The tragedy of the commons is a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users, acting independently according to their own self-interest, behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling the shared resource through their collective action. The theory originated in an essay written in 1833 by the British economist William Forster Lloyd, who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on common land in Great Britain and Ireland; the concept became known as the "tragedy of the commons" over a century due to an article written by American biologist and philosopher Garrett Hardin in 1968. In this modern economic context, "commons" is taken to mean any shared and unregulated resource such as atmosphere, rivers, fish stocks and highways, or an office refrigerator; the term is used in environmental science. The "tragedy of the commons" is cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming.
It has been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, game theory, politics and sociology. Although common resource systems have been known to collapse due to overuse, many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with access to a common resource co-operate or regulate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse. Elinor Ostrom was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics for demonstrating this concept in her book Governing the Commons, which included examples of how local communities were able to do this without top-down regulations or privatization. In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included a hypothetical example of over-use of a common resource; this was the situation of cattle herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they were each entitled to let their cows graze, as was the custom in English villages. He postulated that if a herder put more than his allotted number of cattle on the common, overgrazing could result.
For each additional animal, a herder could receive additional benefits, while the whole group shared the resulting damage to the commons. If all herders made this individually rational economic decision, the common could be depleted or destroyed, to the detriment of all. In 1968, ecologist Garrett Hardin explored this social dilemma in his article "The Tragedy of the Commons", published in the journal Science; the essay derived its title from the pamphlet by Lloyd, which he cites, on the over-grazing of common land. Hardin discussed problems that cannot be solved by technical means, as distinct from those with solutions that require "a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality". Hardin focused on human population growth, the use of the Earth's natural resources, the welfare state. Hardin argued that if individuals relied on themselves alone, not on the relationship of society and man the number of children had by each family would not be of public concern.
Parents breeding excessively would leave fewer descendants because they would be unable to provide for each child adequately. Such negative feedback is found in the animal kingdom. Hardin said that if the children of improvident parents starved to death, if overbreeding was its own punishment there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. Hardin blamed the welfare state for allowing the tragedy of the commons. In his article, Hardin lamented the following proposal from the United Nations: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society, it follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, cannot be made by anyone else. In addition, Hardin pointed out the problem of individuals acting in rational self-interest by claiming that if all members in a group used common resources for their own gain and with no regard for others, all resources would still be depleted.
Overall, Hardin argued against relying on conscience as a means of policing commons, suggesting that this favors selfish individuals – known as free riders – over those who are more altruistic. In the context of avoiding over-exploitation of common resources, Hardin concluded by restating Hegel's maxim, "freedom is the recognition of necessity", he suggested. By recognizing resources as commons in the first place, by recognizing that, as such, they require management, Hardin believed that humans "can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms". Hardin's article was the start of the modern use of "Commons" as a term connoting a shared resource; as Frank van Laerhoven & Elinor Ostrom have stated: "Prior to the publication of Hardin’s article on the tragedy of the commons, titles containing the words'the commons','common pool resources,' or'common property' were rare in the academic literature." They go on to say: "In 2002, Barrett and Mabry conducted a major survey of biologists to determine which publications in the twentieth century had become classic books or benchmark publications in biology.
They report that Hardin’s 1968 article was the one having the greatest career impact on biologists and is the most cited". Like Lloyd and Thomas Malthus before him, Hardin was interested in t
Sandra E. Adams is a rear admiral in the United States Navy, she grew up in Okemos and graduated from Michigan State University in 1983. She received her commission in 1981 from Officer Candidate School and subsequently completed the Surface Warfare Officer School Basic course in Newport, Rhode Island, her first tour was aboard USS Puget Sound homeported in Italy as 6th Fleet flagship. She served as the 6th Fleet staff's Communications radio division officer, as the damage control assistant, earned her Surface Warfare Officer designation, she served as operations officer ashore at Readiness Support Group, Virginia. Adams transitioned to the Naval Reserve in 1986 serving with NR Shore Intermediate Maintenance Activity Detachment 219, Long Beach, California. In 1990, she transferred to Mobile Inshore Undersea Warfare Unit 105 Long Beach, as vehicle maintenance officer; the unit was recalled to active duty and deployed to Saudi Arabia for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm where it provided harbor security for the U.
