Tramontane is a classical name for a northern wind. The exact form of the name and precise direction varies from country to country; the word came to English from Italian tramontana, which developed from Latin trānsmontānus, "beyond/across the mountains", referring to the Alps in the North of Italy. The word has other non-wind-related senses: it can refer to anything that comes from, or anyone who lives on, the other side of mountains, or more anything seen as foreign, strange, or barbarous. In Spain the wind is called the tramuntana or in Catalan and tramontana in Spanish and Basque; the wind lends its name to the Serra de Tramuntana in Majorca. On the Croatian Adriatic coast it is called tramontana, with a number of local variations. Like levant, it is considered a transitional wind, associated with the change of weather, which transforms into bora. Like bora, it is less gusty; the tramontane in France is a dry cold wind from the north or from the northwest. It is similar to the mistral in its causes and effects.

The tramontane is created by the difference of pressure between the cold air of a high pressure system over the Atlantic Ocean or northwest Europe and a low pressure system over the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean. The high-pressure air flows south, gathering speed as it moves downhill and is funnelled between the Pyrenees and the Massif Central. According to French sources, the name was used in its present form at the end of the 13th century by Marco Polo, in 1298, it was borrowed from the Latin transmontanus and the Italian tramontana, meaning not just "across the mountains" but "the North Star", since the Alps marked the north for the Italic people. The French term tresmontaine, cited as early as 1209 and still used in the 15th century, was borrowed directly from the Latin; the word moved from Latin into French with the meanings "North Star" and "the guide". In 1636 the French expression "perdre la tramontane" meant "to be disorientated."The continuous howling noise of the tramontane is said to have a disturbing effect upon the psyche.

In his poem "Gastibelza", Victor Hugo has the main character say, "Le vent qui vient à travers la montagne me rendra fou..." In Greece, tramountána is used as a nautical term to define not only the northern wind, but the northern direction and the cardinal point of north on a compass. In Italy it is called tramontana. In Italy its etymology is still much debated, varies from region to region: on the Sorrento coast, for instance, the name derives from the village Tramonti, from where, to an observer on the shore, the wind appears to blow after gathering pace down a narrow valley and, at the time when Flavio Gioia – believed by some historians to have perfected the sailors' compass – lived there in the 14th century and named the Mediterranean winds, the tramontana made it easier for fishing vessels to take swiftly to the sea and start their fishing campaigns, it is a northeasterly or northerly winter wind that blows from the Alps and Apennines to the Italian coast. It is prevalent on the west coast of Italy and Northern Corsica.

It is caused by a weather system from the west following a depression on the Mediterranean. It is strongest before sunrise, it is a fresh wind of the fine weather mistral type. In Slovenia a word tramontana is used for a strong northerly hurricane-force wind that blows from the Alps to the Venice bay over Trieste, Slovenian coast and Istria with gusts sometimes as high as 200 km/h, it has a transitional nature and it quickly turns to a bora. Due to its strength, it can uproot trees and damages boats by crashing them into the coast. Winds of Provence


Sachtler is a manufacturer of film and video camera support products and reporter lighting equipment. The company was founded in 1958 and was bought by Great Britain’s Vitec Group plc. in 1995. Wendelin Sachtler was a cinematographer and inventor, lifing in South-Germany. In 1958 he designed the first tripod head; this so-called gyroscopic head provided not only pans and tilt motion, but added gyroscopic damping to smooth out camera moves. The new tripod head proved so popular with fellow camera operators that it led to the foundation of a new company, Sachtler, to meet demand, he worked out of a small workshop in Germany. After a pair of moves, since 2004 Sachtler GmbH has been located in Eching near Munich. Sachtler is represented by retailers in more than 140 countries; the company has production facilities in Costa Rica and Great Britain. In 1992 the company was awarded the "Scientific and Engineering Award", an award set up by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. In 1995 Sachtler was acquired by the Vitec Group PLC.

In 2001 Sachtler and Curt O. Schaller launched the artemis camera stabilizer system at the NAB Show in Las Vegas; the artemis systems were the first modular camera stabilizer systems in the world. In addition, the artemis HD systems were the first Full HD camera stabilizer systems worldwide; the artemis Trinity system, developed by Curt O. Schaller together with Roman Foltyn in 2015, is the first camera stabilizer system in the world that combines a mechanical stabilization system with an electronic one. In April 2016, ARRI acquired the artemis camera stabilizer systems developed by Curt O. Schaller from Sachtler / Vitec Videocom; the company's portfolio can be divided into: Camera support High quality bags for storage and transportation of professional broadcast and audio equipmentThe camera support division includes the production of Sachtler fluid heads and pedestals and professional bags for cameramen and sound operators. Sachtler Vitec Group

Salvador Ruiz (footballer)

Salvador'Salva' Ruiz Rodríguez is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Deportivo de La Coruña as a left back. Born in Albal, Valencian Community, Ruiz was a product of Valencia CF's youth system, he made his senior debut with the reserves when he was only 16, playing 19 Segunda División B games in 2011–12 and scoring one goal, in the 2–0 home win against CE Manacor. He appeared in his first official match with the first team on 28 November 2012, featuring the full 90 minutes in a 3–1 home win over UE Llagostera for the season's Copa del Rey. Ruiz was loaned out to CD Tenerife for the 2013–14 campaign, he made his first appearance in Segunda División on 25 August and being replaced in a 0–0 home draw against Hércules CF. On 13 July 2015, after a further two full seasons with Valencia B, Ruiz was loaned to Granada CF in a season-long deal, he made his debut in La Liga on 24 August and being sent off in the 56th minute of an eventual 1–3 home loss to SD Eibar. After being diagnosed with aplastic anemia, Ruiz was inactive for more than one year.

On 10 January 2018, he signed a one-and-a-half-year contract with RCD Mallorca. On 7 February 2019, Valencia activated their buy-back clause on Ruiz's contract; the player agreed a deal until June 2023, remaining on loan at Mallorca until the end of the campaign. On 2 September, however, he joined Deportivo de La Coruña of the second division for three years; as of 5 January 2014 Spain U19 UEFA European Under-19 Championship: 2012 Salva Ruiz at BDFutbol Salva Ruiz at Futbolme CiberChe stats and bio