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A tramp is a long-term homeless person who travels from place to place as a vagrant, traditionally walking all year round. Tramp is derived from a Middle English verb meaning to go hiking. In Britain the term was used to refer to vagrants in the early Victorian period; the social reporter Henry Mayhew refers to it in his writings of the 1850s. By 1850 the word was well established. In that year Mayhew described "the different kinds of vagrants or tramps" to be found in Britain, along with the "different trampers' houses in London or the country", he distinguished several types of tramps, ranging from young people fleeing from abusive families, through to people who made their living as wandering beggars and prostitutes. In the United States, the word became used during the American Civil War, to describe the shared experience of undertaking long marches with heavy packs. Use of the word as a noun is thought to have begun shortly after the war. A few veterans had developed a liking for the "call of the road".

Others may have been too traumatised by war time experience to return to settled life. Wanderers have existed since ancient times; the modern concept of the "tramp" emerges with the expansion of industrial towns in the early nineteenth century, with the consequent increase in migrant labor and pressure on housing. The common lodging house or "doss house" developed to accommodate transients. Urbanisation led to an increase in forms of marginalized casual labor. Mayhew identifies the problem of "tramping" as a particular product of the economic crisis of the 1840s known as the Hungry Forties. John Burnett argues that in earlier periods of economic stability "tramping" involved a wandering existence, moving from job to job, a cheap way of experiencing adventures beyond the "boredom and bondage of village life"; the number of transient homeless people increased markedly in the U. S. after the industrial recession of the early 1870s. The term "tramp" had a broad meaning, was used to refer to migrant workers who were looking for permanent work and lodgings.

The term acquired a narrower meaning, to refer only to those who prefer the transient way of life. Writing in 1877 Allan Pinkerton said: "The tramp has always existed in some form or other, he will continue on his wanderings until the end of time. Author Bart Kennedy, a self-described tramp of 1900 America, once said "I listen to the tramp, tramp of my feet, wonder where I was going, why I was going." John Sutherland said that Kennedy "is one of the early advocates of'tramping', as the source of literary inspiration."The tramp became a character trope in vaudeville performance in the late 19th century in the United States. Lew Bloom claimed he was "the first stage tramp in the business". While tramps may do odd jobs from time to time, unlike other temporarily homeless people they do not seek out regular work and support themselves by other means such as begging or scavenging; this is in contrast to: bum, a stationary homeless person who does not work, who begs for a living in one place. Hobo, a homeless person who travels from place to place looking for work by "freighthopping" Schnorrer, a Yiddish term for a person who travels from city to city begging.

Both terms, "tramp" and "hobo", were in common use between the 1940s. Their populations and the usage of the terms increased during the Great Depression. Like "hobo" and "bum," the word "tramp" is considered vulgar in American English usage, having been subsumed in more polite contexts by words such as "homeless person" or "vagrant." At one time, tramps were known euphemistically in England and Wales as "gentlemen of the road." Because female tramps were regarded as prostitutes, the term tramp came to be used to refer to a promiscuous woman. This is an Americanism and not in global usage. According to Australian linguist Kate Burridge, the term shifted towards this meaning in the 1920s, having predominantly referred to men, it followed the path of other similar gender neutral words to having specific reference to female sexual laxity; the word is used, with ambiguous irony, in the classic 1937 Rodgers and Hart song The Lady Is a Tramp, about a wealthy member of New York high society who chooses a vagabond life in "hobohemia".

Other songs with implicit or explicit reference to this usage include The Son of Hickory Holler's Tramp and Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves. The use of the word with the explicitly sexual meaning is common in hip hop culture. Backpacker tourism, a form of low-cost, independent travel Bum W. H. Davies, a British tramp and author of The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp in the UK Down and Out in Paris and London, a memoir of George Orwell's experiences as a tramp in London Christopher McCandless, an American hiker known as "Alexander Supertramp" and the subject of the biography Into the Wild. Swagman, an Australian itinerant labourer The Tramp, a famous comic character created by Charlie Chaplin

Peter Broadbent (footballer)