S. Army's logistics seaport. After redeployment, she served as logistics operations officer, she was selected as the Readiness Command 19 Reserve Officer Association Junior Officer of the Year in 1991 and 1992. In 1992, she was selected for the first of five commands by serving as the Selected Reserve coordinator aboard USS Bolster. Adams served as commanding officer of Mobile Inshore Undersea Warfare Unit 203, NR Naval Beach Group One Detachment 119, NR commander, Naval Forces Japan, NR U. S. Pacific Command Detachment 120. Adams has served on numerous operational staff positions including Naval Coastal Warfare Group One as N6, she joined U. S. Joint Forces Command in 2008 as the J3 Senior Navy directorate leader. In 2010, she mobilized in support of Operation Enduring Freedom to NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan. Based in Kabul, she served as the senior advisor to the Assistant Minister of Defense for Personnel and Education, a lieutenant general, she was selected to be the Reserve deputy commander, Navy Region Midwest, as her first flag assignment.
Adams earned her master's degree in national security and strategic studies from the Naval War College in 2003. She graduated from the Joint Forces Staff College Advanced Joint Professional Military Education 10-month course in 2009; as a civilian, Adams is a director of supply chain for Raytheon Airborne Systems. Her personal decorations include the Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Navy document "US Navy Biography: Rear Admiral Sandra E. "Sandy" Adams". Retrieved on November 3, 2011
Patricia May Edgar AM is an Australian author, television producer and media scholar best known as the founding director of the Australian Children's Television Foundation. She was born in 1937 in Mildura and moved to California in the 1960s with her husband and two children to study for an MA in Communication at Stanford University. On their return to Australia, Edgar joined the staff of La Trobe University as the inaugural Head of the Centre for the Study of media and Communication, she introduced the first courses on film and television production and cinema studies in an Australian University. At La Trobe she completed a PhD. In 1975, Gough Whitlam's government appointed Edgar to Australian Broadcasting Control Board where she was instrumental in formulating codes for children's television for the first time, she took part in the establishment of the Australian Broadcasting Tribunal's Program Standards for children's television, was founding director of the Australian Children's Television Foundation.
Over twenty years, the ACTF won multiple awards including an Emmy, made co-productions with the BBC, Disney and Revcom. She was executive producer for the 1988 Bicentenary ACTF project Touch the Sun, she was the producer of the popular television programme Round the Twist Her books about television and the media include Children and Screen Violence, Under Five in Australia, Media She, The Politics of the Press and a memoir Bloodbath: A Memoir of Australian Television which prompted Phillip Adams to write "I would regard Patricia Edgar as a sort of human tank. Patricia is a sort of Centurion in her abilities to push walls over, she is annoying, relentless, drives people mad, but she gets things done" Her latest book is In Praise of Ageing, Text Publishing 2013 She was awarded the Australian Film Institute Longford Life Achievement Award in 2002, the Dromkeen Medal in 2007, for her role in advancing children's literature. She was added to the Victorian Honour Roll of Women in 2001. Edgar lives in Melbourne with her husband Don, near four grandchildren.
She is chair of the World Summit on Media for Children Foundation. A breast cancer survivor, she chaired the Breast Cancer Network of Australia. 1998-2008 Under Five in Australia Heinemann, Melbourne 1973 ISBN 0-85561-030-1 Media She Heinemann, Melbourne 1974 ISBN 0-85561-034-4 Families Without Television Centre for the Study of Educational Communication and Media, La Trobe:University, 1976 ISBN 0-85816-093-5 Children and Screen Violence University of Queensland Press, 1977 ISBN 0-7022-1403-5 The politics of the press Sun Books, Melbourne 1979 ISBN 0-7251-0338-8 The News In Focus: the journalism of exception Macmillan, Melbourne 1980. ISBN 0-333-29930-2 Television Licence Hearings Go Public: a case study Centre for the Study of Educational Communication and Media, La Trobe University, 1981 ISBN 0-85816-282-2 Children and Television: policy implications Australian Children's Television Foundation, Vic. 1983. ISBN 0-86421-000-0 Children's Television, the case for regulation Australian Children's Television Foundation, North Melbourne 1984 ISBN 0-86421-048-5 Janet Holmes à Court HarperCollins 2000 ISBN 0732257158 Bloodbath: A Memoir of Australian Television Melbourne University Press 2006 ISBN 978-0-522-85281-3 The New Child: in search of smarter grown-ups Wilkinson Publishing, Melbourne 2008 ISBN 978-1-921332-41-8 Official website Edgar, Patricia in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia