a separate finding the AVN's former president Meryl Dorey together with Leon Pittard of Fair Dinkum Radio were found to be in breach. Cansema is listed by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration as one of 187 fake cancer cures. Cansema continues to be marketed by numerous individuals, as evidenced by recent FDA Warning Letters; the FDA has taken enforcement action against illegal marketing of Cansema as a cancer cure, as in the 2004 arrest and conviction of Greg Caton.
The FDA has taken an active role in the banning of these chemicals for