Peter Frank Broadbent was an English footballer. He played in the 1958 FIFA World Cup. In his autobiography, George Best said he was a Wolves fan and that Broadbent was the player he most admired. Alex Ferguson stated that, during his youth, Broadbent had been his favourite player. Broadbent started his career with Brentford but was signed by Wolves, one of the top sides in the English league at the time, in February 1951 for a £10,000 fee, he would remain at the Black Country club for the next 14 years, scoring well over 100 goals and winning three league titles and an FA Cup, as well as being capped seven times at the highest level by England. He played his last Football League game in April 1970 for Stockport County. Broadbent attended school in Deal. After his retirement from football, he ran a babywear shop in Halesowen with his wife Shirley, they settled in Codsall. In April 2007, it was reported that Broadbent, now in his 74th year, was suffering from Alzheimer's disease, which had become evident in his mid-60s and was living in a care home near Wolverhampton.

On 1 October 2013 he died. Wolverhampton WanderersFirst Division: 1953–54, 1957–58, 1958–59 FA Cup: 1959–60 FA Charity Shield: 1959 Wolverhampton Wanderers Hall of Fame Notes Written works Matthews, Tony. Wolverhampton Wanderers: The Complete Record. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-632-3

Synagogue of El Tránsito

The Synagogue of El Tránsito is a historic building in Toledo, Spain. It is famous for its rich stucco decoration, which bears comparison with the Alcazar of Seville and the Alhambra palaces in Granada; the synagogue was founded by Samuel ha-Levi Abulafia, Treasurer to Peter of Castile, in about 1356. The founder was a member of a family who had served the Castilian kings for several generations and included kabbalists and Torah scholars such as Meir and Todros Abulafia, another Todros Abulafia, one of the last poets to write in the Arab-influenced style favored by Jewish poets in twelfth- and thirteenth-century Spain; the synagogue was connected to Samuel ha-Levi Abulafia's house by a private gate and he intended to use it as a private house of worship. King Peter gave his assent to the building of the synagogue to compensate the Jews of Toledo for destruction that had occurred in 1348, during anti-Jewish pogroms that accompanied the arrival of the Black Death in Toledo; the founder fell afoul of the king and was executed in 1360.

The synagogue was converted to a church after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain. The building, in a good state of conservation, is a museum. After the expulsion of the city's Jews under the Alhambra decree in 1492, the Synagogue came under the Order of Calatrava, who converted the building into a church serving a priory dedicated to Saint Benedict. In the 17th century the church's name changed to Nuestra Señora del Tránsito: the name derives from a painting by Juan Correa de Vivar housed there, Transit of the Virgin; the synagogue was used as military headquarters during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1877 the building became a national monument; the transformation of the building into the Sephardi Museum, as it is now called, started around 1910. It was initiated by the Vega-Inclan Foundation. With the apparent approval of the king, ha-Levi defied the laws that required synagogues to be smaller and lower than churches, plain of decoration; the building features Nasrid-style polychrome stucco-work, Hebrew inscriptions praising the king and ha-Levi himself, quotations from the Psalms, as well as multifoil arches and a massive Mudéjar artesonado ceiling.

Arabic inscriptions are intertwined with the floral patterns in the stucco. Women were separated from men during services; the gallery is located along the southern wall, having five broad openings looking down towards the ark of the Torah, called in the Sephardic tradition the Hechal. Official Website

Zilla Mays

Zilla Florine Mays Zilla Mays Hinton, was an American R&B and gospel singer who became a popular radio DJ and community leader in Atlanta. She was the first African-American female radio announcer in Georgia, only the third in the United States, she was born in Atlanta and started singing in church. By her teens, she had started performing with her brother's band, the Roy Mays All Stars, which became the Willie Mays Blues Caravan. After graduating from Booker T. Washington High School, she studied at Reed Business College while continuing her singing career. In late 1950, she was signed as a blues singer by Savoy Records in New Jersey, she made her first recordings in early 1951, but none were issued until the Coral label released "I'll Keep Singing My Song" in late 1952. The following year, she signed for the Mercury label and recorded with the John Peek orchestra, releasing the singles "If You Were On The Other Side", "Seems Like You Just Don't Care", "Don't Take My Good Love Away". In 1954 she began broadcasting on radio station WAOK in Atlanta, where she was known as "The Mystery Lady" as her identity was not disclosed to listeners.

After it was revealed in 1955, she was known as "The Dream Girl", performed on-air with Piano Red. She continued to record in the mid-1950s, for labels including Groove, a subsidiary of RCA, Atco, she continued as a popular radio personality and community leader in the Atlanta area and was instrumental in bringing live R&B and gospel music to the area. Her career turned to gospel music, broadcasting a regular "Cathedral of Friends" Sunday program as well as a regular gospel show. In 1961, Checker Records released an album, Prayers for Jackie, the same year she recorded another album, for the NRC label, The Men I Love And The Songs They Sing, she continued to work with Piano Red in shows and on radio. In about 1968, she recorded a version of Allen Toussaint's “All I Want Is You” for his Tou-Sea label, her radio show on WAOK changed to a gospel format in the late 1970s. She won a Pioneer Award from the NAACP in 1986. After spending 40 years at WAOK, she died in Atlanta in 1995 at the age of 64

Dong Honglin

Dong Honglin is a Chinese footballer who plays for Chinese Super League side Chongqing Lifan. Dong Honglin started his professional football career in 2016 when he was promoted to China League One side Dalian Yifang's first team squad. On 12 March 2016, he made his senior debut in a league game in a 2–0 home win over Zhejiang Yiteng, coming on for Sun Bo in the 89th minute. Throughout the 2017 league season he would be a peripheral member of the squad as Dalian won the division championship and promotion to the Chinese Super League, he would receive trials with Shenzhen before the 2017 season and with Tianjin TEDA before the 2018 season but stayed at Dalian due to disagreements with the transfer fee. On 24 April 2018, Dong assisted Sun Guowen's opener in a 4–1 away win over Liaoning in the 2018 Chinese FA Cup. On 2 May 2018, he played in another FA Cup match against Chongqing Dangdai Lifan where he was substituted off due to injury. On 1 February 2019, Dong transferred to fellow Super League side Chongqing Lifan.

He would make his debut for the club on 1 May 2019, in a FA Cup match against Hebei China Fortune in a 1-0 victory. This was followed by his league debut on 5 May 2019, against Tianjin Tianhai in a 3-3 draw. On 29 May 2019, he would score his first senior goal against Shanghai Shenhua in a FA Cup match that ended in a 3-2 defeat; as of 31 December 2019. Dalian Yifang China League One: 2017 Dong Honglin at Soccerway


Beaumé is a commune in the department of Aisne in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Beauméens or Beauméennes Beaumé is located some 70 km east of Saint-Quentin and 50 km west of Charleville-Mézières, it can be accessed by the D37 road from Besmont in the west passing through the commune and the village and continuing east to Aubenton. There are several other country roads accessing the commune from all directions. Apart from the village there are two other hamlets: Monplaisir; the south of the commune is forested however most of the commune is farmland. The Ruisseau de l'Etang Polliart flows from the south-east of the commune to the north with several tributaries as it continues north out of the commune to join the Ton river at Leuze. List of Successive Mayors of Beaumé The commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: A Farmhouse at 6 Rue de l'Eglise A Farmhouse at La Courte Soupe d'en bas An old Chateau at 4-12 Rue de Leuze The Town Hall / School at 2 Place de la Mairie The old Grange-aux-Bois Manor at Grange-aux-Bois The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The Bordreaux-Grimpret Family Tomb The Tomb of Hippolite Licent The Tomb of Infantry Captain Pierre Antoine Menu The Parish Church and Cemetery of Saint Nicolas The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: Pierre Antoine Menu, Captain of the 84th regiment of infantry of the line, Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, native of Archon.

Buried at Beaumé. Communes of the Aisne department Beaumé on the old National Geographic Institute website Files of the Cultural Heritage Inventory of Beaumé Beaumé on Lion1906 Beaumé on Google Maps Beaumé on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Beaumée on the 1750 Cassini Map Beaumé on the INSEE website INSEE