Tramlink Croydon Tramlink, is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952, it is owned by London Trams, an arm of Transport for London, operated by Tram Operations Ltd, a subsidiary of FirstGroup. The network consists of 39 stops along 28 km of track, on a mixture of street track shared with other traffic, dedicated track in public roads, off-street track consisting of new rights-of-way, former railway lines, one right-of-way where the Tramlink track runs parallel to a third rail-electrified Network Rail line; the network's lines coincide in central Croydon, with eastbound termini at Beckenham Junction, Elmers End and New Addington, a westbound terminus at Wimbledon, where there is an interchange for London Underground. Tramlink is the fourth-busiest light rail network in the UK behind the Docklands Light Railway, Manchester Metrolink and Tyne & Wear Metro. In 1990 Croydon Council with London Regional Transport put the project to Parliament and the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 resulted, which gave LRT the power to build and run Tramlink.

In 1995 four consortia were shortlisted to build and maintain Tramlink: Altram: John Laing, Serco Croydon Connect: Tarmac, AEG, Transdev CT Light Rail Group: GEC Alsthom, Welsh Water Tramtrack Croydon: CentreWest, Royal Bank of Scotland, Sir Robert McAlpine, Bombardier TransportationIn 1996 Tramtrack Croydon won a 99-year Private Finance Initiative contract to design, build and maintain Tramlink. The equity partners in TC were Amey, Royal Bank of Scotland, 3i and Sir Robert McAlpine with Bombardier Transportation contracted to build and maintain the trams and FirstGroup operate the service. TC retained the revenue generated by Tramlink and LRT had to pay compensation to TC for any changes to the fares and ticketing policy introduced later. One of the factors leading to its creation was that the London Borough of Croydon has no London Underground service. Tramlink makes use of a number of National Rail lines, running parallel to franchised services, or in some cases, runs on abandoned railway corridors.

Between Birkbeck and Beckenham Junction, Tramlink uses the Crystal Palace line, running alongside Southern rail services. The National Rail track had been singled some years earlier. From Elmers End to Woodside, Tramlink follows the former British Rail branch line to Woodside where the old station buildings stand disused, the original platforms have been replaced by accessible low platforms. Tramlink follows the former Woodside and South Croydon Railway to reach the current Addiscombe tram stop, adjacent to the site of the demolished Bingham Road railway station, it continues along the former railway route to near Sandilands where Tramlink curves towards Sandilands tram stop. Another route from Sandilands tram stop curves on to the W&SCR before passing through Park Hill tunnels and to the site of Coombe Road railway station after which it curves away across Lloyd Park. Tramlink follows the former West Croydon to Wimbledon Line, first opened in 1855 and closed on 31 May 1997 to allow for conversion into Tramlink.

Within this section, from near Phipps Bridge to near Reeves Corner, Tramlink follows the Surrey Iron Railway, giving Tramlink a claim to one of the world's oldest railway alignments – Tramway Path beside Mitcham tram stop. A partial obstruction near this point has necessitated the use of interlaced track. A Victorian footbridge beside Waddon New Road was dismantled to make way for the flyover over the West Croydon to Sutton railway line; the footbridge has been re-erected at Corfe Castle station on the Swanage Railway. In March 2008, TfL announced; the purchase was finalised on 28 June 2008. The background to this purchase relates to the requirement that TfL compensates TC for the consequences of any changes to the fares and ticketing policy introduced since 1996. In 2007 that payment was £4m, with an annual increase in rate. FirstGroup will continue to operate the service until 2030. In October 2008 TfL introduced a new livery, using the blue and green of the routes on TfL maps, to distinguish the trams from buses operating in the area.

The colour of the cars was changed to green, the brand name was changed from Croydon Tramlink to Tramlink. These refurbishments were completed in early 2009; the tram stops have 35 cm above rail level. They are unstaffed and had automated ticket machines that are no longer in use due to TfL making trams cashless. In general, access between the platforms involves crossing the tracks by pedestrian level crossing. There are most being 32.2 m long. They are level with the doors and are all wider than 2 m; this allows wheelchairs, prams and the elderly to board the tram with no steps. In street sections, the stop is integrated with the pavement. Tramlink uses some former main-line stations on the Wimbledon–West Croydon and Elmers End–Coombe Lane stretches of line; the railway platforms have been demolished and rebuilt to Tramlink specifications, except at Elmers End and Wimbledon where the track level was raised to meet the higher main-line platforms to enable cross-platform interchange. Thirty-eight stops opened in the phased introduction of tram services in May 2000.

Centrale tram stop in Tamworth Road opened on 10 December 2005, increasing journ

The Maid of the Mountains

The Maid of the Mountains, called in its original score a musical play, is an operetta or "Edwardian" musical comedy in three acts. The music was by Harold Fraser-Simson, with additional music by James W. Tate, lyrics by Harry Graham and additional lyrics by Frank Clifford Harris and Valentine, the book was written by Frederick Lonsdale, best known for his society comedies such as On Approval. After an initial try-out at the Prince's Theatre in Manchester on 23 December 1916, the show was rewritten and opened at Daly's Theatre in London on 10 February 1917. Produced by Robert Evett and directed by Oscar Asche, The Maid of the Mountains ran for 1,352 performances in its initial London run – closing because of the nervous exhaustion of its female lead, José Collins; this profitable run saved the George Edwardes estate being managed by Evett, from bankruptcy. The original New York production did not catch on. However, Asche directed the first Australian production for J. C. Williamson in Australia in 1917, followed by another production in 1923.

This became as successful as the London production, with soprano Gladys Moncrieff becoming famous as Teresa. The show had major London revivals in 1921, 1930, 1942 and 1972 in an Emile Littler production at the Palace Theatre in the West End, at the Finborough Theatre, London, in December 2006 with a cast including Anita Louise Combe, as well as numerous other professional productions elsewhere; the musical was popular with amateur theatre groups in Britain, from the 1930s to about 1970. The Maid of the Mountains was one of the three most important musical hits of the London stage during World War I (the other two being a revue entitled The Bing Boys Are Here and the musical Chu Chin Chow, music or scenes from all of these have been included as background in many films set in this period, they remain intensely evocative of the "Great War" years. Other hit shows of the period were Theodore & Co, The Boy, Yes, Uncle!. Audiences wanted light and uplifting entertainment during the war, these shows delivered it.

Some of the most popular songs were: "Love Will find a Way", "A Bachelor Gay", "A Paradise for Two", "My life is Love", "Live for Today". The "romantic" ending, with Teresa united to Baldassaré, was insisted on by José Collins. Beppo and Teresa's duets remain and the role of Baldassaré remains a non-singing part; the Maid of the Mountains is an escapist story set in a bandit camp, high up in the mountains. The bandit maid Teresa loves the bandit chief, Baldassaré, feared by the whole country. Baldassaré's men are unhappy because of the decision of Baldassaré to disband, they ask Teresa to dissuade him. Baldassaré gives the others their shares of the spoils of many raids, he tells her. She goes sadly; the local Governor, General Malona, brings her to the Palace of Santo. He wishes to capture the rebel band before the impending end of his term of office, he promises Teresa her freedom. Teresa refuses, as "there is honour among thieves." Meanwhile, Baldassaré and some of his band have seized Count Orsino.

Donning the uniforms of the captives, the brigands proceed to Santo to rescue Teresa. Baldassaré meets and falls in love with Angela, the daughter of the retiring Governor, becomes heedless of his danger in remaining in the town, he pretends to be the new governor. Beppo, one of the brigands who has always been in love with Teresa, asks her to persuade Baldassaré to leave the capital lest they all be discovered. Teresa, mad with jealousy because of Baldassaré's love for Angela, exposes the new "governor" as Baldassaré, he and his companions are arrested and sent to Devil's Island. Teresa, who sadly regrets betraying Baldassaré, pleads with the General to release him. In the loneliness of his imprisonment, Baldassaré realises that his regard for Angela was only a passing infatuation, that he loves Teresa, he forgives her betrayal of him and, with the assistance of Lieutenant Rugini, the Governor of the prison, they escape by boat. All ends for Teresa and her bandit chief. José Collins, who sang the part of Teresa, the bandit "Maid", throughout the original run, became a star as the result of her performance.

1. Friends Have To Part - Opening Chorus 2. Live For Today - Beppo and chorus of men 3. My Life Is Love - Teresa and bandits 4. Nocturne - Orchestra Farewell - Teresa 5. Dividing the Spoils - Chorus 6. Finale Act I - Company 7. Introduction & Opening Chorus Act II 8. Love Will Find A Way - Teresa 9. Laughing Chorus Dirty Work - Governor and Tonio 10. A Paradise For Two - Teresa and Beppo 11. Husbands and Wives - Vittoria and Tonio 12. A Bachelor Gay - Beppo 13. Finale Act II 14. Opening Chorus Act III - Chorus of Fisherfolk 15. Good People Gather Round - Governor and Chorus 16; when You're In Love - Teresa and General Malona 17. Over There and Over Here - Vittorio and Tonio 18. Finale Act III Friendship and Love - Teresa and Beppo The piece was adapted to a British film in 1932, directed by Lupino Lane, it starred Nancy Brown as Harry Welchman as Baldasarre. Maids of the Mountain Hockey Club Gammond, Peter; the Oxford Companion to Popular Music, with corrections. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280004-3 Larkin, Colin.

The Gu

Manuel Aaron

Manuel Aaron is the first Indian chess master in the second half of the 20th century. He dominated chess in India in the 1960s to the 1980s, was the national champion of India nine times between 1959 and 1981, he is India's first player to be awarded the International Master title, is one of the key figures in introducing international chess practices to India. Aaron helped popularize the international variety, forming many chess groups and urging players to study openings and other formal chess literature. Born in Toungoo of Indian parents, Aaron grew up in Tamil Nadu, where he did his schooling, finishing his B. Sc. from Allahabad University. Aaron was Indian National Champion nine times, including a run of five consecutive titles between 1969 and 1973, he won the Tamil Nadu Chess Championship eleven times. He won the West Asian Zonal against Mongolia's Sukien Momo 3–1, the Asian-Australian Zonal final against Cecil Purdy of Australia 3–0 in 1961. In 1962, he won the Arjuna Award for Indian sportsmen, the first-ever chess player to be so honoured.

These wins at the Asian level qualified him for the Interzonals, in 1962, he played in the Stockholm interzonal and although finishing last, his game was notable for the defeats he inflicted on grandmasters Lajos Portisch and Wolfgang Uhlmann. Aaron played thrice with the Indian team at the Chess Olympiads, he captained the Indian team at Leipzig 1960 including a win over Max Euwe, at Varna 1962, including another victory over Lajos Portisch. In 1964, he played at second board in Tel Aviv, he led India to the 2nd Asian Team Championship at Auckland in 1977 and to the 4th Asian Team championship at Hangchow in China in 1981. He finished fourth in the Commonwealth Championship at Hong Kong 1984; the event was won by Murray Chandler. He is a journalist for The Hindu newspaper, his son, Arvin, is a well known journalist. Having emerged in an environment with a minimal chess culture, Aaron was sensitive to the growth of chess awareness in India, he did much to further chess as the Secretary of the Tamil Nadu Chess Association and as chairman of the All India Chess Federation.

It was 17 years before India had its second International Master, V. Ravi, it had its first grandmaster only in 1988. At the time of the 2013 World Championship match in Chennai, Manuel Aaron was still active in Indian chess circles. Manuel Aaron vs Max Euwe, Leipzig ol qual-B 1960, Indian Game: Capablanca Variation, 1–0 Lajos Portisch vs Manuel Aaron, Varna 1962, King's Indian Defense: Fianchetto Variation, Classical Main Line, 0-1 Wolfgang Uhlmann vs Manuel Aaron, Stockholm izt 1962, King's Indian Defense: Fianchetto Variation, Classical Main Line, 0-1